Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is an athletic performing art and sport which contains elements of catch wrestling and mock combat. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Catch wrestling is a style of Wrestling. Catch wrestling is arguably the ancestor of modern Grappling, Professional wrestling, Mixed martial arts Mock combat is the execution of Combative actions without intent to harm It has origins in carnival sideshows in the late 19th century as part of displays of athletics and strength. Professional wrestling in the United States, up until the 1920s was viewed as a legitimate sport In America a sideshow is an extra secondary production associated with a circus, carnival fair or other such attraction Modern professional wrestling usually features striking and grappling techniques, which are modeled after diverse sets of wrestling and pugilistic styles from around the world. A strike is an attack with an inanimate object such as a Weapon, or with a part of the human body intended to cause an effect upon an opponent or to simply cause harm to Grappling refers to the gripping handling and controlling of an opponent without the use of striking, typically through the application of various Grappling holds Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat.
Professional wrestling has gradually become a pervasive form of sport and entertainment globally, especially in Japan and North American countries. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. High-profile figures in the sport often become cultural icons, such as Ric Flair, Hulk Hogan, Rikidozan, and El Santo. A cultural icon can be an Image, a Symbol, a Logo, Picture, Name, Face, Person, or Building Richard Morgan Fliehr According to WWE and PWI Flair is an eight-time National Wrestling Alliance (NWA Champion, six-time WCW Champion Terrance "Terry" Gene Bollea (born August 11 1953 better known by his Ring name Hulk Hogan, is an American Actor, and retired professional better known as Rikidōzan ( Japanese: 力道山 Korean: 역도산 November 14, 1924 - December 15, 1963) Rodolfo Guzmán Huerta ( September 23, 1917 - February 5, 1984) more widely known as Santo el Enmascarado de Plata ( Saint Leading universities have developed courses of study on the cultural significance of professional wrestling. 
It is a billion-dollar industry, drawing revenue from ticket sales, television broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Pay-per-view (often abbreviated PPV) is the system in which Television viewers can purchase events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event Annual shows such as WrestleMania are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming. This article is about the WrestleMania PPV series in general for the first WrestleMania itself see WrestleMania (1985.
Currently, the dominant professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based World Wrestling Entertainment, which absorbed many smaller regional companies in the late twentieth century, as well as its primary competitor, World Championship Wrestling. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, In Mexico, it is Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, and in Japan, it is New Japan Pro Wrestling. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA (Spanish for "Assistance Consulting and Administration" is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a major Professional wrestling federation in Japan and is a member of the National Wrestling Alliance, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972
There are many different types of professional wrestling.
Sports entertainment style combines colorful characters and dramatic storylines, with less focus on the sporting aspects. Sports entertainment is a type of Spectacle which presents an ostensibly competitive event using a high level of theatrical flourish and extravagant presentation This is the style of product produced by World Wrestling Entertainment and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, and is arguably the most popular form of professional wrestling. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling ( TNA) is an American Professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett Despite its popularity, it is decried by some critics as over the top, due to frequent usage of gratuitous violence, and crude comedy.
Southern style -- colloquially (sometimes mockingly) known as "wrasslin'" -- puts equal emphasis on theatrics and athleticism, and tends to favor traditional roles of hero and villain. It was wildly popular in the American South throughout the twentieth century, where it was produced by the National Wrestling Alliance, Jim Crockett Promotions, and early World Championship Wrestling. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The National Wrestling Alliance ( NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent Professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA Jim Crockett Promotions was a Professional wrestling promotion owned by Jim Crockett Jr
Puroresu -- Another type, rarely found in North America, is strong style wrestling, which forgoes elaborate characterizations in favor of athletic prowess. Professional wrestling in Japan is commonly referred to as in Japanese, short for "professional This is very popular in Japan as the fighters use martial arts strikes and dangerous submission holds similar to mixed martial arts. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. Mixed martial arts (MMA is a full contact Combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques from a mixture of Martial arts traditions and The crowds rely on clean finishes and sportive bouts when watching. A combat sport (also known as a combative sport) is a competitive Contact sport where two combatants fight against each other using certain rules of engagement typically Promotions using this include Pro Wrestling NOAH and Universal Wrestling Federation. Pro-Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000 by former All Japan Pro Wrestling ace Mitsuharu Misawa The original Japanese based Universal Wrestling Federation (UWF was a Japanese professional wrestling promotion from 1984 to 1986, formed by
Another style which emphasizes high levels of brutality, focusing on use of weapons and unusual environment elements for heightened violence, is called extreme, hardcore, combat, 'garbage' or ultra-violent wrestling. It also incorporates legitimately dangerous stunts, such as falls from high places onto folding tables, sometimes lit on fire. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. The most famous promotion to use this style is Extreme Championship Wrestling. A professional wrestling promotion (also federation or fed) is a company or Business that performs regular shows involving Professional Extreme Championship Wrestling ( ECW) was a Professional wrestling promotion that was founded in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1992 by It is still used today by some promotions including WWE,CZW and FMW in Japan. Combat Zone Wrestling ( CZW) is an American based Professional wrestling promotion, based around the 'ultraviolent' style of professional wrestling Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling (FMW was a revolutionary Japanese Professional wrestling promotion founded in 1989 by Atsushi Onita.
King's Road is a variant of Japanese puroresu which features long matches filled with dramatic tension built up from the physical struggles. This style was pioneered by All Japan Pro Wrestling. ( AJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1972
While some promotions specialize in one specific style, others produce events with a more diverse array that appeals to varied tastes. Extreme Championship Wrestling, for instance, is commonly known as a pioneer of the hardcore style, but its product is best described as Southern style with less emphasis on the hero/villain dichotomy. Extreme Championship Wrestling ( ECW) was a Professional wrestling promotion that was founded in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1992 by Lucha libre has elements of sports entertainment (masks and midget wrestlers) but also puts focus on a wrestler's athletic prowess and matches can often have dire results, including loss of hair or masks. Lucha libre ( Spanish for "free wrestling" is a term used in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking areas to refer to a certain form of Professional wrestling
Occasionally a performer will deviate from the intended sequence of events. This is known as a shoot. In Professional wrestling, a shoot refers to any unplanned event &ndash that is an event that is "real" and not staged Sometimes shoot-like elements are included in wrestling stories to blur the line between performance and reality. These are known as "worked-shoots". However, the vast majority of events in professional wrestling are entirely preplanned.
The nature of professional wrestling is only one of the many differences it has with traditional wrestling. There is no governing authority for professional wrestling rules, although there is a general standard which has developed. Each promotion has their own variation, but all are similar enough to avoid confusion. A professional wrestling promotion (also federation or fed) is a company or Business that performs regular shows involving Professional Any rule described here is simply a standard, and may or may not correspond exactly with any given promotion's ruleset.
Matches are held between two or more sides ("corners"). Each corner may consist of one wrestler, or a team of two or more. Most team matches are held by tag team rules (see below). Other matches are free-for-alls, with multiple combatants but no teams. In all variants, there can be only one winning team or wrestler.
The standard method of scoring is the "fall", which is a accomplished by:
These are each explained in greater detail below. Typically, falls must occur within the ring area.
Most wrestling matches last for a set number of falls, with the first side to achieve that number of pinfalls, submissions, or countouts being the winner. Historically, matches were wrestled to 3 falls ("best 2 out of 3") or 5 falls ("best 3 out of 5"). The standard for modern matches is one fall. These matches are given a time limit; if not enough falls are scored by the end of the time limit, the match is declared a draw. Modern matches are generally given a 10- to 30- minute time limit for standard matches; title matches can go for up to one hour.
An alternative is a match set for a prescribed length of time, with a running tally of falls. The entrant with the most falls at the end of the time limit is declared the winner. This is usually for 20, 30 or 60 minutes, and is commonly called an Ironman match. An Iron Man match is a Professional wrestling match type that is set to go a specific amount of time usually 30 or 60 minutes with the competitor with the most decisions
In matches with multiple competitors, an elimination system may be used. Any wrestler who has a fall scored against them is forced out of the match, and the match continues until only one remains.
Many modern specialty matches have been devised, with unique winning conditions. See Professional wrestling match types. Many types of matches, sometimes called "concept" or " gimmick matches" in the jargon of the business, can be found in the form of Performing
Each match is assigned a referee, who is the final arbitrator. A professional wrestling referee is the official figure that makes sure that wrestling matches move smoothly in an attempt to maintain Kayfabe. (In multi-man lucha libre matches, two referees are used, one inside the ring and one outside. Lucha libre ( Spanish for "free wrestling" is a term used in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking areas to refer to a certain form of Professional wrestling ) Generally an action must be seen by a referee to be declared for a fall or disqualification. This is commonly exploited to great dramatic effect. Referees are expected to be fair, neutral and unbiased, although special guest referees may be used from time to time, who usually display personal favoritism and heavily influence the outcome of the match. A professional wrestling referee is the official figure that makes sure that wrestling matches move smoothly in an attempt to maintain Kayfabe.
Matches are held within a wrestling ring, an elevated square (or hexagonal) canvas mat with posts on each corner. Classification A square (regular Quadrilateral) is a special case of a Rectangle as it has four right angles and equal parallel sides Regular hexagon The internal Angles of a regular hexagon (one where all sides and all angles are equal are all 120 ° and the hexagon has 720 degrees Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions A cloth apron hangs over the edges of the ring. Three horizontal ropes or cables surround the ring, suspended with turnbuckles which are connected to the posts. For safety, the ropes are padded at the turnbuckles and cushioned mats surround the floor outside the ring (though in kayfabe, the mats do not offer much protection. In Professional wrestling, kayfabe (ˈkeɪfeɪb KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as "real" that is the portrayal of professional Jerry "the King" Lawler once mentioned at Royal Rumble 2005 "Those mats are more to protect the floor than they are the wrestlers that are out there. Jerry Lawler (born November 29 1949 is an American Musician, Film Actor, Politician, professional wrestler and wrestling The Royal Rumble is an annual Professional wrestling Pay-per-view event produced every January by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "). Guardrails or a similar barrier enclose this area from the audience. Wrestlers are generally expected to stay within the confines of the ring, though matches sometimes end up outside the ring, and even in the audience, to added excitement. rules are meant tto be broken
In some team matches, only one entrant from each team may be designated as the 'legal' or 'active' wrestler at any given moment. This article refers to the band For the wrestling term see Tag team. Two wrestlers must make physical contact (typically palm-to-palm) in order to transfer this legal status. This is known as a tag, with the participants tagging out and tagging in.
The non-legal wrestlers must remain outside the ring or other legal area at all times (and avoid purposeful contact with the opposing wrestlers) or face reprimand from the referee. In most promotions, the wrestler to be tagged in must be touching the turnbuckle on his corner, or a cloth strap attached to the turnbuckle.
Some multi-wrestler matches allow for a set number of legal wrestlers, and a legal wrestler may tag out to any other wrestler, regardless of team. In these matches, the tag need not be a mutual effort, and this results in active wrestlers being tagged out against their will.
In a Texas Tornado Tag Team match, all the competitors are legal in the match, and tagging in and out is not necessary.
Wrestlers may grab, hold, twist, or strike any part of an opponent's body, except the throat, groin, or eye. In Anatomy, the throat is the anterior part of the Neck, in front of the vertebral column. In Human anatomy, the groin areas are the two creases at the junction of the Torso with the Legs on either side of the Pubic Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain An opponent's hair or clothing may not be grabbed. Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather
Wrestlers may strike an opponent using any part of their own limbs, head or body, with the following exceptions: a wrestler may not punch his or her opponent with a closed fist nor kick his or her opponent with the toe of their boot. In the context of Unarmed combat or Melee, a punch is "a thrusting blow esp In Martial arts, Combat sports or Violence, a kick is a strike using the Foot, leg, or Knee (also known as a knee Biting is not allowed, nor is spitting in the eyes. A bite is a Wound received from the Mouth (and in particular the Teeth) of an Animal or human Asian mist refers to the illegal maneuver of spitting a colored liquid in the face of an opponent in Professional wrestling.
Wrestlers may lift an opponent and throw them, drop them, or otherwise force them to the mat. Such techniques which land an opponent on the head or neck, such as the piledriver, may be disallowed by some promotions. A piledriver is a Professional wrestling driver move in which the wrestler grabs his opponent turns him upside-down and drops into a sitting or kneeling position
A wrestler may jump onto an opponent, whether standing or lying down, in any manner.
Any legal wrestler is open to attack from any direction at any time, including when they are downed, as long as they are within the ring area enclosed by the ring ropes. If any part of either wrestler is in contact with the ropes or has otherwise broken the plane of ropes all grappling contact between the wrestlers must be broken within a five count or else the attacking wrestler may be subject to disqualification. This rule is often used strategically in order to escape from a submission hold, and a wrestler can break the plane of the ropes by placing his foot or other body part on (or under) the ropes to avoid losing by pinfall. This is commonly referred to as a rope break.
In order to score by pinfall, a wrestler must pin both his opponent's shoulders against the mat while the referee slaps the mat three times. A pinfall, a pin, or a fall (the first term most commonly used in Professional wrestling) is a victory condition in various forms of wrestling This is the most common form of defeat. If a wrestler's shoulders are down (both shoulders touching the mat) and any part of the opponent's body is lying over the opponent, it is completely legal for the three count to be made. Illegal pinning methods include using the ropes for leverage and hooking the opponent's clothing, therefore they are popular cheating methods for heels, unless certain stipulations make such an advantage legal. In Professional wrestling, a heel is a Villain character In non-wrestling jargon heels are the "bad guys" in pro wrestling storylines. Such pins as these are rarely seen by the referee and are subsequently often used by heels and on occasion by cheating faces to win matches.
Occasionally, there are instances where a pinfall is made where both wrestler's shoulders were on the mat for the three count. This situation will most likely lead to a draw, and in some cases a continuation of the match or a future match to determine the winner.
To score by submission, the wrestler must make his opponent give up, usually, but not necessarily, by putting him in a submission hold (i. e. , figure four leg-lock, arm-lock,Crippler Crossface etc. ).
Passing out in a submission hold constitutes a loss by knockout. To determine if a wrestler has passed out in WWE, the referee usually picks up and drops his hand. If it drops three consecutive times without the wrestler having the strength to stop it from falling, the wrestler is considered to have passed out. At one point this was largely ignored, however the rule is now much more commonly observed for safety reasons. If the wrestler has considered to have passed out, the opponent then scores by submission.
A wrestler may voluntarily submit by verbally informing the referee. Also, a wrestler can indicate a voluntary submission by "tapping out", that is, tapping a free hand against the mat or against an opponent. A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a " tap out " or " tapping out " is a Combat sports term for yielding to Submission was initially a large factor in professional wrestling, but following the decline of the submission-oriented catch-as-catch-can style from mainstream professional wrestling, the submission largely faded. Catch wrestling is a style of Wrestling. Catch wrestling is arguably the ancestor of modern Grappling, Professional wrestling, Mixed martial arts Despite this, some wrestlers, such as Ric Flair, Kurt Angle, Ken Shamrock,Chris Benoit and Bret Hart, became famous for winning matches via submission. Richard Morgan Fliehr According to WWE and PWI Flair is an eight-time National Wrestling Alliance (NWA Champion, six-time WCW Champion Kurt Steven Angle (born December 9 1968 is an American professional wrestler and Olympic gold medalist Ken Shamrock (born Kenneth Wayne Kilpatrick on February 11 1964) is an American Mixed martial arts fighter and former professional Christopher Michael Benoit (bə'nwɑ (May 21 1967—June 24 2007 was a Canadian professional wrestler who in 2007 received extensive media coverage as a Bret Sergeant Hart (born July 2 1957 is a retired Canadian professional wrestler and Actor. A wrestler with a signature submission technique is portrayed as better at applying the hold, making it more painful or more difficult to get out of than others who use it.
A countout (alternatively "count-out" or "count out") happens when a wrestler is out of the ring long enough for the referee to count to ten (or twenty), and thus disqualified. The count is broken and re-started when a wrestler in the ring exits the ring
Disqualification from a match is called for a number of reasons:
In practice, the rules of the fight are often violated without disqualification due to the referee being distracted and not seeing the offense, or the referee seeing the offense but allowing the match to continue. In WWE, a referee must see the violation with his own eyes to rule that the match end in a disqualification and the referee's ruling is almost always final. It is not uncommon for the referees themselves to get knocked out during a match. While the referee remains "unconscious", rules are often violated at will. In some cases, a referee might disqualify a person under the presumption that it was that wrestler who knocked him out; most referee knockouts are arranged to allow a wrestler, usually a heel, to gain an advantage. For example, a wrestler may get whipped into a referee at a slower speed, knocking the ref down for short amount of time; during that interim period, one wrestler may pin his opponent for a three-count and would have won the match but for the referee being down. Also, the referee rarely disqualifies the wrestler who knocked him down when the referee recovers.
If all participants in a match continue to breach the referee's instructions, the match may end in a double disqualification, where both wrestlers or teams (in a tag team match) have been disqualified. This article refers to the band For the wrestling term see Tag team. The match is essentially nullified, and called a draw or in some cases a restart or the same match being held at a Pay Per View or next night's show.
In most wrestling promotions, a championship cannot change hands as a result of a disqualifications, often referred to as the "champions advantage. In Professional wrestling, a championship or title is a recognition of a wrestler being the best in their promotion " Playing into this, some heel wrestlers will attempt to "get themselves disqualified" to "protect" their championships.
A relatively recent trend in wrestling has been the development of the no-disqualification (or Hardcore) match. Hardcore wrestling is a form of Professional wrestling that eschews traditional concepts of match rules in favor of matches that take place in unusual environments using This type of match became increasingly prominent during the 1990s, and was a particular feature of the Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW) promotion. Extreme Championship Wrestling ( ECW) was a Professional wrestling promotion that was founded in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1992 by When WWE (then WWF) unveiled its new 'Attitude' era in 1997, the no-disqualification match was used as a centerpiece for this new design of wrestling, and a Hardcore Title was offered between 1998 and 2002. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE Hardcore Championship was a Hardcore wrestling championship defended in World Wrestling Entertainment, (formerly the World Completely new matches developed from the Hardcore/no-DQ match, including:
A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified (as via count-out), neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match. Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent. If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously. A submission (depending on the context also referred to as a " tap out " or " tapping out " is a Combat sports term for yielding to Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw, though some promotions such as TNA Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification. Total Nonstop Action Wrestling ( TNA) is an American Professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period (a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway").
A wrestling match may be declared a "No Contest" if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin. A No Contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw -- a draw indicates winning conditions were met. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect.
While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal of each match from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience. Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis can be utilized to draw out the most intense reaction from the audience. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Heightened interest results in higher attendance rates, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts (which result in greater ad revenue), higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage. For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit A television advertisement or television commercial (often just commercial or advert (US or ad (UK is a span of television programming produced Pay-per-view (often abbreviated PPV) is the system in which Television viewers can purchase events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company.
In Japan, most matches are treated as pure sport with seriousness of purpose (See puroresu). Professional wrestling in Japan is commonly referred to as in Japanese, short for "professional
In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers (and other on-stage performers) portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own. A persona, in the word's everyday usage is a social Role or a character played by an Actor. These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability. In marketing language a gimmick is a unique or quirky special feature that makes something "stand out" from its contemporaries Some can be unrealistic and cartoon-like, while others carry more verisimilitude. The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration. In lucha libre, many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a super hero, a near-sacred tradition. Lucha libre ( Spanish for "free wrestling" is a term used in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking areas to refer to a certain form of Professional wrestling A secret identity is an element of fiction wherein a character develops a separate Persona (usually adopting a Pseudonym) while keeping their true identity A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do
An individual wrestler may keep one persona for his entire career, or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company. Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves, and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler. Many wrestlers are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends. A professional wrestling character's popularity can grow to the point that it makes appearances in other media (see Hulk Hogan, El Santo) or even give the performer enough visibility to enter politics (Antonio Inoki and Jesse Ventura, among others). Terrance "Terry" Gene Bollea (born August 11 1953 better known by his Ring name Hulk Hogan, is an American Actor, and retired professional Rodolfo Guzmán Huerta ( September 23, 1917 - February 5, 1984) more widely known as Santo el Enmascarado de Plata ( Saint Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions real name, born February 20, 1943) is a Professional wrestling promoter and retired Japanese Professional wrestler and mixed martial Jesse Ventura (born July 15, 1951 as James George Janos) also known as "The Body", "The Star", and "The
Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist (historically an audience favorite, known as a face, or "the good guy") and an antagonist (historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel). The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. In Professional wrestling, a face or babyface is a character who is portrayed as Heroic relative to the heel wrestlers who are analogous to villains An antagonist (from Greek ανταγωνιστής - antagonistes, "opponent competitor rival" is a character or In Professional wrestling, a heel is a Villain character In non-wrestling jargon heels are the "bad guys" in pro wrestling storylines. In recent years, however, anti-heroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively.
At times a character may "turn", altering their face/heel alignment. This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build up over time. It almost always is accomplished with a markable change in behavior on the part of the character. Some turns become defining points in a wrestler's career, as was the case when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade. The New World Order (commonly known as the nWo, the official typeset in the Logo) was a Professional wrestling stable that originally wrestled Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between being a face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience.
As with personas in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime.
While true exhibition matches are not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to a scene in a play or film, or an episode of a serial drama: The face will win (triumph) or lose (tragedy). An exhibition game (also known as an exhibition match or simply exhibition, or a demonstration or demo event is a sporting event In Fiction, a scene is a unit of drama A sequel is what follows an aftermath A play, or stageplay, is a form of Literature written by a Playwright, almost always consisting of Dialogue between Fictional characters For the Stratovarius album see Episode (album. An episode is a part of a Dramatic work such as a serial television Serials in Television and Radio are series often in a weekly Prime time slot that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Longer story arcs can result from multiple matches over the course of time. A story arc is an extended or continuing storyline in episodic storytelling media such as Television, Comic books Comic strips Since most promotions have a championship title, competition for the championship is a common impetus for stories. Also, anything from a character's own hair to his job with the promotion can be wagered in a match.
Some matches are designed to further a story of only one participant. It could be intended to portray him or her as a strong unstoppable force, a lucky underdog, a sore loser, or any other characterization. Sometimes non-wrestling vignettes are shown in order to enhance a character's image without the need for matches. In Theater script and Poetry writing vignettes are short impressionistic scenes that focus on one moment or give a trenchant impression about a character
Other stories result from a natural rivalry between two or more characters. Outside of performance, these are referred to as feuds. A Professional wrestling feud is a staged rivalry between multiple wrestlers or factions of wrestlers A feud can exist between any number of participants and can last for a few days up to multiple decades. The feud between Ric Flair and Ricky Steamboat lasted from the late 70's into early 90's. Richard Morgan Fliehr According to WWE and PWI Flair is an eight-time National Wrestling Alliance (NWA Champion, six-time WCW Champion Richard Henry Blood (born February 28, 1953 in West Point, New York) The career-spanning history between characters Mike Awesome and Masato Tanaka is another example of a long-running feud. Michael Lee Alfonso ( January 24 1965 &ndash February 17 2007) better known by his Ring name Mike Awesome, was an Masato Tanaka (born February 28 1973) is a Japanese professional wrestler, best known for his appearances with Frontier Martial Arts
In theory, the longer a feud is built up, the more audience interest (aka heat) will exist. This article is about a Professional wrestling term For the World Wrestling Entertainment program see WWE Heat. The main event of a wrestling show is generally the one with the most heat behind it. Main Event is Australia 's only Pay-per-view channel It transmits through Foxtel, Optus Television and Austar. Commonly, a heel will hold the upper hand over a face until a final showdown, heightening dramatic tension as the face's fans desire to see him win.
Since the advent of television, many other elements have been utilized to tell story within a professional wrestling setting: pre- and post-match interviews, "backstage" skits, positions of authority, division rankings (typically the #1-contendership spot), contracts, lotteries, and even news stories on promotion websites. An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee where Questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from Sketch comedy consists of a series of short Comedy scenes or vignettes called "sketches" commonly between one and ten minutes long
Also, anything that can be used as an element of drama can exist in professional wrestling stories: romantic relationships (including love triangles and marriage), racism, classism, nepotism, favoritism, family bonds, personal histories, grudges, theft, cheating, assault, betrayal, bribery, seduction, stalking, confidence tricks, extortion, blackmail, substance abuse, self-doubt, self-sacrifice; even kidnapping, paedophilia, sexual fetishism, misogyny, rape and death have been portrayed in wrestling. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** A love triangle is a romantic relationship involving three people NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Classism is prejudice and/or discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic class Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect Resentment (also called rancour, or ranklement) is an Emotion of Anger or bitterness felt repeatedly as a result of a real or imagined wrong In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, Betrayal, a form of Deception or dismissal of prior presumptions is the breaking or violation of a presumptive Social contract ( trust, or Confidence Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person In Sociology, seduction (also called inveigling or wheedling) is the process of deliberately enticing a person to engage in some sort of behavior frequently ---- Stalking is the obsessive following observing or contacting of another person or the obsessive attempt to engage in any of these activities A confidence trick or confidence game (also known as a bunko, con, flim flam, gaffle, grift, scam, scheme Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services Blackmail is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public a family member or associates unless a demand made upon the Substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of a Drug or other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred" In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment The term pedophilia or paedophilia has a range of definitions as found in Psychology, law enforcement and the popular vernacular Sexual fetishism, or erotic fetishism, is the Sexual attraction to materials and objects not conventionally viewed as being sexual in nature Misogyny (mɪˈsɒdʒɪni is hatred (or contemptof women Misogyny is parallel to Misandry — the hatred of men Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific Some promotions have included supernatural elements such as magic, curses, the undead and satanic imagery. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a Conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events objects people and A curse (also called execration) is any manner of Adversity thought to be inflicted by any supernatural power (such as a spell, a Prayer, an Undead is a collective name for fictional beings that are deceased yet behave as if alive For other uses of the word see Satanism (disambiguation. Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and context
Commentators have become important in communicating the relevance of the characters' actions to the story at hand, filling in past details and pointing out subtle actions that may otherwise go unnoticed. A sportscaster, (also sports announcer, sport commentator or sport presenter) is a type of Journalist on Radio and/or Television
Professional wrestling mimics the structure of title match combat sports. In Professional wrestling, a championship or title is a recognition of a wrestler being the best in their promotion "The Championship" redirects here For the English football competition see Football League Championship. Participants compete for a championship title, and must defend it after winning it. In Professional wrestling, a championship or title is a recognition of a wrestler being the best in their promotion These titles are represented physically by a belt that can be worn by the champion. A championship belt is used primarily in combat sports such as Boxing, mixed Martial arts and Professional wrestling to signify the champions of the In the case of team wrestling, there is a belt for each member of the team.
Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more. Titles are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style and other qualifications.
Typically, each promotion only recognizes the 'legitimacy' of their own titles, although cross-promotion does happen. Also, when one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion.
Behind the scenes, the decision makers in a company will decide to give a title to the most accomplished performer, or the one with the most popular or exciting character. Lesser titles may also be awarded to those performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience. Sometimes, though, a title will be given to a performer out of necessity, nepotism, politics, a desire for controversy, or other unmerited circumstance. A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance and reputation.
A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and drawing power. The most decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends. American wrestler Ric Flair has had multiple world title reigns spanning over three decades. Richard Morgan Fliehr According to WWE and PWI Flair is an eight-time National Wrestling Alliance (NWA Champion, six-time WCW Champion Japanese wrestler Ultimo Dragon once held and defended a record 10 titles simultaneously.
Often a match will take place under additional rules, usually serving as a special attraction or a climactic point in a feud or storyline. Sometimes this will be the culmination of an entire feud, ending it for the immediate future (known as a blowoff match).
Perhaps the most well-known non-standard match is the cage match, in which the ring is surrounded by a fence or similar metal structure, with the express intention of preventing escape or outside interference -- and with the added bonus of the cage being a potentially brutal weapon or platform for launching attacks. Many types of matches, sometimes called "concept" or " gimmick matches" in the jargon of the business, can be found in the form of Performing
Another example is the WWE's Royal Rumble match, which involves thirty participants in a random and unknown order. The Royal Rumble is an annual Professional wrestling Pay-per-view event produced every January by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE The Rumble match is itself a spectacle in that it is a once-yearly event with multiple participants, including individuals who might not interact otherwise. But it also serves as a catalyst for the company's ongoing feuds, as well as a springboard for new storylines -- most importantly determining the main event at the following WrestleMania.
While the wrestling matches themselves are the primary focus of professional wrestling, a key dramatic element of the business can be entrances of the wrestlers to the arena and ring. Paul Michael Levesque better known by his Ring name Triple H, an abbreviation of his former ring name Hunter Hearst Helmsley It is typical for a wrestler to get their biggest crowd reaction (or 'pop') for their ring entrance, rather than for anything they do in the wrestling match itself.
All notable wrestlers now enter the ring accompanied by music, and regularly add other elements to their entrance. The music played during the ring entrance will usually mirror the wrestler's personality. Many wrestlers, particularly in America, have music and lyrics especially written for their ring entrance. While invented long before, the practice of including music with the entrance gained rapid popularity during the 1980s, largely as a result of the huge success of Hulk Hogan and the WWF, and their Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection. Terrance "Terry" Gene Bollea (born August 11 1953 better known by his Ring name Hulk Hogan, is an American Actor, and retired professional The 1980s wrestling boom (sometimes referred to as the 2nd Golden Age of Wrestling) was a surge in the popularity of Professional wrestling in the United States
Other dramatic elements of a ring entrance can include:
Another method of entry involves descending from the ceiling with a zip line or rappel line and stunt harness. Note For the basketball position see Cornerman (basketball A cornerman, or simply corner, is a Combat sports term for a coach A zip-line (also known as a flying fox, zip wire, aerial runway, death slide or tyrolean crossing) consists of a Pulley Abseiling (German abseilen, "to rope down" rappelling in American and British English is the controlled descent down a rope in Rock climbing This has been done by Shawn Michaels at WrestleMania XII, and gained some controversy over its role in the death of wrestler Owen Hart. Michael Shawn Hickenbottom (born July 22 1965 better known by his Ring name Shawn Michaels, is an American professional wrestler. WrestleMania XII was the twelfth WrestleMania event produced by the World Wrestling Federation. Owen James Hart (May 7 1965 – May 23 1999 As those attempts were unsuccessful he decided to give wrestling a chance and see where it took him
Some of the bigger stars in the industry, such as Triple H, The Undertaker, and The Sandman, can perform ring entrances lasting up to three minutes or more. It is not uncommon for ring entrances to sometimes last longer than the match itself, especially in matches involving a mismatch.
Special ring entrances are also developed for big occasions, most notably the WrestleMania event. This article is about the WrestleMania PPV series in general for the first WrestleMania itself see WrestleMania (1985. WrestleMania III for example saw all wrestlers enter the arena on motorized miniature wrestling rings. WrestleMania III was the third annual WrestleMania Professional wrestling Pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Federation Live bands are sometimes hired to perform live entrance music at special events.
The vast majority of professional wrestlers are men, especially in the North American WWE, where they are usually large in size, often to extremes. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Notable examples include André the Giant, Hulk Hogan, Paul "Big Show" Wight, The Undertaker, Yokozuna, Giant Gonzales, The Great Khali, Umaga, and Kane. André René Roussimoff (May 19 1946 &ndash January 27 1993 best known as André the Giant, was a French professional wrestler and Actor Terrance "Terry" Gene Bollea (born August 11 1953 better known by his Ring name Hulk Hogan, is an American Actor, and retired professional Paul Randall Wight (born February 8 1972 in Aiken South Carolina) better known by his Ring name, (The Big Show, is an American Mark William Calaway (born March 24 1965 is an American professional wrestler, better known by his Ring name The Undertaker. Rodney Agatupu Anoa'i ( October 2 1966 &ndash October 23 2000) was a Samoan American professional wrestler Dalip Singh Rana He is currently signed to WWE on its ''SmackDown'' brand. Edward 'Eddie' Fatu (born March 28 1973 His two older brothers Sam (better known as Tonga Kid and Tama and Solofa Jr Glen Thomas Jacobs In the 1988–1989 season he was an NCAA All-star; he is still listed in the Truman State University media guide as holding the record for highest Usually, competitions or divisions are set up for men of similar wrestling styles, such as technical, brawling, high flying, lucha and hardcore. However, matches involving different weight divisions are often created and are never referred to as unusual or against any rules, despite large differences in height or strength. Rarely, men and women will sometimes wrestle each other.
The women’s division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since the mid-1950s, when the first NWA World Women's Championship was crowned (later the WWE Women's Championship). Knockout is a term used by Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA to refer to its female talent The NWA World Women's Championship is the National Wrestling Alliance 's women's singles Professional wrestling title This article is about the championship that is currently defended on the Raw brand of WWE Traditionally, women’s matches were lower on the card and rarely considered main event material in the United States. Through the 1980s, women’s wrestling in the US was presented as a serious sport on the same level as men’s wrestling. It was not until the late 1990s that World Wrestling Entertainment began to present their women’s division with a focus on the women as "Divas" and eye-candy rather than athletes. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Many of these women acted as managers and valets and had little training in wrestling, although there was a brief period in the early-2000's where the women's championship division on WWE's flagship show RAW was once again promoted as a serious sport. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise In Professional wrestling, a manager is a secondary character paired with a wrestler (or wrestlers for a variety of reasons This article is about the television program You may be looking for the 1994 video game or the 2002 video game WWE Raw is
There are several other promotions where women’s wrestling is still presented and promoted as a serious sport. In the US, SHIMMER Women Athletes is an all-female pro-wrestling promotion affiliated with notable independent promotion Ring of Honor, and considered on par with male wrestling. SHIMMER redirects here For other meanings see Shimmer. SHIMMER Women Athletes (often referred to simply as SHIMMER is a Chicago Ring of Honor (ROH is an American Professional wrestling promotion. In Europe, ChickFight and Queens of Chaos are the leading companies for women's professional wrestling in the United Kingdom and France respectively, again considered on par if not superior to male wrestling. ChickFight is an all-female Professional wrestling tournament. Queens of Chaos is a French based Female independent Professional wrestling promotion created in 2005 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In Japan, women’s wrestling has a long established history, with an all female promotion founded as early as 1955 (the predecessor to All Japan Women's Pro-Wrestling), and has always been presented as a serious, highly athletic sport on the same level as their male counterparts. Not related to All Japan Pro Wrestling for men which was founded in 1972 In some promotions, like Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, where the focus was on "Hardcore" matches, female performers like Ashley Courtnage, Shark Tsuchiya, ”Combat” Toyota and Megumi Kudo also participated. Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling (FMW was a revolutionary Japanese Professional wrestling promotion founded in 1989 by Atsushi Onita. Megumi Takayama, better known under her stage and maiden name, and by her Nickname Kudome, is an entertainment personality and was a Professional The latter two headlined one of FMW’s largest cards in an "Exploding No Rope Barbed Wire Deathmatch. " By 2005, both of the long-established all-female major federations had closed, but females still compete in various other federations.
Midget wrestling can be traced to professional wrestling's carnival and vaudeville origins. A midget professional wrestler is a dwarf or person of short stature who competes in Professional wrestling. In recent years, the popularity and prevalence of midgets in wrestling has greatly decreased due to wrestling companies depriving midget divisions of storyline and/or feud. However, WWE's SmackDown did feature a "Junior's division", for little people from 2005 to 2006. WWE Friday Night SmackDown is a Professional wrestling Television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE that is currently airing It is still a popular form of entertainment in Mexican wrestling, mostly as a "sideshow. "
Some wrestlers may have their own specific "mini me", like Mascarada Sagrada and his midget counterpart Mascarita Sagrada, Alebrije has Quije, etc. There are also cases in which midgets can become valets for a wrestler, and even get physically involved in matches, like Alushe, who often accompanies Tinieblas, or Kemonito, who is portrayed as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's mascot and is also a valet for Mistico. Manuel Leal ( June 8, 1939 -) better known as Tinieblas ( Darkness) is a Mexican luchador. World Wrestling Entertainment's Dave Finlay is often aided in his matches by a midget known mainly as Hornswoggle, who hides under the ring and gives a shillelagh to Finlay to use on his opponent. David Finlay (born October 20, 1958) a nickname he had previously used while in the UK and later as "Fit" Finley. A shillelagh ( Irish: sail éille, a cudgel with a strap commonly ʃɪˈleɪli "shi-LAY-lee" or "shi-LAY-la" ɕaˈleːlə is a wooden club Finlay also occasionally throws him at his opponent(s). Hornswoggle has also been given a run with the Cruiserweight Championship, and it has since been revealed that he is the (kayfabe) son of Dave Finlay. The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE Cruiserweight Championship was a Professional wrestling championship in World Wrestling Entertainment and was In Professional wrestling, kayfabe (ˈkeɪfeɪb KAY-fayb) refers to the portrayal of events within the industry as "real" that is the portrayal of professional David Finlay (born October 20, 1958) a nickname he had previously used while in the UK and later as "Fit" Finley.
For most of its history, women and men would rarely compete against each other in professional wrestling, as it was deemed to be unfair and unchivalrous. Andy Kaufman used this to gain notoriety when he created an Intergender Championship and declared it open to any female challenger. Andrew Geoffrey Kaufman (January 17 1949 &ndash May 16 1984 was an American Entertainer, Actor and Performance artist While often referred This led to a long feud with Jerry Lawler. Jerry Lawler (born November 29 1949 is an American Musician, Film Actor, Politician, professional wrestler and wrestling
In the 1980s, mixed tag team matches began to take place, with a male and female on each team and a rule that stated only the males and females could attack each other. If a tag was made, the other team had to automatically switch their legal wrestler too.
Intergender singles bouts were first fought on a national level in the 1990s. Intergender wrestling, also known as mixed wrestling is a type of Professional wrestling match between a man and a woman and may also refer to tag team matches with both men This began with Luna Vachon, who faced men (and usually defeated them) in both ECW and WWF. Gertrude Vachon (born January 12 1962) is a retired Canadian professional wrestler better known by the Ring name Luna Vachon Later, Chyna became the first female to hold a heavyweight belt that was not exclusive to women when she won the WWF Intercontinental Championship . Chyna (born Joan Marie Laurer on December 27 1972 is an American actress and retired professional wrestler. The World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE Intercontinental Championship is a Professional wrestling championship in World Wrestling Entertainment.
Unlike most other sports, the essence of Pro Wrestling's roots can still be seen all over the country. Independent Wrestling Circuits (or Leagues, Federations, or Promotions) can be found in almost any community in the United States, with some cities having numerous leagues using many of the same wrestlers as other nearby leagues. Many promotions have events at National Guard Armories, Recreation Centers, secondary schools, flea markets, churches, bars, and shopping center parking lots. Production values are almost always low, promotion is done by word of mouth, flyers, cable access television, and the internet, and many of the "workers" aren't as chiseled as the ones on television broadcasts. Still, many local wrestlers are extremely talented, with some grapplers' techniques and charisma surpassing some of those on broadcasts of the WWE or TNA. Independent wrestlers normally have "shoot jobs" and usually wrestle for the love of the business only, since most paydays are pretty low ($10-$20 for most wrestlers. . . and up to $100 or so for bigger draws). Sometimes workers from television broadcasts work independent shows, generally resulting in a good payday for the league.
Major American Organizations
Professional wrestling has developed its own cultures, both internal and external. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling ( TNA) is an American Professional wrestling promotion founded by Jeff Jarrett and his father Jerry Jarrett All Pro Wrestling is an independent Professional wrestling promotion based in Hayward, California which was started by and is currently CHIKARA (sometimes referred to as CHIKARA Pro) is an American Professional wrestling promotion based in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Combat Zone Wrestling ( CZW) is an American based Professional wrestling promotion, based around the 'ultraviolent' style of professional wrestling Full Impact Pro (FIP is an American independent Professional wrestling promotion based in Florida. Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South (also known as IWA Mid-South IWA-MS and IWA Mid South Wrestling is an independent Professional wrestling promotion Jersey All Pro Wrestling (JAPW is an independent wrestling promotion based in New Jersey. The National Wrestling Alliance ( NWA) is the largest governing body for a group of independent Professional wrestling promotions and sanctions various NWA Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW is an American independent Professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. Pro Wrestling Guerrilla ( PWG) is a Professional wrestling promotion that is run by wrestlers themselves as it was created by Southern California wrestlers Ring of Honor (ROH is an American Professional wrestling promotion. SHIMMER redirects here For other meanings see Shimmer. SHIMMER Women Athletes (often referred to simply as SHIMMER is a Chicago ( AJPW) is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1972 Big Japan Pro Wrestling (BJW is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion established in 1995 is a major Professional wrestling federation in Japan and is a member of the National Wrestling Alliance, founded by Antonio Inoki in 1972 Pro-Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000 by former All Japan Pro Wrestling ace Mitsuharu Misawa "ZERO-ONE" redirects here ZERO-ONE is also the name of the vehicle in Pokémon Snap. Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA (Spanish for "Assistance Consulting and Administration" is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion
Those involved in producing professional wrestling have developed a kind of global fraternity, with familial bonds, shared language and passed-down traditions. Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of New performers are expected to "pay their dues" for a few years by working in lower-profile promotions before working their way upward.  The permanent rosters of most promotions develop a backstage pecking order, with veterans mediating conflicts and mentoring younger wrestlers. Pecking Order is a Card game, where players try to claim the best feeding spots in the jungle by playing their birds on the perches and determining who's stronger  For many decades (and still to a lesser extent today) performers were expected to keep the illusions of wrestling's legitimacy alive even while not performing, essentially acting in character any time they were in public. In Character is an Acting term referring to an Actor playing the part of a character either in a format setting (e  Some veterans speak of a "sickness" among wrestling performers, an inexplicable pull to remain active in the wrestling world despite the devastating effects the job can have on one's life and health. 
Fans of professional wrestling have their own subculture, comparable to those of anime, science fiction, video games or comic books. For the term in biology see Subculture (biology. For the song by New Order see Sub-culture (song. Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc (anime in Japanese, A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative Those who are interested in the backstage occurrences, future storylines and reasonings behind company decisions read newsletters written by journalists with inside ties to the wrestling industry.  These "rags" or "dirt sheets" have expanded into the internet, where their information can be dispensed on an up-to-the-minute basis. Some have expanded into radio shows. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light.
Some fans enjoy a pastime of collecting tapes of wrestling shows from specific companies, of certain wrestlers, or of specific genres. The internet has given fans exposure to worldwide variations of wrestling they would be unable to see otherwise.  Since the 1990s, many companies have been founded which deal primarily in wrestling footage.
Like other mainstream sports, fantasy leagues have developed around professional wrestling. A fantasy sport (also known as rotisserie roto or owner simulation is a Game where fantasy owners build a team that competes against other fantasy owners based on the Some take this concept further by creating E-feds (electronic federations), where a user can create their own fictional wrestling character, and roleplay storylines with other users, leading to scheduled "shows" where match results are determined by the organizers, usually based on a combination of the characters' statistics and the players' roleplaying aptitude, sometimes with audience voting. Fantasy wrestling (also referred to as "e-wrestling" is an umbrella term representing the genre of Role-playing and statistics-based games which are set In roleplaying, participants adopt and act out the Role of characters, or parts that may have personalities motivations and backgrounds different from
Every year, there are growing numbers of regional, national and international wrestling fan conventions, where fans can meet and converse with wrestlers and each other. A fan convention, or con, is an event in which fans of a particular TV show, Comic book, or Actor, or an entire style of entertainment These often coincide with a wrestling show featuring an all-star card filled with legends. All-star (also allstar or all star) is a term with meanings in both the worlds of Sports and
From the first established world championship, the top professional wrestlers have garnered fame within mainstream society. Each successive generation has produced a number of wrestlers who extend their careers into the realms of music, acting, writing, business, politics or public speaking, and are known to those who are unfamiliar with wrestling in general. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Acting is the work of an Actor or Actress, which is a person in Theatre, Television, Film, or any other Storytelling A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured deliberate manner intended to inform influence or entertain the listeners
Conversely, celebrities from other sports or general pop culture also become involved with wrestling for brief periods of time. A celebrity is a widely-recognized or famous person who commands a high degree of public and media attention A prime example of this is The Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection of the 1980s, which combined wrestling with MTV. The 1980s wrestling boom (sometimes referred to as the 2nd Golden Age of Wrestling) was a surge in the popularity of Professional wrestling in the United States MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City.
Professional wrestling is often portrayed within other works using parody, and its general elements have become familiar tropes and memes in American culture. A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject A literary trope (from Greek τρόπος - tropos "turn" related to the root of τρέπω - trepō "to turn to direct A meme (miːm consists of any idea or behavior that can pass from one person to another by learning or imitation
Some terminology originating in professional wrestling has found its way into the common vernacular. Concepts such as "cage match", "body slam", "sleeper hold" and "tag team" are used even by those who do not watch professional wrestling. The term "smackdown", which originated in the late 90s in the World Wrestling Federation, is now listed in Webster's Dictionary as of 2007. Webster's Dictionary is the name given to a common type of English language dictionary in the United States.
Many television shows and films have been produced which portray in-character professional wrestlers as protagonists, such as Mucha Lucha, Nacho Libre, and the Santo film series. ¡Mucha Lucha! is an animated Television series which premiered on Kids' WB on August 17, 2002. Nacho Libre is an American Comedy Film that was released on June 16, 2006, by Paramount Pictures, though
At least two stage plays set in the world of pro wrestling have been produced: The Baron is a comedy that retells the life of an actual performer known as Baron von Raschke. James Donald Raschke (born October 17, 1940 in Omaha Nebraska) was a Professional wrestler best known as Baron Von Raschke. From Parts Unknown. . . is an award-nominated Canadian drama about the rise and fall of a fictional wrestler.
With its growing ubiquity, professional wrestling has attracted attention as a subject of serious academic study and journalistic criticism. Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Many courses, theses, essays and dissertations have analyzed wrestling's conventions, content, and its role in modern society. A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted Standards norms social norms or criteria, often taking the form of It is often included as part of studies on theatre, sociology, performance, and media. 
But this was not always the case; in the early 20th century, once it became apparent that the "sport" was worked, pro wrestling was looked down on as a cheap entertainment for the uneducated working class -- an attitude that still exists to varying degrees today.  The French theorist Roland Barthes was among the first to propose that wrestling was worthy of deeper analysis, in his essay "The World of Wrestling" from his book Mythologies, first published in 1957. Roland Barthes ( November 12, 1915 &ndash March 25, 1980) (ʀɔlɑ̃ baʀt was a French Literary critic, literary Mythologies is the title of a book by Roland Barthes, published in 1957.  Barthes argued that it should be looked at not as a scamming of the ignorant, but as spectacle; a mode of theatric performance for a willing, if bloodthirsty, audience. In general spectacle refers to an event that is memorable for the appearance it creates This work is considered a foundation of all later study. 
While pro wrestling is often described simplistically as a "soap opera for males", it has also been cited as filling the role of past forms of literature and theatre; a synthesis of classical heroics, commedia dell'arte, revenge tragedies, morality plays and burlesque. A soap opera is an ongoing episodic work of Fiction, usually broadcast on Television or Radio. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Commedia dell'Arte ( Italian: "the comedy of artists" is a form of Improvisational theatre that began in Italy in the 16th century The revenge play or revenge tragedy is a form of Tragedy which was extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras The best-known of these Morality Play is a detective story by Barry Unsworth, a Man Booker Prize -winning author for his book Sacred Hunger Published in 1996 by Burlesque is theatrical entertainment of broad and parodic humor which usually consists of comic skits (and sometimes a strip tease) The characters and storylines portrayed by a successful promotion are seen to reflect the current mood, attitudes, and concerns of that promotion's society (and can, in turn, influence those same things). A mood is a relatively long lasting affective or emotional state Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's like or dislike for an item A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Wrestling's high levels of violence and masculinity make it a vicarious outlet for aggression during peacetime. Violence is the exertion of force so as to injure or abuse The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like Storms and Earthquakes In Psychology and other social and Behavioral sciences aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm In politics peacetime is defined as any period of time where there are no violent conflicts occurring 
Documentary filmmakers have studied the lives of wrestlers and the effects the profession has on themselves and their families. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. The 1999 theatrical documentary Beyond The Mat focused on Terry Funk, a wrestler nearing retirement; Mick Foley, a wrestler within his prime; Jake Roberts, a former star fallen from grace; and a school of wrestling students trying to break into the business. Beyond the Mat is a 1999 Professional wrestling documentary, directed by Barry W Terrence "Terry" Funk (born June 30 1944) is an American professional wrestler and Actor known chiefly for the Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely Michael Francis "Mick" Foley Sr Early life Foley was born in Bloomington Indiana. Aurelian Smith Jr (born May 30 1955 in Gainesville, Texas) is a second-generation American professional wrestler and A professional wrestling school is a school or gym that teaches students the necessary skills to become pro wrestlers. The 2005 release Lipstick and Dynamite chronicled the development of women's wrestling throughout the twentieth century. Lipstick and Dynamite Piss and Vinegar The First Ladies of Wrestling (often referred to as Lipstick and Dynamite) The objective of the film was to Pro wrestling has been featured several times on HBO's Real Sports. Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel is a monthly sports Newsmagazine on HBO that debuted on April 2, 1995. MTV's documentary series True Life featured two episodes titled "I'm a Professional Wrestler" and "I Want to Be a Professional Wrestler". True Life is a documentary series running on MTV since 1998 Each episode follows a particular topic such as heroin addiction in the first episode "Fatal Dose" Other documentaries have been produced by The Learning Channel (The Secret World of Professional Wrestling) and A&E Network (Hitman Hart: Wrestling with Shadows). TLC (generally called as The Learning Channel) is a cable TV network in the US and Canada, that carries a variety of informational and A&E is a cable and Satellite television network with headquarters in Manhattan and offices in Stamford, Atlanta, Hitman Hart Wrestling with Shadows is a Documentary film which follows World Wrestling Federation superstar Bret Hart during his last year in