This article is part of the series on the
|Phaistos Disc||1850–1400 BC|
|Woodblock printing||200 AD|
|Offset press||by 1800s|
|Dot matrix printer||1970|
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. A folding machine is a Machine used for Folding usually of paper The history of printing began as an attempt to make easier and reduce the cost of reproducing multiple copies of documents fabrics wall papers and so on The Phaistos Disc ( Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a disk of fired Clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos, possibly dating For the use of the technique in art see Woodcut on the technique and Old master print for the history in Europe and Woodblock printing in Japan. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation Intaglio (pronounced in-TAL-yo ɪn'tælɪəʊ is a family of Printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface known as the matrix or plate A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image Lithography is a method for Printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface Offset printing is a commonly used Printing technique where the Inked image is transferred (or "offset" from a plate to a rubber blanket then to the Chromolithography is a method for making multi-color prints. This type of color printing stemmed from the process of Lithography, and it includes all types of lithography A rotary printing press is a Printing press in which the images to be printed are curved around a cylinder Flexography (also called surface printing) often abbreviated to flexo, is a method of Printing most commonly used for packaging (labels tape bags Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink blocking stencil A dye-sublimation printer (or dye-sub printer) is a Computer printer which employs a printing process that uses heat to transfer dye to a medium such as a plastic A photocopier (or copier is a machine that makes Paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object A laser printer is a common type of Computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of Computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact striking For the type of printer which uses sparks and aluminised paper (and is sometimes referred to as a "thermal printer" see Spark printer. Inkjet printers operate by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid or molten material ( Ink) onto almost any sized page Digital printing is the reproduction of Digital images on a physical surface 3D printing is a category of Rapid prototyping technology A three dimensional object is created by layering and connecting successive cross sections of material Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.
Block printing came to Christian Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. The history of printing began as an attempt to make easier and reduce the cost of reproducing multiple copies of documents fabrics wall papers and so on Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate, and when paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging For the origins of the technique and non-artistic use see Woodblock printing; for the related technique invented in the 18th century see Wood engraving A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper thin card or thin plastic figured with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing Card games These prints were produced in very large numbers from about 1425 onwards. An old master print is a work of art produced by a Printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World
Around the mid-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images, usually carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation These were all short heavily illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying" is the name of two related Latin texts dating from about 1415 and 1450 which offer advice on the protocols and procedures The Biblia pauperum ("Paupers' Bible" was a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the later Middle Ages. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440–1460. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation 
The volume of Joseph Needham's Science and Civilization in China dealing with Paper and printing has a chapter that suggests that "European block printers must not only have seen Chinese samples, but perhaps had been taught by missionaries or others who had learned these un-European methods from Chinese printers during their residence in China. ", but he also admitted that the "only evidence of European printing transmitted from China is a lack of counterevidence".  However, paper itself was needed for the printing process and this came to Europe via trade with the Arabs from China. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Historians acknowledge that paper indeed came from China without which printing would have been impossible, however, there is less direct evidence of the influence of printing technology from Asia and its influence on European printing technology. 
Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than hand copying or block printing. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation
For a description of
Movable type By 593 A. For the article on the development of printing in Europe see History of western typography. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation D. , the first printing press was invented in China, and the first printed newspaper was available in Beijing in 700 A. D. It was a woodblock printing. And the Diamond Sutra, the earliest known complete woodblock printed book with illustrations was printed in China in 868 A. D. And Chinese printer Bi Sheng invented movable type in 1041 A. Bì Shēng ( 990-1051 AD was the inventor of the first known Movable type Printing system D. in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Sheng used clay type, which broke easily, but Wang Zhen later carved a more durable type from wood by 1298 AD, and developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. This article is about Wang Zhen agronomist and inventor For other historical figures with this name see Wang Zhen (disambiguation.
The transition from wood type to metal type occurred during the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea and is credited to Choe Yun-ui (최윤의). The Goryeo Dynasty ( 918 - 1392) (also spelled Koryŏ was a Sovereign state established in 918 by Taejo Wang Kon. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Choe Yun-ui was a Korean civil minister during the Goryeo Dynasty. Records indicate that by 1234, books were being printed in Korea with movable metal type, though the earliest surviving text is from 1377. In China metal movable type was not pioneered until the work of the printer Hua Sui in 1490 AD. Hua Sui ( Traditional Chinese: 華燧 Simplified Chinese:华燧 Hanyu Pinyin: Huá Suì (1439-1513 AD was a Chinese Scholar and Movable type was widely used in China in both wooden and metal type printing, yet the European-style printing press introduced to China in relatively recent times greatly increased the efficiency and speed of printing. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation
East Asian printing technology may possibly have diffused into Europe through the trade routes from China through India or the Arabic world. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding There is no actual evidence that Gutenberg may have known of the Korean processes for movable type. However, some authors admit this possibility, and argue that movable metal type had been an active enterprise in Korea since 1234 and there was communication between West and East.
It is traditionally believed that Johannes Gutenberg, of the German city of Mainz, developed European printing technology around 1439 and in just over a decade, the European age of printing began, but new research may indicate that it was a more complex evolutionary process spread over multiple locations. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg ( 1398 &ndash February 3, 1468) was a German Goldsmith and printer who is credited Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Also, Johann Fust and Peter Schöffer experimented with Guttenburg in Mainz. Johann Fust (c1400 - October 30 1466) was an early German printer. Peter Schöffer or Petrus Schoeffer (c 1425 in Gernsheim, Groß-Gerau - 1503 Mainz) was an early German printer who studied in Paris Genealogically, all modern movable type printing can be traced back to a single source, Gutenberg's printing press which he derived from the design of long known agricultural presses. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image A fruit press is a device used to separate Fruit solids - stems skins Seeds, pulp leaves and Detritus - from Fruit juice East Asian style movable type printing, which was based on laborious manual rubbing and which had been scarcely used, practically died out after the introduction of European style printing in the 15th century.
Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of an oil-based ink which was more durable than previously used water-based inks. Having worked as a professional goldsmith, Gutenberg made skillful use of the knowledge of metals he had learned as a craftsman. A goldsmith is a Metalworker who specializes in working with Gold and other Precious metals usually in modern times to make Jewelry. Gutenberg was also the first to make his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, which was critical for producing durable type that produced high-quality printed books, and proved to be more suitable for printing than the clay, wooden or bronze types used in East Asia. An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and To create these lead types, Gutenberg used what some considered his most ingenious invention, a special matrix wherewith the moulding of new movable types with an unprecedented precision at short notice became feasible. Within a year after his B42, Gutenberg also published the first coloured prints.
Gutenberg's invention of the printing press revolutionized communication and book production leading to the spread of knowledge. Rapidly, printing spread from Germany by emigrating German printers, but also by foreign apprentices returning home. A printing press was built in Venice in 1469, and by 1500 the city had 417 printers. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the In 1470 Johann Heynlin set up a printing press in Paris. Johann Heynlin (variously spelled Heynlein, Henelyn, Henlin, Hélin, Hemlin, Hegelin, Steinlin; and translated Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In 1473 Kasper Straube published the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 in Kraków. Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 (Cracovian Almanac for the Year 1474 is a single-sheet astronomical Wall calendar for the year 1474, and Poland Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland Dirk Martens set up a printing press in Aalst (Flanders) in 1473. Dirk Martens (Theodoricus Martinus ( Aalst 1446 or 1447 &ndash 2 May 1534) was a printer and editor in Flanders. Aalst can refer to Aalst Belgium, a city and municipality in Belgium Aalst (North Brabant, a village in the Netherlands in the province Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. He printed a book about the two lovers of Enea Piccolomini who became pope Pius II. Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) In 1476 a printing press was set up in England by William Caxton. Belarusian Francysk Skaryna printed the first book in Slavic language on August 6, 1517. Francysk Skaryna (fran'tsɨsk ska'rɨna or Skoryna the first name also spelled as Francis Franciszak Frantsiszak Francisk Frantzisk; Франці́шак (Францыск The Italian Juan Pablos set up an imported press in Mexico City in 1539. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The first printing press in Southeast Asia was set up in the Philippines by the Spanish in 1593. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Stephen Day was the first to build a printing press in North America at Massachusetts Bay in 1638, and helped establish the Cambridge Press. Massachusetts Bay is one of the large bays of the Atlantic Ocean that form the distinctive shape of the coastline of the U .
Early printing houses (near the time of Gutenberg) were run by "master printers. " These printers owned shops, selected and edited manuscripts, determined the sizes of print runs, sold the works they produced, raised capital and organized distribution. Some master printing houses became the cultural centre for literati such as Erasmus.
The earliest-known image of a European, Gutenberg-style print shop is the Dance of Death by Matthias Huss, at Lyon, 1499. This image depicts a compositor standing at a compositor's case being grabbed by a skeleton. The case is raised to facilitate his work. The image also shows a pressman being grabbed by a skeleton. At the right of the printing house a bookshop is shown.
Court records from the city of Mainz document that Johannes Fust was, for some time, Gutenberg's financial backer.
By the sixteenth century jobs associated with printing were becoming increasingly specialized. Structures supporting publishers were more and more complex, leading to this division of labour. In Europe between 1500 and 1700 the role of the Master Printer was dying out and giving way to the bookseller—publisher. Printing during this period had a stronger commercial imperative than previously. Risks associated with the industry however were substantial, although dependent on the nature of the publication.
Bookseller publishers negotiated at trade fairs and at print shops. Jobbing work appeared in which printers did menial tasks in the beginning of their careers to support themselves.
1500–1700: Publishers developed several new methods of funding projects.
The Mechanick Exercises, by Joseph Moxon, in London, 1683, was said to be the first publication done in installments.
Publishing trade organizations allowed publishers to organize business concerns collectively. Systems of self-regulation occurred in these arrangements. For example, if one publisher did something to irritate other publishers he would be controlled by peer pressure. Such systems are known as cartels, and are in most countries now considered to be in restraint of trade. A cartel is a formal (explicit agreement among firms Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve These arrangements helped deal with labour unrest among journeymen, who faced difficult working conditions. Brotherhoods predated unions, without the formal regulations now associated with unions.
In most cases, publishers bought the copyright in a work from the author, and made some arrangement about the possible profits. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for This required a substantial amount of capital in addition to the capital for the physical equipment and staff. Alternatively, an author who had sufficient money would sometimes keep the copyright himself, and simply pay the printer for the production of the book. Money is anything that is generally accepted as Payment for Goods and services and repayment of Debts. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for For further developments, see main article:copyright
Across the world, over 45 trillion pages (2005 figure) are printed annually. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for  In 2006 there were approximately 30,700 printing companies in the United States, accounting for $112 billion, according to the 2006 U. S. Industry & Market Outlook by Barnes Reports. Print jobs that move through the Internet made up 12. 5% of the total U. S. Printing market last year, according to research firm InfoTrend/CAP Ventures.
Books and newspapers are printed today using the technique of offset lithography. A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Offset printing is a commonly used Printing technique where the Inked image is transferred (or "offset" from a plate to a rubber blanket then to the Other common techniques include:
Gravure printing is an intaglio printing technique, where the image to be printed is made up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate. Gravure may also refer to Gravure idol. Rotogravure ( roto or gravure for short is a type of intaglio Printing Intaglio (pronounced in-TAL-yo ɪn'tælɪəʊ is a family of Printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface known as the matrix or plate The cells are filled with ink and the excess is scraped off the surface with a doctor blade, then a rubber-covered roller presses paper onto the surface of the plate and into contact with the ink in the cells. The printing plates are usually made from copper and may be produced by digital engraving or laser etching. A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission.
Gravure printing is used for long, high-quality print runs such as magazines, mail-order catalogues, packaging, and printing onto fabric and wallpaper. It is also used for printing postage stamps and decorative plastic laminates, such as kitchen worktops.
Digital printing accounts for approximately 9% of the 45 trillion pages printed (2005 figure) around the world. 
Printing at home or in an office or engineering environment is subdivided into:
Some of the more common printing technologies are
Vendors typically stress the total cost to operate the equipment, involving complex calculations that include all cost factors involved in the operation as well as the capital equipment costs, amortization, etc. For the most part, toner systems beat inkjet in the long run, whereas inkjets are less expensive in the initial purchase price.
Professional digital printing (using toner) primarily uses an electrical charge to transfer toner or liquid ink to the substrate it is printed on. Digital printing is the reproduction of Digital images on a physical surface For the Irish surname see Toner (surname. Toner is a powder used in Laser printers and Photocopiers to form Digital print quality has steadily improved from early color and black & white copiers to sophisticated colour digital presses like the Xerox iGen3, the Kodak Nexpress and the HP Indigo Digital Press series. Indigo is the name given to a series of Digital Offset Printing Presses made by the Hewlett-Packard Company in Israel. The iGen3 and Nexpress use toner particles and the Indigo uses liquid ink. All three are made for small runs and variable data, and rival offset in quality. Digital offset presses are called direct imaging presses; although these receive computer files and automatically turn them into print-ready plates, they cannot insert variable data.
Small press and fanzines generally use digital printing or more rarely xerography. Digital printing is the reproduction of Digital images on a physical surface Xerography (or electrophotography) is a Photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and Patented on October 6 Prior to the introduction of cheap photocopying the use of machines such as the spirit duplicator, hectograph, and mimeograph was common. A spirit duplicator (also referred to as a Ditto machine or Banda machine) was a low-volume printing method used mainly by schools and churches The hectograph or gelatin duplicator or jellygraph is a Printing process which involves transfer of an original prepared with special inks to a pan of
Graphic print Production Graphic printing is related with the Print production services, sourcing print, providing a competitive quotation, lithographic and digital printing according to requirement, sourcing services and so much more. Every company in printing, provide a complete solution. There are different phases and steps involved in graphic print production usually these are four phases and eight steps involve in printing production.
Four main phases involved in Graphic Printing Production
1. Concept visualization
2. Creative Production (Design phase)
3. Industrial Production
The first phase consists of further two working steps which are Strategic Work and Creative Work, and the end result of this phase is the finalization of the idea and approved sketches of graphical design.
In the second phase which consistes Image and Text step and Layout step. The design is designed using some software and it takes a real form than sketch and after this phase the design can be used for printing.
In the third phase the developed design is taken and put to final product. This phase consists of Prepress, Printing, Finishing and Binding steps.
The last phase of the process is distribution of the finished printed product.
Eight steps involve in printing production
1. Strategic Work
2. Creative Work
3. Image and text
7. Finishing and binding
Image and text:
The next step is to placement of image and text on your required print. Either you got it from cd, scanner, digital camera or design by yourself then the right placement of text in the print. You have to consider that what will be the right effect of image and text after the printing.
The following items have each been considered part of prepress at one time or another: typesetting, copyediting, markup, proofreading, page layout, screening (of continuous-tone images such as photographs), retouching, page assembly (stripping), imposition (combination of many pages into a single signature form), trapping (also referred to as spreading and choking), separation (specifying images or text to be put on plates applying individual printing mediums [inks, varnishes, etc. ] to a common print) and plate making (photomechanical exposure and processing of light-sensitive emulsion on a printing plate).
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing, lot of form of printing are used, like offset printing, digital printing etc. In printing we have papers that first we set the printing plates, adjust the ink and then set the papers sheets and start printing until printer not be ready to print accurate, desired printing sheet. so the papers used are called waste papers.
Finishing and Binding:
After the completion of printing , next step is how to the arrange the prints and how to finishing. 'Finishing' is the overall name given to several types of process; all of which convert the output of a printing operation into a finished product
For bookbinding and printed media, these processes can include: - Cutting & Trimming - Folding - Stitching - Pasting/Gluing/Adhesive Binding - Book Finishing - Packaging. Usually when the printing is finished huge rolls of now-printed paper are cut and put together so that the pages fall in the correct order. Pages are also bound together, by staples or glue, in this step of the process. For the paper complete finishing components in the stitcher machine have the knives, which trim the paper to the final delivered size. The product is then ready to be shipped to the end destination
On the effects of Gutenberg's printing
Early printers manuals