|Collection size||Over 24,000|
|Director||Michael S. Hart|
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Michael Stern Hart (b 1947 in Tacoma Washington) is an American best known as the founder of Project Gutenberg which makes electronic books Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart, it is the oldest digital library. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Michael Stern Hart (b 1947 in Tacoma Washington) is an American best known as the founder of Project Gutenberg which makes electronic books A digital library is a Library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print Microform, or other media and accessible by computers  Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of December 2007, Project Gutenberg claimed over 24,000 items in its collection. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Project Gutenberg is affiliated with many projects that are independent organizations which share the same ideals, and have been given permission to use the Project Gutenberg trademark.
Wherever possible, the releases are available in plain text, but other formats are included, such as HTML. A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile" is a kind of Computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant Markup language for Web pages It provides a means to describe the structure The majority of releases are in English language, but many non-English works are also available. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional-based or language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is also closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an internet-based community for proof-reading scanned texts. Distributed Proofreaders (commonly abbreviated as DP or PGDP) is a project to support the development of E-texts for Project Gutenberg.
Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971. Michael Stern Hart (b 1947 in Tacoma Washington) is an American best known as the founder of Project Gutenberg which makes electronic books Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of SDS Sigma-5 was a 32-bit computer that was introduced by the Xerox company in 1965 Mainframes (often colloquially referred to as Big Iron) are Computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications typically bulk data Through friendly operators, he received an account with a virtually unlimited amount of computer time; its value at that time has since been variously estimated at $100,000 or $100,000,000.  Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, and to do so by the end of the 20th century. 
This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on the computer network that would become the Internet. A node ( Latin nodus, ‘knot’ is a critical element of any Computer network. A computer network is a group of interconnected Computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free. He used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then An e-text (from " electronic text " sometimes written as etext) is generally any Text-based information that is available in a digitally He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg ( 1398 &ndash February 3, 1468) was a German Goldsmith and printer who is credited Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. Benedictine University is a private Catholic university located in Lisle Illinois. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually up until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made book scanning more feasible. Historical precedent Scanners can be considered the successors of early telephotography input devices consisting of a rotating drum with a single Photodetector at Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the Mechanical or electronic translation of Images of handwritten typewritten Book scanning is the process of converting physical Books into digital images or electronic books (e-books via image scanning  Hart later came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances. Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private Research University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United As the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run.
Pietro Di Miceli, an Italian volunteer, developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role (1994–2004), the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in "best of the Web" listings, and contributing to the project's popularity. 
In 2000, a non-profit corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Inc. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage was chartered in Mississippi to handle the project's legal needs. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Donations to it are tax-deductible. A tax deduction or a tax-deductible expense affects a taxpayer's Income tax. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundation's first CEO. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator 
Charles Franks also founded Distributed Proofreaders (DP) in 2000, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet. Distributed Proofreaders (commonly abbreviated as DP or PGDP) is a project to support the development of E-texts for Project Gutenberg. Distributed Proofreaders (commonly abbreviated as DP or PGDP) is a project to support the development of E-texts for Project Gutenberg. This effort greatly increased the number and variety of texts being added to Project Gutenberg, as well as making it easier for new volunteers to start contributing. DP became officially affiliated with Project Gutenberg in 2002.  As of 2007, the 10,000+ DP-contributed books comprised almost half of the nearly 24,000 books in Project Gutenberg. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access and hyperlink. In computing a hyperlink is a Reference or Navigation element in a Document to another Section of the same document or to another Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ( UNC, North Carolina, or simply Carolina) is a public, Coeducational Research
As of December 2007, Project Gutenberg claimed over 24,000 items in its collection, with an average of over fifty new e-books being added each week. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. An e-book (for electronic book: also ebook) is the Digital media equivalent of a conventional printed Book.  These are primarily works of literature from the Western cultural tradition. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin In addition to literature such as novels, poetry, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg also has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. A cookbook is a Book that contains information on Cooking, and/or a list of Recipes It may also contain information on ingredient origin freshness This article is about a kind of publication Reference work may also refer to the work that librarians perform at a Library reference desk.  The Project Gutenberg collection also has a few non-text items such as audio files and music notation files.
Most releases are in English, but there are also significant numbers in many other languages. As of July 2007, the non-English languages most represented are (in order): French (1,053 files), German (451), Finnish (396), Dutch (279) and Spanish (155). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname 
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In March 2004, a new initiative was begun by Michael Hart and John S. Guagliardo to provide low-cost intellectual properties. The initial name for this project was Project Gutenberg 2 (PG II), which created controversy among PG volunteers because of the re-use of the project's trademarked name for a commercial venture. 
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