|Count Palatine of the Rhine|
|Dudley Bard (1666-86)|
|Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog von Bayern|
|Count Palatine of the Rhine|
Duke of Cumberland
Earl of Holderness
|Father||Frederick V, Elector Palatine|
|Born||7 December 1619|
|Died||29 November 1682 (aged 62)|
Westminster, London, England
|Burial||Westminster Abbey, London, England|
Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria (German: Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog von Bayern), commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682), soldier, inventor and amateur artist in mezzotint, was a younger son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, and the nephew of King Charles I of England, who created him Duke of Cumberland and Earl of Holderness. Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British royal family named after the county of Cumberland. The title Earl of Holderness was created on three occasions in the Peerage of England. Frederick V (Friedrich V ( August 26 1596 – November 29 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23 and as Frederick I Elisabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 &ndash 13 February 1662 Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Mezzotint is a Printmaking process of the intaglio family technically a Drypoint method Frederick V (Friedrich V ( August 26 1596 – November 29 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23 and as Frederick I Elisabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 &ndash 13 February 1662 Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British royal family named after the county of Cumberland. The title Earl of Holderness was created on three occasions in the Peerage of England.
Prince Rupert had a very varied career. He was a soldier from a young age, fighting against Spain in the Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire in Germany. Aged 23, he was appointed commander of the Royalist cavalry during the English Civil War. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. He surrendered after the Battle of Naseby and was banished from the British Isles. The Battle of Naseby was the key battle of the first English Civil War. He spent some time in Royalist forces in exile, first on land then at sea. He then became a buccaneer in the Caribbean. This article refers to the type of pirate For other uses see Buccaneer (disambiguation The buccaneers were Pirates who attacked Following the restoration, Rupert returned to England, becoming a naval commander, inventor, artist and first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. Prince Rupert died in England in 1682, aged 62.
Rupert was born in Prague in 1619 at the time of the Thirty Years' War. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. Soon after his birth, the family fled from Bohemia to the Netherlands where Rupert spent his childhood. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. He was almost left behind until a court member, thinking the swaddled prince was a bundle of household goods, tossed him onto a carriage. His mother, Elizabeth Stuart, sometimes known as the "Winter Queen" (due to her reign as Queen of Bohemia lasting a single winter in 1619), was a daughter of King James I of England and sister of King Charles I of England. Elisabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 &ndash 13 February 1662 James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Consequently, Rupert and his brother Maurice supported their uncle Charles when the English Civil War began in 1642. Prince Maurice von Simmern KG ( December 17, 1620 &ndash September 1652 Count Palatine of the Rhine, was the fourth son of Frederick V The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
He took to soldiering early. At the age of fourteen he fought alongside the Protestant Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange at the siege of Rheinberg in 1633, and against Spain at Breda in 1638 in the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands. Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch ( 29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647) was the Prince of Orange Rheinberg is a town in the district of Wesel, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Breda ( is a Municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries
As a child he was at times badly behaved and earned himself the nickname "Robert The Devil". His childhood was not easy; the family had little money after leaving Prague, and he was still a teenager when his elder brother and his father died. Nevertheless Rupert was an exceptional student, becoming fluent in several European languages and excelling in art and mathematics. By the time he was 18 he stood about 6ft 4in tall and had become a dashing young prince.
In the Thirty Years' War, aged 19, Rupert fought for the alliance of Protestants and France at the Battle of Vlotho (17 October 1638) during the invasion of Westphalia. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster The forces of the Imperial General Hatzfeld captured him, imprisoning him in Linz, Austria, where he studied military textbooks. Linz is the third largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich He was released on parole in 1641, on the condition that he never bear arms against the Holy Roman Emperor again. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states
In 1642, aged 23, King Charles appointed him to lead the Royalist cavalry during the English Civil War, and he largely deserves the credit for their early successes. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. His dashing reputation earned him the nickname of the "Mad Cavalier". Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651 He took a white standard breed poodle dog, named "Boye", into battle with him on several occasions. Throughout the Civil War the soldiers of Parliament feared this dog, claiming it had supernatural powers (see familiar). TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those In Early modern English Superstition, a familiar spirit, Imp, or familiar (from Middle English familiar, related to family This Poodle was Prince Rupert's constant companion until the dog's death at the Battle of Marston Moor (2 July 1644). The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2 1644 during the First English Civil War of 1642&ndash1646
Rupert became General of the Horse, and his reputation prospered after routing a Parliamentarian force at Powick Bridge (23 September 1642); however he overextended himself at the Battle of Edgehill (23 October 1642) and left the Royalist forces unsupported by cavalry at a critical time, which perhaps cost them the victory. Powick is a Worcestershire village two miles south of the city of Worcester and four miles north of Great Malvern, close to the River Teme. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first Pitched battle of the First English Civil War. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC -
After Edgehill Rupert asked Charles for a swift cavalry attack on London before the Earl of Essex's army could return. Robert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex ( January 11 1591 – 14 September 1646) was the son and heir of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl The King's senior counselors, however, urged him to advance slowly on the capital with the whole army. By the time they arrived, the city had organized defenses against them and the Royalists had perhaps lost their best chance of winning the war.
Rupert continued to impress militarily. In 1643 he captured Bristol and in 1644 led the relief of Newark, and York and its castle. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Newark-on-Trent (generally shortened to Newark) is a Market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. York Castle (also known as Clifford's Tower) is a fortification in the city of York, England. He commanded much of the royalist army at its defeat at Marston Moor. The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2 1644 during the First English Civil War of 1642&ndash1646 In November 1644 Rupert gained appointment as General of the Royalist army, which increased already marked tensions between him and a number of the king's counselors. In May 1645 Rupert captured Leicester but a reversal at the Battle of Naseby a month later would prove politically damaging. Leicester (ˈlɛstə is the largest city and Unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and is the traditional The Battle of Naseby was the key battle of the first English Civil War.
After Naseby, Rupert regarded the Royalist cause as lost, and urged Charles to conclude a peace with Parliament. Charles, ever the political ingenue, still believed he could win the war. The Ingénue (ˈænʒənuː is a Stock character in Literature, Film, and a Role type in the Theatre; generally a girl or a young Faced with an impossible situation, Rupert surrendered Bristol in September 1645; in response, Charles dismissed him from his service. After demanding a court-martial, which acquitted him, Rupert played no further part in the Royalist army command. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject After the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliament banished both him and his brother from England. The Siege of Oxford was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War.
For some time after this Rupert commanded the troops formed of English exiles in the French army, and received a wound at Marshal de Gassion's siege of La Bassée in 1647. Jean Count of Gassion (1609 Pau - 1647 Lens) was a redoutable Gascon military commander for France, prominent at the Battle of Rocroi La Bassée is a town and commune in the Nord département, in France. Then, following a degree of reconciliation with Charles, he obtained command of a Royalist fleet. A long and unprofitable naval campaign followed, which extended from Kinsale to Lisbon and from Toulon to Cape Verde. Kinsale (Cionn tSáile is a town in County Cork, Ireland. Located some 25 km south of Cork City on the coast near the Old Head of Kinsale Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Toulon ( Provençal Occitan: Tolon in classical norm or Touloun in Mistralian norm is a city in southern France and a large The Republic of Cape Verde ( Portuguese: Cabo Verde, 'kabu 'veɾdɨ is a Republic located on an Archipelago in the Macaronesia However, following a naval defeat by Admiral Robert Blake, Rupert took refuge in the West Indies. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting There he followed the life of a buccaneer, preying on English shipping. This article refers to the type of pirate For other uses see Buccaneer (disambiguation The buccaneers were Pirates who attacked England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It was during this time period that his beloved brother Maurice, who captained one of the ships in Rupert's small flotilla, was killed. But the prince again quarreled with the Royalist advisers, and spent six obscure years (1654 to 1660) in Germany and the Netherlands, vainly attempting (as also before and afterwards) to obtain his rightful apanage as a younger son from his brother Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine. An apanage or appanage is the grant of an estate titles offices or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign who under the system of Charles Louis (Karl I Ludwig Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 &ndash 28 August 1680 was the second son of Frederick V, the Winter King and his wife
Following the Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, Rupert returned to the service of England, accepting an annuity and becoming a member of the privy council. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a He never again fought on land, but, turning admiral like Blake and Monk, he played a brilliant part in the Second Anglo-Dutch War as actual supreme commander of the British fleet from June 1666, gaining a victory in the St James's Day Battle. George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March, 1665 until 31 July, 1667. The naval St James' Day Battle (also known as the St James' Day Fight, the Battle of the North Foreland and the Battle of Orfordness) took place on His efforts in the Third Anglo-Dutch War met with humiliating failure at the Battles of Schooneveld and the Battle of Texel. The Third Anglo-Dutch War or Third Dutch War ( Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog) was a military conflict between The Battles of Schooneveld were two Naval battles of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the coast of the Netherlands on June 7 and For the 1653 battle that partly took place near Texel, see the Battle of Scheveningen The naval Battle of Texel
At some point Rupert, a talented amateur artist, had learned of the printmaking process of mezzotint invented in 1642 by Ludwig von Siegen, a German Lieutenant-Colonel who was also an amateur artist. Mezzotint is a Printmaking process of the intaglio family technically a Drypoint method Ludwig von Siegen (1609 ? Utrecht &ndash c 1680 ? Wolfenbüttel, Germany was a German soldier and amateur Engraver, who invented the Whether the two ever met is a subject of scholarly controversy, but Siegen had worked as chamberlain, and probably part-tutor, to Rupert's young cousin William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, with whom Rupert discussed the technique in letters from 1654. Landgrave ( Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae
Rupert produced a few stylish prints in the technique, mostly copies of paintings, and introduced it to England after the Restoration. John Evelyn wrongly credited him as its inventor in 1662; apparently though Rupert invented, or perfected, the "rocker", a key tool in the process. John Evelyn ( 31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer gardener and diarist It was Wallerant Vaillant, Rupert's artistic assistant or tutor, who first popularized the process and exploited it commercially.
In 1670, Rupert became the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, after having sponsored an expedition of Radisson and des Groseilliers into Hudson Bay. Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636 &ndash 1710 was a French -born explorer and mapper whose exploration of 1668 led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company. Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618 &ndash 1696 was a French explorer and Fur trader in Canada. Rupert's HBC secretary was Sir James Hayes (Radisson named the Hayes River, Manitoba in his honour). The Hayes River is a river in Manitoba, Canada. It is 483 km (300 mile long has a mean discharge of 590 m³/s (772 yd³/s and its drainage basin is 108000 km² Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America The HBC was granted a trading monopoly in the whole Hudson Bay watershed area, an immense territory named Rupert's Land. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Rupert's Land, also sometimes called "Prince Rupert's Land" was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, that In 1869, control of this territory reverted to the British and Canadian governments.  After his retirement from the active military in around 1674, he engaged in scientific research. He is usually credited with the invention of a form of gunpowder and an alloy named "Prince's metal" in his honour. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Prince's metal or Prince Rupert's metal is a type of alpha- Brass containing 75% Copper and 25% Zinc. He is also credited with the invention of Prince Rupert's Drops, glass teardrops which explode when the tail is cracked. Prince Rupert's Drops (also known as Rupert's Balls, Dutch tears) are a Glass curiosity created by dripping hot molten Glass into cold He also erected a water-mill on Hackney Marshes for a revolutionary method of boring guns, however his secret died with him, and the enterprise failed. Hackney Marshes is an area of grassland on the western bank of the River Lee in the London Borough of Hackney.
In retirement, he continued to hold important governmental posts; from 1673, when he was 54, to 1679, he served as England's Lord High Admiral. The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. He did not marry but lived in the 1670s with a Drury Lane actress named Peg Hughes and had a daughter by her, named Ruperta. Drury Lane is a street in the Covent Garden area of London, running between Aldwych and High Holborn. Margaret Hughes ( May 29, 1630 &ndash February 6, 1685) is often credited as the first professional actress on the English stage Ruperta married Emanuel Scrope Howe, (1663-1709), brother of 1st Viscount Howe (1648-1713), and had five children, Sophia, William, Emanuel, James and Henrietta. Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
Prince Rupert died at his house in Spring Gardens, Westminster, on 19 November 1682, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church
Prince Rupert, British Columbia and the Rupert River in Quebec are named after him. Prince Rupert is a port city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The Rupert River is one of the largest rivers in Quebec, Canada.
|Prince Rupert of the Rhine||Father:|
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
Louis VI, Elector Palatine
Elisabeth of Hesse
Louise Juliana von Orange-Nassau
William the Silent
Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier
James I of England
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Mary I, Queen of Scots
Anne of Denmark
Frederick II of Denmark
Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Prince Rupert is the protagonist of Poul Anderson's alternate history/fantasy book A Midsummer Tempest, where the Prince, with the help of various Shakespearean characters who are actual persons in this timeline, eventually defeats Cromwell and wins the English Civil War. Frederick V (Friedrich V ( August 26 1596 – November 29 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23 and as Frederick I Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine ( March 5, 1574 &ndash September 19, 1610) only surviving son of Louis VI In the history of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis VI Elector Palatine ( Simmern, 4 July 1539 &ndash 22 October 1583 Elisabeth of Hesse ( 13 February 1539 &ndash 14 March 1582) was a German noblewoman Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau ( Delft, 31 March 1576 - Königsberg, 15 March 1644) was the eldest daughter of prince William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply Elisabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 &ndash 13 February 1662 James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Henry Stuart 1st Duke of Albany ( 7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567) commonly known as Lord Darnley, was a King Consort Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619 was Queen consort of James VI of Scots I of England and Ireland. Frederick II ( 1 July 1534 &ndash 4 April 1588) King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow ( 4 September 1557, Wismar &ndash 14 October 1631, Nykoping) was a German Poul William Anderson ( November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American Science fiction author who wrote during a Golden Alternate history or alternative history is a subgenre of Speculative fiction (or Science fiction) and Historical fiction Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting A Midsummer Tempest is an 1974 alternate history fantasy novel by Poul Anderson. William Shakespeare ( baptised The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
Historical re-enactors, dedicated to Prince Rupert, cavalry genius. Prince's metal or Prince Rupert's metal is a type of alpha- Brass containing 75% Copper and 25% Zinc. Ludwig von Siegen (1609 ? Utrecht &ndash c 1680 ? Wolfenbüttel, Germany was a German soldier and amateur Engraver, who invented the
The Duke of Hamilton
|Master of the Horse|
The Duke of Albemarle
King James II
|Lord High Admiral|
(First Lord: Sir Henry Capell)
The Viscount Mordaunt
|Constable of Windsor Castle|
The Earl of Arundel and Surrey
The Lord Lovelace
|Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire|
The Viscount Mordaunt
|Lord Lieutenant of Surrey|
|Peerage of England|
|New creation||Duke of Cumberland|
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. James Hamilton 1st Duke of Hamilton ( June 19, 1606 &ndash March 9, 1649) Scottish nobleman and Civil war General The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James John Mordaunt 1st Viscount Mordaunt ( 18 June 1626 – 5 June 1675) was an English royalist The Constables and Governors of Windsor Castle are in charge of Windsor Castle on behalf of the sovereign Henry Howard 7th Duke of Norfolk, KG, PC ( January 11 1655 &ndash April 2 1701) was a politician and soldier This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire. John Mordaunt 1st Viscount Mordaunt ( 18 June 1626 – 5 June 1675) was an English royalist This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Surrey. The Peerage of England comprises all Peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British royal family named after the county of Cumberland. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone