The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing
While Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred headed east from Asia Minor to set up the County of Edessa, the main army of the First Crusade continued south to besiege Antioch. Baldwin I of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin I of Edessa, born Baldwin of Boulogne (French Baudouin de Boulogne 1058? - April 2, 1118, was Tancred ( 1072 - December 5 or December 12, 1112) was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 Bohemond of Taranto led the siege, beginning in October, 1097. Bohemond I (also spelled Bohemund or Boamund; c 1058&ndash 3 March 1111) Prince of Taranto and Prince of Antioch With over four hundred towers, the city was almost impenetrable. The siege lasted throughout the winter, with much suffering among the Crusaders, who were often forced to eat their own horses, or, as legend has it, the bodies of their fellow Christians who had not survived. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
However, Bohemond convinced a guard in one of the towers, a former Christian named Firouz, to let the Crusaders enter the city. He did so on June 3, 1098, and a massacre of the Muslim inhabitants followed. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Only four days later, a Muslim army from Mosul led by Kerbogha arrived to besiege the Crusaders themselves. For the village in Azerbaijan see Mosul Azerbaijan. Mosul (الموصل Al Mūṣul, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Musul Kerbogha ( Arabic: كربغا, Turkish: Kürboğa) was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned Alexius I Comnenus, the Byzantine emperor, was on his way to assist the Crusaders, but turned back when he heard the city had already been retaken. Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians
However, the Crusaders were withstanding the siege, with help from a mystic named Peter Bartholomew. Peter Bartholomew (died April 20[[ 099]] was a soldier and mystic from France who was part of the First Crusade. Peter claimed he had been visited by St. Andrew, who told him that the Holy Lance, which had pierced Christ's side as he was on the cross, was located in Antioch. The Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the name Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also The cathedral of St. Peter was excavated, and the Lance was discovered by Peter himself. Although Peter most likely planted it there himself (even the papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy believed this to be the case), it helped raise the spirits of the Crusaders. Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (died August 1, 1098) one of the principal personages With the newly discovered relic at the head of the army, Bohemond marched out to meet Kerbogha, who was miraculously defeated — miraculously, according to the Crusaders, because an army of saints had appeared to help them on the battlefield.
There was a lengthy dispute over who should control the city. Bohemond and the other Italian Normans eventually won, and Bohemond named himself prince. Bohemond was already prince (allodial lord) of Taranto in Italy, and he desired to continue such independence in his new lordship; thus he did not attempt to receive the title of Duke from the Byzantine Emperor (in whose name he had taken an oath to fight), nor any other title with deep feudal obligations, such as count. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Meanwhile, an unknown epidemic spread throughout the Crusader camp; Adhemar of Le Puy was one of the victims. Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (died August 1, 1098) one of the principal personages
Bohemond was captured in battle with the Danishmends in 1100, and his nephew Tancred became regent. The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman Dynasty that ruled in north-central and eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries Tancred expanded the borders of the Principality, taking the cities of Tarsus and Latakia from the Byzantine Empire. Tarsus ( Greek Ταρσός is a City, and a large district in Mersin Province, Turkey, from the city of Mersin and near (40 Latakia or Latakiyah (اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Λαοδικεία transliterated as Laodicea, Laodikeia or Laodiceia, Those cities along with other territory were lost after the Battle of Harran when Baldwin II was captured. The Battle of Harran took place on May 7, 1104 between the Crusader states of the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131 Bohemond was released in 1103, but left Tancred as regent again when he went to Italy to raise more troops in 1105. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest He used these troops to attack the Byzantines in 1107, and when he was defeated at Dyrrhachium in 1108 he was forced by Alexius I to sign the Treaty of Devol, which would make Antioch a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire upon Bohemond's death; Bohemond had actually promised to return any land that was reconquered when the Crusaders passed through Constantinople in 1097. The Treaty of Devol was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemond I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, in the wake of the Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Bohemond also fought Aleppo with Baldwin and Joscelin of the County of Edessa; when Baldwin and Joscelin were captured, Tancred became regent in Edessa as well. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Joscelin of Courtenay or Joscelin I (died 1131 Prince of Galilee and Lord of Turbessel (1115-1131 and Count of Edessa (1119-1131 ruled over The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity Bohemond left Tancred as regent once more and returned to Italy, where he died in 1111.
Alexius wanted Tancred to return the Principality entirely to Byzantium, but Tancred was supported by the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Tancred, in fact, had been the only Crusade leader who did not swear to return conquered land to Alexius (though none of the other leaders, including Bohemond, kept their oaths anyway). The County of Tripoli (1109–1289 was the last Crusader state founded in the Levant, located in what today is known as northern Lebanon This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian Tancred died in 1112 and was succeeded by Bohemond II, under the regency of Tancred's nephew Roger of Salerno, who defeated a Seljuk attack in 1113. Bohemond II (1108 &ndash 1131 was the Prince of Taranto and Prince of Antioch from 1111 Roger of Salerno or Roger of the Principate (died June 28, 1119) was regent of the Principality of Antioch from 1112 to 1119 The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in
However, on June 27, 1119, Roger was killed at the Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood), and Antioch became a vassal state of Jerusalem with King Baldwin II as regent until 1126 (although Baldwin spent much of this time in captivity in Aleppo). Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden In the Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood, the Battle of Sarmada, or the Battle of Balat, Roger of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131 Bohemond II, who married Baldwin's daughter Alice, ruled for only four short years, and the Principality was inherited by his young daughter Constance; Baldwin II acted as regent again until his death in 1131, when Fulk of Jerusalem took power. Alice of Antioch (also Haalis Halis or Adelicia was Princess of Antioch through her marriage to Bohemund II. Constance of Antioch (1127 &ndash 1163 was the Princess regnant of the Principality of Antioch (a Crusader state) from 1130 to her death Fulk V (1089/1092 &ndash November 13, 1143) also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129 and In 1136 Constance, still only 10 years old, married Raymond of Poitiers, who was 36. Raymond of Poitiers (c 1115 &ndash June 29, 1149) was Prince of Antioch 1136&ndash1149
Raymond, like his predecessors, attacked the Byzantine province of Cilicia. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria This time, however, Emperor John II Comnenus fought back. John II Komnenos or Comnenus ( Iōannēs II Komnēnos) ( September 13, 1087 &ndash April 8, 1143) was Byzantine He arrived in Antioch in 1138 and forced Raymond to swear fealty to him, but a riot instigated by Joscelin II of Edessa forced him to leave. Joscelin II of Edessa (died 1159 was the fourth and last ruling count of Edessa. John had plans to reconquer all the Crusader states, but he died in 1143.
After the fall of Edessa in 1144, Antioch was attacked by Nur ad-Din during the Second Crusade. The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the Crusader County of Edessa The Second Crusade (1147&ndash1149 was the second major Crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the Much of the eastern part of the Principality was lost, and Raymond was killed at the battle of Inab in 1149. In the Battle of Inab, also called Battle of Ard al-Hâtim or Fons Muratus, the Syrian army of Nur ad-Din destroyed the Crusader army of Raymond of Baldwin III of Jerusalem was technically regent for Raymond's widow Constance until 1153 when she married Raynald of Chatillon. Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130 &ndash February 10, 1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143&ndash1162 Raynald, too, immediately found himself in conflict with the Byzantines, this time in Cyprus; he made peace with Manuel I Comnenus, however, in 1158, and the next year Manuel arrived to take personal control of the Principality. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. Henceforth, the Principality of Antioch was to be a vassal of Byzantium until Manuel's death in 1180. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM Although this arrangement meant that the Principality had to provide a contingent for the Byzantine Army (troops from Antioch participated in an attack on the Seljuk Turks in 1176), it also safeguarded the City against Nur ad-Din at a time when it was in serious danger of being overrun. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in
Raynald was taken prisoner by the Muslims in 1160, and the regency fell to the Patriarch of Antioch (Raynald was not released until 1176, and never returned to Antioch). The Latin Patriarch of Antioch was an office established in the aftermath of the First Crusade by Bohemund, founder of the Principality of Antioch. Meanwhile, Manuel married Constance's daughter Maria, but as Constance was only nominally in charge of Antioch, she was deposed in 1163 and replaced by her son Bohemond III. Maria of Antioch (1145 &ndash 1182 was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. Bohemond III of Antioch (1144 &ndash 1201 also known as the Stammerer or the Stutterer, was Prince of Antioch from 1163 to his death Bohemond was taken captive by Nur ad-Din the following year at the Battle of Harim, and the Orontes River became the permanent boundary between Antioch and Aleppo. The Battle of Harim was fought on August 12, 1164 between the forces of Nur ad-Din and a combined army from the County of Tripoli, the Principality See Orontid dynasty for the Armenian kings and satraps called Orontes Bohemond returned to Antioch in 1165, and married one of Manuel's nieces; he was also convinced to install a Greek Orthodox patriarch in the city.
The Byzantine alliance came to an end with the death of the Emperor Manuel in 1180. Suddenly, Antioch was deprived of the Empire's protection, which had been enough to frighten Nur ad-Din away from intervening in the area for the past twenty years. Nevertheless, with help from the fleets of the Italian city-states Antioch survived Saladin's assault on the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187. Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c Neither Antioch nor Tripoli participated in the Third Crusade, although the remnants of Frederick Barbarossa's army briefly stopped in Antioch in 1190 to bury their king. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned Bohemond III's son, also named Bohemond, had become count of Tripoli after the Battle of Hattin, and Bohemond III's eldest son Raymond married an Armenian princess in 1194. The Battle of Hattin (also known as " The Horns of Hattin " because of a nearby extinct Volcano of the same name took place on Saturday July Raymond IV of Tripoli (died 1199 was the Count of Tripoli (1187 &ndash 1189 and prince regent of Antioch (1193 &ndash 1194 The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Bohemond III died in 1201.
Bohemond's death resulted in a struggle for control between Antioch, represented by Bohemond of Tripoli, and Armenia, represented by Bohemond III's grandson Raymond-Roupen. Bohemond IV of Antioch or de Poitiers (c 1172 &ndash March 1233 also known as the One-Eyed (in French le Cyclops) was ruler Raymond-Roupen of Antioch or Raimond Rupen de Poitiers (1199 &ndash 1219 or 1221/1222 was Prince of Antioch between 1205 and 1208 and between 1216 and 1219/1221 Bohemond of Tripoli, as Bohemond IV, took control by 1207, but Raymond briefly ruled as a rival from 1216 to 1219. Bohemond died in 1233, and Antioch, ruled by his son Bohemond V, played no important role in the Fifth Crusade, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II's struggles to take back Jerusalem in the Sixth Crusade, or Louis IX of France's Seventh Crusade. Bohemond V of Antioch (died 1252 was ruler of the Principality of Antioch, a Crusader state, from 1233 to his death The Fifth Crusade ( 1217 &ndash 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. The Seventh Crusade was a Crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
In 1254 Bohemond VI married Sibylla, an Armenian princess, ending the power struggle between the two states, although by this point Armenia was the more powerful of the two and Antioch was essentially a vassal state. Bohemond VI of Antioch (ca 1237 &ndash 1275 called the Fair ( le Beau) was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Both, however, were swept up by the conflict between the Mameluks and the Mongols. In 1260, under the influence of his father-in-law, the Armenian king Hetoum I, Bohemond VI submitted to the Mongols under Hulagu, making Antioch a tributary state of the Mongol Empire. Hetoum I (also Transliterated Hethoum, Hethum, Het'um, or Hayton from Armenian Bohemond VI of Antioch (ca 1237 &ndash 1275 called the Fair ( le Beau) was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as  Bohemond and Hetoum fought on the side of the Mongols during the conquests of Muslim Syria, taking together the city of Aleppo, and later Damascus. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. 
When the Mongols were defeated at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, Baibars began to threaten Antioch, which (as a vassal of the Armenians) had supported the Mongols. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري Baibars finally took the city in 1268, and all of northern Syria was quickly lost; twenty-three years later, Acre was taken, and the Crusader states ceased to exist. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The empty title of "Prince of Antioch" passed, with the extinction of the Counts of Tripoli, to the Kings of Cyprus, and was sometimes granted as a dignity to junior members of the royal house. The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the high and late Middle Ages, between 1192 and 1489
The Principality of Antioch was, even at its greatest extent, much smaller than Edessa and Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea, bordering on the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It probably had about 20 000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians and Greek Orthodox Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of Norman origin and/or from southern Italy, as were the first rulers of the principality who surrounded themselves with their own loyal subjects. There were few Roman Catholics apart from the Crusaders who set up the Principality, even though the city was turned into a Latin Patriarchate in 1100.
The Lordship of Saone was centered on the castle of Saone, but included the towns of Sarmada (lost in 1134) and Balatanos. The Citadel of Salah Ed-Din (Arabic Qalaat Salah ed-Din; once known as Saone, also known as Saladdin Castle) is a Castle in Syria Saone was captured by Saladin from the last lord, Matthew, in 1188. Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c
Like Jerusalem, Antioch had its share of great offices, including constable, marshal, butler, Chamberlain, and chancellor. The Principality of Antioch mirrored the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in it selection of great offices Constable, Marshal, Seneschal, Admiral A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches A butler is a senior servant in a large Household. In the Great houses of the past the household was sometimes divided into departments with the butler A chamberlain is an officer in charge of managing a household. Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen