Prince Igor (Russian: Князь Игорь, Knyaz' Igor) is an opera by Alexander Borodin, written in four acts with a prologue. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Александр Порфирьевич Бородин Aleksandr Porfir'evič Borodin) ( &ndash) was a Russian Composer The composer adapted the libretto from the East Slavic epic The Lay of Igor's Host, which recounts the campaign of Russian prince Igor Svyatoslavich against the invading Polovtsian tribes in 1185. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and The Tale of Igor's Campaign ( Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ Slovo o plŭku Igorevě; Слово о полку Ігоревім Igor Svyatoslavich ( April 3, 1151 &ndash 1202 was the prince of Novgorod-Seversky from 1180 to 1202 Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a The opera was left unfinished upon the composer's death in 1887 and was edited and completed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov. Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov (Александр Константинович Глазунов Aleksandr Konstantinovič Glazunov; Glazounov Glasunow &ndash 21 March It was first performed in St.Petersburg, Russia, in 1890. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Year 1890 ( MDCCCXC) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Original Composition: 1869 - 1887
After briefly considering Lev Mey's The Tsar's Bride as a subject (later taken up in 1898 by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, his 9th opera), Borodin began looking for a new project for his first opera. Vladimir Vasilievich Stasov (Russian Владимир Васильевич Стасов January 14 1824 &ndash October 24 1906) son of Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov or Liadov (Анатолий Константинович Лядов ( May 11 (old style April 29) 1855 St Petersburg - Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov (Александр Константинович Глазунов Aleksandr Konstantinovič Glazunov; Glazounov Glasunow &ndash 21 March Lev Aleksandrovich Mey ( Лев Александрович Мей) ( 1822 - 1862) - is a Russian poet Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Tsar's Bride ( Царская невеста, Tsarskaya nevesta) is an Opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, the composer's Vladimir Stasov, critic and advisor to The Mighty Handful, suggested The Lay of Igor's Host, a 12th century epic prose poem, and sent Borodin a scenario for a 3 Act opera on April 30, 1869. Vladimir Vasilievich Stasov (Russian Владимир Васильевич Стасов January 14 1824 &ndash October 24 1906) son of The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Могучая кучка Moguchaya kuchka) refers to a circle of Composers who met in Saint Petersburg The Tale of Igor's Campaign ( Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ Slovo o plŭku Igorevě; Слово о полку Ігоревім Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year  Initially, Borodin found the proposition intriguing, but daunting:
"Your outline is so complete that everything seems clear to me and suits me perfectly. But will I manage to carry out my own task to the end? Bah! As they say here, 'He who is afraid of the wolf doesn't go into the woods!' So I shall give it a try. . . "—Aleksandr Borodin, reply to Stasov's proposal
After collecting material from literary sources, Borodin began composition in September of 1869 with initial versions of Yaroslavna's arioso and Konchakovna's Cavatina, and sketched the Polovtsian Dances and March of the Polovtsy. He soon began to have doubts and ceased composing. He expressed his misgivings in a letter to his wife: "There is too little drama here, and no movement. . . To me, opera without drama, in the strict sense, is unnatural. " This began a period of about four years in which he proceeded no further on Prince Igor, but began diverting materials for the opera into his other works, the Symphony No 2 in B minor (1869-76) and the collaborative opera-ballet Mlada (1872). Mlada ( Млада, the name of a main character was a project originally envisioned as a ballet to be composed by Alexander Serov and choreographed by Marius 
The Mlada project was soon aborted, and Borodin, like the other members of The Mighty Handful who were involved—César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov—thought about ways to recycle the music he contributed. César Antonovich Cui ( Цезарь Антонович Кюи, Tsezar' Antonovič Kjui) ( - March 13, 1918) was a Russian of French Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March Of the eight numbers he had composed for Act 4 of Mlada, those that eventually found their way into (or back into) Prince Igor included No. 1 (Prologue: The opening C major chorus), No. 2 (material for Yaroslavna's arioso and Igor's aria), No. 3 (Prologue: The eclipse), No. 4 (Act 3: The trio), and No. 8 (Act 4: The closing chorus). 
Borodin returned to Prince Igor in 1874, inspired by the success of his comrades Rimsky-Korsakov and Mussorgsky in the staging of their historical operas, The Maid of Pskov (1873) and Boris Godunov (1874). The Maid of Pskov ( Псковитянка, Pskovityanka) is an Opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Boris Godunov ( Борис Годунов, original Orthography Борисъ Годуновъ, Borís Godunóv) is an Opera by This period also marks the creation of two new characters, the deserters Skula and Yeroshka, who have much in common with the rogue monks Varlaam and Misail in Boris Godunov.
In his memoirs, Rimsky-Korsakov mentions an 1876 concert at which Borodin's "closing chorus" was performed, the first public performance of any music from Prince Igor identified by him:
". . . Borodin's closing chorus ["Glory to the beautiful Sun"]. . . , which, in the epilogue of the opera (subsequently done away with), extolled Igor's exploits, was shifted by the author himself to the prologue of the opera, of which it now forms a part. At present this chorus extolls Igor as he starts on his expedition against the Polovtsy. The episodes of the solar eclipse, of the parting from Yaroslavna, etc. , divide it into halves which fringe the entire prologue. In those days this whole middle part was non-existent, and the chorus formed one unbroken number of rather considerable dimensions. "—Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909
The idea of a choral epilogue in the original scenario was no doubt inspired by the example of A Life for the Tsar by Glinka, to whose memory Prince Igor is dedicated. A Life for the Tsar ( Жизнь за царя, Zhizn' za tsarya) as it is known in English although its original name was Ivan Susanin ( Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка ( –) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country
Borodin's primary occupation was chemistry, including research and teaching. However, he also spent much time in support of women's causes, much to the consternation of his fellow composers, who felt he should devote his time and talent to music.  In 1876, a frustrated Stasov gave up hope that Borodin would ever finish Prince Igor, and offered his scenario to Rimsky-Korsakov. Rimsky-Korsakov instead assisted Borodin in orchestrating important numbers in preparation for concert performance – for example, the Polovtsian Dances in 1879:
"There was no end of waiting for the orchestration of the Polovtsian Dances, and yet they had been announced and rehearsed by me with the chorus. It was high time to copy out the parts. In despair I heaped reproaches on Borodin. He, too, was none too happy. At last, giving up all hope, I offered to help him with the orchestration. Thereupon he came to my house in the evening, bringing with him the hardly touched score of the Polovtsian Dances; and the three of us — he, Anatoly Lyadov, and I — took it apart and began to score it in hot haste. To gain time, we wrote in pencil and not in ink. Thus we sat at work until late at night. The finished sheets of the score Borodin covered with liquid gelatine, to keep our pencil marks intact; and in order to have the sheets dry the sooner, he hung them out like washing on lines in my study. Thus the number was ready and passed on to the copyist. The orchestration of the closing chorus I did almost single-handed. . . "—Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909
Borodin worked on Prince Igor, off and on, for almost 18 years.
Posthumous Completion and Orchestration: 1887 - 1888
Borodin died suddenly in 1887, leaving Prince Igor incomplete. Rimsky-Korsakov and Stasov went to Borodin's home, collected his scores, and brought them to Rimsky-Korsakov's house.
"Glazunov and I together sorted all the manuscripts . . . In the first place there was the unfinished Prince Igor. Certain numbers of the opera, such as the first chorus, the dance of the Polovtsy, Yaroslavna's Lament, the recitative and song of Vladimir Galitsky, Konchak's aria, the arias of Konchakovna and Prince Vladimir Igorevich, as well as the closing chorus, had been finished and orchestrated by the composer. Much else existed in the form of finished piano sketches; all the rest was in fragmentary rough draft only, while a good deal simply did not exist. For Acts II and III (in the camp of the Polovtsy) there was no adequate libretto —no scenario, even — there were only scattered verses and musical sketches, or finished numbers that showed no connection between them. The synopsis of these acts I knew full well from talks and discussions with Borodin, although in his projects he had been changing a great deal, striking things out and putting them back again. The smallest bulk of composed music proved to be in Act III. Glazunov and I settled the matter as follows between us: he was to fill in all the gaps in Act III and write down from memory the Overture played so often by the composer, while I was to orchestrate, finish composing, and systematize all the rest that had been left unfinished and unorchestrated by Borodin. "—Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909
The often-repeated account that Glazunov reconstructed and orchestrated the overture from memory after hearing the composer play it at the piano is true only in part. The following statement by Glazunov himself clarifies the matter:
"The overture was composed by me roughly according to Borodin's plan. I took the themes from the corresponding numbers of the opera and was fortunate enough to find the canonic ending of the second subject among the composer's sketches. I slightly altered the fanfares for the overture . . . The bass progression in the middle I found noted down on a scrap of paper, and the combination of the two themes (Igor's aria and a phrase from the trio) was also discovered among the composer's papers. A few bars at the very end were composed by me. "—Aleksandr Glazunov, memoir, 1891, published in the Russkaya muzikalnaya gazeta, 1896
"During the season of 1888-9 the Directorate of Imperial Theatres began to lead us a fine dance with the production of Prince Igor, which had been finished, published, and forwarded to the proper authorities. We were led by the nose the following season as well, with constant postponements of production for some reason or other. " "On October 23, 1890, Prince Igor was produced at last, rehearsed fairly well by K. A. Kuchera, as Nápravník had declined the honor of conducting Borodin's opera. Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník ( Russian: Эдуард Францович Направник August 24 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - Both Glazunov and I were pleased with our orchestration and additions. The cuts later introduced by the Directorate in Act 3 of the opera did it considerable harm. The unscrupulousness of the Mariinsky Theatre subsequently went to the length of omitting Act 3 altogether. Taken all in all, the opera was a success and attracted ardent admirers, particularly among the younger generation. "—Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Chronicle of My Musical Life, 1909
The world premiere was given in St. Petersburg on November 4 (23 October O.S.), 1890 at the Mariinsky Theatre. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Year 1890 ( MDCCCXC) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in Set designers were Yanov, Andreyev, and Bocharov, while Lev Ivanov was balletmaster. See also Lev Ivanovich Ivanov (1834 &ndash 1901 was a Russian Ballet Dancer and Choreographer and later Second Balletmaster
Moscow premieres followed later. The first was given in 1892 by the Russian Opera Society, conducted by Iosif Pribik. The Bolshoy Theatre premiere was given in 1898 and was conducted by Ulrikh Avranek
Other notable premieres were given in Prague in 1899, and in Paris in 1909, with a Sergey Dyagilev production and featuring Fyodor Shalyapin as Galitsky. The Bolshoi Theatre (Большой театр Bol'shoy Teatr Great Theatre) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by famed architect Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev) also referred to as Serge, ( March 31, Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin ( Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин Fyodor Ivanovich Shalyapin; &ndash April 12, 1938) London saw the same production in 1914 conducted by Thomas Beecham, again with Shalyapin as Galitsky. Sir Thomas Beecham 2nd Baronet, CH (29 April 1879 &ndash 8 March 1961 was a British conductor and Impresario. In 1915 the New York premiere took place at the Metropolitan Opera, but staged in Italian and conducted by Giorgio Polacco. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera.
|Role||Voice||St. Petersburg premiere,|
4 November (23 October O.S.) 1890,
|Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow,|
(Conductor: - )
|Igor, Svyatoslavich, Prince of Novgorod-Seversky||baritone||Ivan Melnikov||Ivan Goncharov||Pavel Khokhlov|
|Yaroslavna, his wife by his second marriage||soprano||Olga Olgina||Yelena Tsvetkova||Mariya Deysha-Sionitskaya|
|Vladimir Igorevich, Igor's son from his first marriage||tenor||Mikhail Vasilyev||Mikhaylov||Leonid Sobinov|
|Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince of Galich, brother of Princess Yaroslavna||bass-baritone||Stepan Vlasov|
|Konchak, Polovtsian khan||bass||Mikhail Koryakin||Aleksandr Antonovsky||Stepan Trezvinsky|
|Gzak, Polovtsian khan||bass|
|Konchakovna, daughter of Khan Konchak||contralto||Mariya Slavina||Azerskaya|
|Ovlur, a Christian Polovtsian||tenor||Uspensky|
|Skula, a gudok-player||bass||Fyodor Stravinsky||Vasiliy Tyutyunnik|
|Yeroshka, a gudok-player||tenor||Grigoriy Ugrinovich||Konstantin Mikhaylov-Stoyan|
|A Polovtsian maiden||soprano||Dolina|
|Chorus, silent roles: Russian princes and princesses, boyars and boyarynas, elders, Russian warriors, maidens, people. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Novhorod-Siversky (Новгород-Сіверський Новгород-Северский Novgorod-Seversky is a historic city in the Chernihiv Oblast ( province For the Russian politician see Ivan Melnikov (politician. Ivan A For Asteroid 4449 Sobinov 1987 RX3 named after Leonid Sobinov Russian opera singer see Meanings of asteroid names (4001-4500 Leonid A gudok (also hudok; Russian and Ukrainian гудок is an ancient Eastern Slavic string Musical instrument, which was played Fyodor Ignatievich Stravinsky (Фёдор Игнатиевич Стравинский -) was a Russian Ukrainian bass Opera singer and This article refers to the aristocratic title of boyar. For the Boyar caste of India, see Boyar (caste. Polovtsian khans, Konchakovna's girlfriends, slaves (chagi) of Khan Konchak, Russian prisoners, Polovtsian sentries|
Time: The year 1185
Place: The city of Putivl (prologue, Acts 1 & 4); a Polovtsian camp (Acts 2 & 3)
Note: As discussed above, Borodin's final decision on the order of the first two acts is unclear. Putyvl or Putivl (Пути́вль Putyvl’, Пути́вль Putivl’) is a picturesque town in north-east Ukraine, in Sumy Oblast Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin ( Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин, the first name often spelled Constantin) ( The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in The traditional grouping presented here is that of the Rimsky-Korsakov-Glazunov edition. In many productions, Act 3 is omitted.
The cathedral square in Putivl
Prince Igor is about to set out on a campaign against the Polovtsy and their Khans who have previously attacked the Russian lands. Putyvl or Putivl (Пути́вль Putyvl’, Пути́вль Putivl’) is a picturesque town in north-east Ukraine, in Sumy Oblast Igor Svyatoslavich ( April 3, 1151 &ndash 1202 was the prince of Novgorod-Seversky from 1180 to 1202 Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a The people sing his praise and that of his son, the other leaders and the army (Chorus: "Glory to the beautiful Sun"). A solar eclipse takes place to general consternation. Two soldiers Skula and Yeroshka desert feeling sure that Vladimir Yaroslavich, Prince Galitsky, will offer them work more to their liking. Although Yaroslavna, Igor's wife, takes the eclipse for a bad omen, Igor insists that honour demands that he go to war. He leaves her to the care of her brother, Prince Galitsky, who tells of his gratitude to Igor for sheltering him after he was banished from his own home by his father and brothers. The people sing a great chorus of praise (Chorus: "Glory to the multitude of stars") as the host sets out on their campaign against the Polovtsy.
Scene 1: Vladimir Galitsky's court in Putivl
Galitsky's followers sing his praise. Skula and Yeroshka are now working as gudok-players. A gudok (also hudok; Russian and Ukrainian гудок is an ancient Eastern Slavic string Musical instrument, which was played They entertain the followers and all sing of how Galitsky and his men abducted a young woman and how she pleaded to be allowed to return to her father without being dishonoured. The prince arrives and sings of how, if he were Prince of Putivl, he would drink and feast all day while dispensing judgment and have the prettiest maidens with him all night (Galitsky's Song). The treasury would be spent on himself and his men while his sister would be praying in a monastery. A group of young women beg the prince to restore their abducted friend. He threatens them and drives them away, saying how she now lives in luxury in his quarters and does not have to work. The prince returns to his rooms having sent for wine for his followers. The gudok players and the prince's followers mock the women. They wonder what might happen if Yaroslavna hears of what happens, but then realise she would be helpless with all her men gone to war. They sing of how they are all drunkards and are supported by Galitsky. The men decide to go to the town square to declare Galitsky the Prince of Putivl, leaving just the two drunk musicians behind.
Scene 2: A room in Yaroslavna's palace
Yaraslavna is alone worrying about why she has not heard from Igor and his companions (Yaroslavna's Arioso). She sings of her tearful nights and nightmares and reminisces about when she was happy with Igor by her side. The nurse brings in the young women who tell Yaroslavna of their abducted friend. They are reluctant at first to reveal the culprit but eventually name Galitsky and talk of how he and his drunken followers cause trouble around Putivl. Galitsky enters and the women run away. Yaroslavna questions him as to the truth of their story and he mocks her saying she should treat him as a guest in her house. She threatens him with what Igor will do on his return, but Galitsky replies that he can seize the throne whenever he wants. Yaroslavna accuses him of repeating the betrayal that he carried out against their father, but he replies that he was only joking and asks if she has a lover now her husband is away. She threatens him with sending him back to their father. He replies that he will return the girl but will take another later and leaves. The council of boyars arrive to inform Yaroslavna that the Polovtsy under Khan Gzak are about to attack Putivl. Igor's army has been utterly destroyed and he has been wounded and captured with his son and brother. After a moment of faintness, Yaroslavna orders messengers sent to the city's allies, but the Boyars report that the roads are cut, some towns are in revolt and their princes will be captured. The Boyars say that they will organise the defence but Galitsky returns with his followers to demand that a new Prince be chosen. His retinue say it should be him as he is Yaroslavna's brother and Igor's brother-in-law. The boyars refuse. The argument is interrupted by the sight of flames and the sound of crying women. Some of the boyars flee; some join the battle, others guard the Princess. They call the attack God's judgment.
Evening in the Polovtsian Camp
Polovtsian maidens sing comparing love to a flower that droops in the heat of the day and is revived ay night. They dance together (Dance of the Polovtsian Maidens). Konchakovna joins in the singing hoping that her own lover will join here soon (Konchakovna's Cavatina). The Russian prisoners arrive from their day's work and express their gratitide when fed. Their guards retire for the night leaving just Ovlur, a Christian, in charge. by Konchakovna and the maidens. Vladimir, son of Igor, sings of his hope that his love will soon join him now that the day is fading (Vladimir's Cavatina). His love is Konchakovna. She comes and the two sing of their love and their desire to marry (Love Duet). While her father will consent to the marriage, they know that his will not. They part when they hear Igor coming. He sings of his disgrace and torment at being captured with his followers dead (Prince Igor's Aria). Only his wife, he feels will be loyal. He hopes for the chance to regain his honour. Ovlur urges Ivan to escape and the prince agrees to think about it. Khan Konchak asks him if all is well (Konchak's Aria) and he replies that the falcon cannot live in captivity. Konchak says that as Igor did not ask for mercy he is not a prisoner but an honoured guest equal to a Khan. Igor reminds him that he too knows what it is to be a captive. Konchak offers Igor freedom if he will promise not to wage war on him again, but he refuses saying he cannot lie. Konchak regrets that they were not born to be allies. They would then have captured all of Russia. He summons the Polovtsian slaves to entertain Ivan and himself and offers Igor his choice of them. As the slaves dance the Polovtsy sing of Konchak's glory(Polovtsian Dances).
The Polovtsian camp
The Polovtsian army returns in triumph singing the praise of Khan Gzak (Polovtsian March). Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin ( Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин, the first name often spelled Constantin) ( The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in Konchak sings of the sack of Putivl and other victories and confidently predicts that they will soon capture all of Russia. Igor and his son Vladimir have their worst fears confirmed by the new captives. Vladimir and the other prisoners urge Igor to escape, but he is at first reluctant, singing of his shame and saying that it is the duty of the other Russian princes to save the homeland (Igor's Monologue, Mariinsky edition only). Ovlur now arrives to say thay he has prepared horses for Igor and Vladimir and Igor now agrees to escape. The distressed Konchakovna comes, challenging Vladimir to show his love by either taking her with him or by staying. Igor urges his son to come, but Vladimir feels unable to leave Konchakovna who threatens to wake the camp. Eventually Igor flees alone and Konchakovna sounds the alarm. She and her father refuse to let the Polovtsy kill Vladimir. Instead Konchak orders the death of the guards and marries Vladimir to his daughter. As for Igor, Konchak thinks more of him for his escape.
Dawn in Putivl
Yaroslavna weeps at her spearation from Igor and the defeat of his army, blaming the very elements themselves for helping the enemy (Yaroslavna's Lament). Peasant women blame not the wind but Khan Gzak for the devastation. As Yaroslavna looks around to acknowledge the destruction, she sees two riders in the distance who turn out to be Igor and Ovlur. The two lovers sing of their joy of being reunited and of the expectation that Ivan will lead the Russians to victory against the Khan. Unaware of the Igor's return, Skula and Yeroshka, the drunken gudok players, sing a song that mocks him. Then they notice him in the distance. After a moment of panic about what will happen to them, Skula says that they should rely on their cuning and decides on a plan that will save them. They ring the church bells to summon a crowd. Although people at first treat them with suspicion, the gudok players manage to convince the crowd that Igor has returned and the boyars that they are loyal followers of the true prince and not Galitsky. All joyously celebrate Igor's return.
Both the Overture to Prince Igor and the "Polovtsian Dances" (from Act II) are well-known concert standards. The Polovetsian Dances (or Polovtsian Dances) are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodin 's opera Prince Igor. Together with the "Polovtsian March", they form the so-called "suite" from the opera. In Music, a suite is an ordered set of Instrumental or Orchestral pieces normally performed in a Concert
Prince Igor is a staple of Russian Opera, but has not travelled well abroad. Mitrofan Petrovich Belyayev (Митрофа́н Петро́вич Беля́ев old style 10 Mitrofan Petrovich Belyayev (Митрофа́н Петро́вич Беля́ев old style 10 One obvious reason is the Russian language, although translation into Italian was once a solution.
Another explanation for the failure to gain acceptance is its lack of unity resulting from its unfinished state. Despite the skill and efforts of editors Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov, the opera is still episodic and dramatically static, a problem of which the composer himself was aware when he embarked on composition (see quote above in "Composition History"). This is largely a consequence of Borodin's failure to complete a libretto before beginning composition of the music—the same problem that plagued his comrade Mussorgsky in the composition of Khovanshchina. For the 1960 Soviet film based on this opera see Khovanshchina (film. Both composers wrote their librettos piece by piece while composing the music, both lost sight of the overall narrative thread of their operas, and both wound up with pages and pages of music that needed to be sacrificed to assemble a cohesive whole. Also, both died before finishing their operas, leaving the task of completion, editing, and orchestration to Rimsky-Korsakov.
It is a pity that Prince Igor is not performed more often, as it has a colorful setting, marvellous moments of drama and characterization, and music of sumptuous beauty. It does not, however, have a well-constructed or tightly integrated plot. "The chief appeal of Prince Igor lies in the quality of its individual numbers rather than its whole shape or ability to involve an audience in the narrative. "
One of the main considerations when performing Prince Igor is the question of whether to include Act 3, much of which was composed by Glazunov. The practice of omitting it was mentioned as early as 1909 in Rimsky-Korsakov's memoirs.  Many productions leave Act 3 out because it "fails to carry conviction both musically and dramatically. " On the other hand, maintaining the act has certain benefits. It contains some fine pages (e. g. , the "Polovetsian March"), provides an important link in the narrative (Igor's escape, Vladimir's fate), and is the origin of some of the memorable themes first heard in the overture (the trio, brass fanfares). Fortunately, the option of omitting the fine overture, also known to have been composed by Glazunov, is seldom if ever considered.
Recently, the question of the best sequence of scenes in which to perform the opera has gained some prominence. Borodin did not complete a libretto before composing the music to Prince Igor. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and  The opera has traditionally been performed in the edition made by Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov. It will be obvious that the positions to which they assigned the Prologue, Act 3, and Act 4 cannot be changed if the story is to make sense. However, because the events of Act 1 and Act 2 overlap and are independent of one another, Act 2 may just as well precede Act 1 without any loss of coherence. Soviet musicologists Pavel Lamm and Arnold Sokhor reported the existence of a written plan (now lost), in Borodin's hand, that specified this sequence of scenes:
Sokhor assessed the plan as not written later than 1883.  The 1993 recording of Prince Igor by Valery Gergiev with the Kirov Opera features a new edition of the score with additions commissioned from composer Yuri Faliek for a production at the Mariinsky Theatre, adopting this hypothetical original sequence. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Valery Abisalovich Gergiev (Гергиты Абисалы фырт Валери The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in The authors of the notes to the recording assert that this order better balances the musical structure of the score by alternating the acts in the Russian and Polovtsian settings with their distinctive musical atmospheres.
Despite this justification, there is good reason for maintaining the traditional sequence. Act 2 contains most of the numbers for which the work is known and beloved today, with Igor's brooding and impassioned aria ("Oh give me freedom") at the center, flanked by Vladimir's cavatina and Konchak's aria, not to mention the rousing conclusion provided by the Polovtsian Dances. The Polovetsian Dances (or Polovtsian Dances) are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodin 's opera Prince Igor. Relocating its wealth of arias and dances from the center of the work to the beginning concentrates too much of the opera's rich melodic invention towards the front of the work.
The "Mariinsky edition" makes other important changes and additions to the score. Although much of the material composed or orchestrated by Glazunov and Rimsky-Korsakov is retained, there are additions culled from the unpublished vocal score by Pavel Lamm, orchestrated and linked by Faliek. Vocal score or Piano-vocal score is a Music score of an Opera, or a Vocal or Choral composition with orchestra (like Oratorio The changes include:
In the West, the opera has often been given in languages other than Russian. For example, the 1960 recording under Lovro von Matacic is sung in German, the 1964 recording under Armando La Rosa Parodi is in Italian and the 1982 David Lloyd-Jones recording is in English. Lovro von Matačić ( February 14, 1899, Sušak, Croatia &ndash January 4, 1985, Belgrade, Yugoslavia David Lloyd-Jones (born 19 November 1934) is a British conductor. On the other hand, the 1990 Bernard Haitink and the 1962 Oscar Danon recordings are Western performances sung in Russian. Bernard Johan Herman Haitink CH KBE (born March 4, 1929) is a Dutch conductor and Violinist Early 
|2a||Act 1, Scene 1||Chorus||1875||1875||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|2b||Act 1, Scene 1||Recitative and Song: Galitsky||1879||1879||Borodin||Borodin|
|2c||Act 1, Scene 1||Recitative: Galitsky||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|2d||Act 1, Scene 1||Maiden's Chorus and Scena||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|2e||Act 1, Scene 1||Scena: Skula, Yeroshka||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|2f||Act 1, Scene 1||Song in Honor of Prince Galitsky: Skula, Yeroshka||1878||1878||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|2g||Act 1, Scene 1||Chorus||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|3||Act 1, Scene 2||Arioso: Yaroslavna||1869||1875||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|4||Act 1, Scene 2||Scena: Yaroslavna, Nurse, Chorus||1879||1879||Borodin||Borodin|
|5||Act 1, Scene 2||Scena: Yaroslavna, Galitsky||1879||1879||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|6||Act 1, Scene 2||Finale: Yaroslavna, Galitsky, Chorus||1879||1880||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|7||Act 2||Chorus of Polovtsian Maidens||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|8||Act 2||Dance of Polovtsian Maidens||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|9||Act 2||Cavatina: Konchakovna||1869||1869||Borodin||Borodin|
|10||Act 2||Scena: Konchakovna, Chorus||1887||1887||Rimsky-Korsakov / Glazunov||Rimsky-Korsakov / Glazunov|
|11||Act 2||Recitative and Cavatina: Vladimir||1877||1878||Borodin||Borodin|
|12||Act 2||Duet: Vladimir, Konchakovna||1877||1878||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|13||Act 2||Aria: Igor||1881||1881||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|14||Act 2||Scena: Igor, Ovlur||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|15||Act 2||Aria: Konchak||1874||1875||Borodin||Borodin|
|16||Act 2||Recitative: Igor, Konchak||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|17||Act 2||Polovtsian Dances with Chorus||1869||1875||Borodin||Borodin / Rimsky-Korsakov / Lyadov|
|18||Act 3||Polovtsian March||1869||1875||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|19||Act 3||Song: Konchak||n. a.||n. a.||Glazunov||Glazunov|
|20||Act 3||Recitative and Scena||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Glazunov|
|22||Act 3||Recitative: Ovlur, Igor||1888||1888||Glazunov||Glazunov|
|23||Act 3||Trio: Igor, Vladimir, Konchakovna||n. a.||1888||Borodin / Glazunov||Glazunov|
|24||Act 3||Finale: Konchakovna, Konchak, Chorus||1884||n. a.||Borodin / Glazunov||Glazunov|
|25||Act 4||Lament: Yaroslavna||1875||1875||Borodin||Borodin|
|26||Act 4||Peasant's Chorus||1879||1879||Borodin||Borodin|
|27||Act 4||Recitative and Duet: Yaroslavna, Igor||1876||1876||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|28||Act 4||Gudok-Players' Song, Scena and Chorus||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Rimsky-Korsakov|
|29||Act 4||Finale: Skula, Yeroshka, Chorus||n. a.||n. a.||Borodin||Borodin|
This is a list of studio recordings. A comprehensive list of all recordings of Prince Igor may be found here.