In the United States, the term Prohibition refers to the period 1920 to 1933, during which the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol for consumption were banned nationally as mandated in the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined "intoxicating liquors" Prohibition of alcohol can also refer to the antecedent religious and political temperance movements calling for sumptuary laws to end or encumber alcohol use. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are Laws which attempt to regulate habits of consumption 
Following significant pressure on lawmakers as a result of the temperance movement, the United States Senate passed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The "Volstead Act," the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, passed Congress over President Woodrow Wilson's veto on October 28, 1919 and established the legal definition of intoxicating liquor as well as providing for enforcement of Prohibition. The Volstead Act, which reinforced the Prohibition of alcohol in the United States of America, was popularly named after Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. The 18th Amendment was certified as ratified on January 29, 1919, having been approved by 36 states, and went into effect on a Federal level on January 29, 1920. Some state legislatures had already enacted statewide prohibition prior to the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment.
As Prohibition became increasingly unpopular during the Great Depression, especially in large cities, Repeal was eagerly anticipated. On March 23, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an amendment to the Volstead Act known as the Cullen-Harrison Act, allowing the manufacture and sale of certain kinds of alcoholic beverages. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, on December 5, 1933. The Twenty-first Amendment ( Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In May 1657 the General Court of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether known by the name of rum, strong water, wine, brandy, etc. The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled The General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation Whisky (uisge-beatha or whiskey (uisce beatha or fuisce) refers to a broad category of Alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine , etc. "
In general, informal social controls in the home and community helped maintain the expectation that the abuse of alcohol was unacceptable. There was a clear consensus that while alcohol was a gift from God, its abuse was from the Devil. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The Devil is the "Drunkenness was condemned and punished, but only as an abuse of a God-given gift. Drink itself was not looked upon as culpable, any more than food deserved blame for the sin of gluttony. Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow gluttony is the over-indulgence and Over-consumption of food drink or intoxicants Excess was a personal indiscretion. " When informal controls failed, there were always legal ones.
Explanation was sought by medical men. One suggestion had come from one of the foremost physicians of the late 18th century, Dr. Benjamin Rush. Benjamin Rush ( December 24 1745 &ndash April 19 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States. In 1784, he argued that the excessive use of alcohol was injurious to physical and psychological health (he believed in moderation rather than prohibition). Apparently influenced by Rush's widely discussed belief, about 200 farmers in a Connecticut community formed a temperance association in 1789. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Similar associations were formed in Virginia in 1800 and New York in 1808. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Within the next decade, other temperance organizations were formed in eight states, some being statewide organizations.
The prohibition or dry movement began in the 1840s, spearheaded by pietistic religious denominations, especially the Methodists. Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late 17th century to the mid-18th century and later Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The late 1800s saw the temperance movement broaden its focus from abstinence to all behavior and institutions related to alcohol consumption. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in Preachers such as Reverend Mark A. Matthews linked liquor-dispensing saloons with prostitution. Mark A Matthews (1867 &ndash 1940 was a Presbyterian minister in Seattle, Washington from 1909 until his death
Some successes were registered in the 1850s, including Maine's total ban on the manufacture and sale of liquor, adopted in 1851. The Maine law, passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing Temperance movement in the United States However, the movement soon lost strength, and prohibition was not a major political issue during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South It revived in the 1880s, with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Prohibition Party. The Prohibition Party is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of Alcoholic beverages
After the war, the Women's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1873. The organization did not promote moderation or temperance but rather prohibition. One of its methods to achieve that goal was education. It was believed that if it could "get to the children" it could create a dry sentiment leading to prohibition. As it turned out, nationwide Prohibition was enacted (by the 18th Amendment) before nationwide women's suffrage was (by the 19th Amendment). Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined "intoxicating liquors" The Nineteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits each of the states and the federal government from
In 1881, Kansas became the first state to outlaw alcoholic beverages in its Constitution, with Carrie Nation gaining notoriety for enforcing the provision herself by walking into saloons, scolding customers, and using her hatchet to destroy bottles of liquor. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " The present Constitution of the State of Kansas was originally known as the Wyandotte Constitution to distinguish it from three proposed constitutions that preceded it Nation recruited ladies as The Carry Nation Prohibition Group which Nation also led. Other activists enforced the cause by entering saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloon keepers to stop selling alcohol.  Many other states, especially in the South, also enacted prohibition, along with many individual counties. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive Hostility to saloons and their political influence was characteristic of the Progressive Era. The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s Supported by the anti-German mood of World War I, the Anti-Saloon League, through intense lobbying, pushed the Constitutional amendment through Congress and the states, and it went into effect in 1920. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Anti-Saloon League was the leading organization Lobbying for Prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses
Prohibition was an important force in state and local politics from the 1840s through the 1930s. The political forces involved were ethnoreligious in character, as demonstrated by numerous historical studies.  Prohibition was demanded by the "dries" -- primarily pietistic Protestant denominations, especially the Methodists, Northern Baptists, Southern Baptists, Presbyterians, Disciples, Congregationalists, Quakers, and Scandinavian Lutherans. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Congregationalist polity, often known as congregationalism is a system of Church governance in which every Local church congregation is independent Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther They identified saloons as politically corrupt and drinking as a personal sin. They were opposed by the "wets" -- primarily liturgical Protestants (Episcopalians, German Lutherans) and Roman Catholics, who denounced the idea that the government should define morality. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Episcopal Church is the official name of the Province of the Anglican Communion in the United States.  Even in the wet stronghold of New York City there was an active prohibition movement, led by Norwegian church groups and African-American labor activists who believed that Prohibition would benefit workers, especially African-Americans. The City of New York Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Tea merchants and soda fountain manufacturers generally supported Prohibition, thinking a ban on alcohol would increase sales of their products. 
National Prohibition was accomplished by means of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified January 16, 1919) and the Volstead Act (passed October 28, 1919). The Volstead Act, which reinforced the Prohibition of alcohol in the United States of America, was popularly named after Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined "intoxicating liquors" Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined "intoxicating liquors" Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Volstead Act, which reinforced the Prohibition of alcohol in the United States of America, was popularly named after Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Prohibition began on January 16, 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment went into effect. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar A total of 1,520 Federal Prohibition agents (police) were given the task of enforcing the law. Principal impetus for the accomplishment of Prohibition were members of the Republican Party, the Democratic Party, and the Prohibition Party. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Prohibition Party is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of Alcoholic beverages The main force for prohibition came from pietistic Protestants, who comprised majorities in the Republican party in the North, and the Democratic party in the South. The Northern United States is a large geographic region of the United States of America. Catholics and German-Americans were prohibition's main detractors; however, German-Americans were discredited by World War I, and their protests were ignored.
The 65th Congress met in 1917, and the Democratic dries outnumbered the wets by 140 to 64, while Republican dries outnumbered the wets 138 to 62. In the 1916 presidential election, both Democratic incumbent Woodrow Wilson and Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes ignored the Prohibition issue, as was the case with both parties' political platforms. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Charles Evans Hughes Sr ( April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was a Lawyer and Republican politician from the State Both Democrats and Republicans had strong wet and dry factions, and the election was expected to be close, with neither candidate wanting to alienate any part of their political base.
Although it was highly controversial, Prohibition was widely supported by diverse groups. Progressives believed that it would improve society and the Ku Klux Klan strongly supported its strict enforcement  as generally did women, southerners, those living in rural areas, and African-Americans. Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are There were a few exceptions such as the Woman’s Organization for Prohibition Reform who fought against it. Will Rogers often joked about the southern pro-prohibitionists: "The South is dry and will vote dry. This page is about the humorist for others with similar names see William Rogers. That is, everybody sober enough to stagger to the polls. " Supporters of the Amendment soon became quite confident that it would not be repealed, to the point that one of its creators, Senator Morris Sheppard, joked that "there is as much chance of repealing the Eighteenth Amendment as there is for a humming-bird to fly to the planet Mars with the Washington Monument tied to its tail. John Morris Sheppard ( May 28, 1875 - April 9, 1941) was a Democratic United States Congressman and United States Senator "
While the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol was illegal in the U. S. , it was not illegal in surrounding countries. Distilleries and breweries in Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally imported to the U. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting S. Chicago became known notoriously as a haven for disobeying Prohibition during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s principally in North America, that emphasizes the period's social artistic and cultural dynamism Many of Chicago's most notorious gangsters, including Al Capone and his enemy Bugs Moran, made millions of dollars through illegal alcohol sales. Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who George Clarence "Bugs" Moran was born Adelard Cunin on August 21 1891 according to his biographer (see BugsMoran By the end of the decade Capone controlled all 10,000 speakeasies in Chicago and ruled the bootlegging business from Canada to Florida. A speakeasy was an establishment that surreptitiously sold Alcoholic beverages during the period of United States history known as Prohibition (1920-1933 Numerous other crimes, including theft and murder, were directly linked to criminal activities in Chicago and elsewhere in violation of prohibition.
As Prohibition became increasingly unpopular, especially in the big cities, "Repeal" was eagerly anticipated. This article discusses the repeal of (alcohol Prohibition in the United States. On March 23, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an amendment to the Volstead Act known as the Cullen-Harrison Act, allowing the manufacture and sale of "3. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 2 beer" (3. 2% alcohol by weight, approximately 4% alcohol by volume) and light wines. The original Volstead Act had defined "intoxicating beverage" as one with greater than 0. 5% alcohol.  Upon signing the amendment, Roosevelt made his famous remark; "I think this would be a good time for a beer. " The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed later in 1933 with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, on December 5. The Twenty-first Amendment ( Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations.
The Twenty-first Amendment explicitly gives states the right to restrict or ban the purchase or sale of alcohol; this has led to a patchwork of laws, in which alcohol may be legally sold in some but not all towns or counties within a particular state. A ban (derived from Banishment) is generally any Decree that prohibits something After the repeal of the national constitutional amendment, some states continued to enforce prohibition laws. Mississippi, which had made alcohol illegal in 1907, was the last state to repeal Prohibition, in 1966. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Kansas did not allow sale of liquor "by the drink" (on-premises) until 1987. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) There are numerous "dry" counties or towns where no liquor is sold, even though liquor can often be brought in for private consumption.
Many social problems have been attributed to the Prohibition era. The 1920s was the rise of a variety of social issues amidst a rapidly changing world A profitable, often violent, black market for alcohol flourished. Racketeering happened when powerful gangs corrupted law enforcement agencies. A racket is an illegal business usually run as part of Organized crime. Stronger liquor surged in popularity because its potency made it more profitable to smuggle. The cost of enforcing Prohibition was high, and the lack of tax revenues on alcohol (some $500 million annually nationwide) affected government coffers. When repeal of Prohibition occurred in 1933, organized crime lost nearly all of its black market alcohol profits in most states (states still had the right to enforce their own laws concerning alcohol consumption), because of competition with low-priced alcohol sales at legal liquor stores. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate.
Prohibition had a notable effect on the alcohol brewing industry in the United States. When Prohibition ended, only half the breweries that had previously existed reopened. The post-Prohibition period saw the introduction of the American lager style of beer, which dominates today. American-style lager beer is a common variety of beer a type of Pale lager, traditionally made and consumed in North America but also popular in much of the rest of the world Wine historians also note that Prohibition destroyed what was a fledgling wine industry in the United States. Productive wine quality grape vines were replaced by lower quality vines growing thicker skinned grapes that could be more easily transported. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Much of the institutional knowledge was also lost as wine makers either emigrated to other wine producing countries or left the business altogether. 
Despite the efforts of Heber J. Grant and the LDS Church, a Utah convention helped ratify the 21st Amendment. Heber Jeddy Grant ( November 22, 1856 &ndash May 14, 1945) was the seventh president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States.  While Utah can be considered the deciding 36th state to ratify the 21st Amendment and make it law, the day Utah passed the Amendment, both Pennsylvania and Ohio passed it as well. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads All 38 states that decided to hold conventions passed the Amendment, while only 36 states were needed (three fourths of the 48 that existed).
At the end of Prohibition some supporters openly admitted its failure. A quote from a letter, written in 1932 by wealthy industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. , states:
When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be widely supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized. I have slowly and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has generally increased; the speakeasy has replaced the saloon; a vast army of lawbreakers has appeared; many of our best citizens have openly ignored Prohibition; respect for the law has been greatly lessened; and crime has increased to a level never seen before. A speakeasy was an establishment that surreptitiously sold Alcoholic beverages during the period of United States history known as Prohibition (1920-1933
Some historians have commented that the alcohol industry accepted stronger regulation of alcohol in the decades after repeal, as a way to reduce the chance that Prohibition would return.