Principal or Head of School is the title of the chief administrator of an elementary school, middle school, or high school in some English-speaking countries, including the United States and Australia. See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary Middle school or Junior High School serves as a "bridge" between the Elementary School and the High School High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Public schools in the United States generally use the title Principal whereas private schools in the United States generally use the title Head of School. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and For the film of this title see Private School (film. Private schools, or Independent schools are Schools not administered In other English-speaking countries, the terms headteacher/headmaster/headmistress are used. Books and documents relating to the early days of public education in the United States show that the title was originally Principal Teacher.
In the United States, the term Head of School has largely replaced Headmaster or Headmistress at schools where gender is not significant to the position.
In 1999 there were about 129,000 "principals" in the United States. 
In many Australian schools, a principal is the head administrator of a school who has been appointed to her/his position by the school board, superintendent, or other body. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. An academic administration is a branch of University or College employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" A board of education or a school Board or school committee is the title of the Board of directors of a school local School district The principal, often in conjunction with the school board, makes the executive decisions that govern the school, as well as having the authority over the employment (and in some cases firing) of teachers. The principal is often the chief disciplinarian of the students. School discipline is a form of Discipline appropriate to the regulation of Children and the maintenance of order in Schools The term refers to The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" In many US schools, however, student discipline is the vice-principal's responsibility, and broader school decisions are the duty of the principal. In larger school systems a principal is often assisted by someone known as a vice-principal ( Republic of Ireland: deputy principal) or assistant
In larger schools the principal is assisted by one or more vice-principals, assistant principals, or deputy principals. An assistant principal, sometimes called a Vice-principal or Deputy Principal assists a principal in the general governance and leadership of a school Their position is secondary to the principal with regard to school governance. Assistant principals generally perform specific duties such as handling student discipline or curriculum, whereas the principal has the ultimate responsibility for the school as a whole.