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A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of Government Public administration, sometimes led by a minister, but usually a senior A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Cohabitation in government occurs in Semi-presidential systems such as France 's system when the President is from a different Political party The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United This is a list of current heads of state and government, showing heads of state and heads of government where different mainly in Parliamentary systems This is a list of the offices of Heads of state, Heads of government, cabinet, and Legislature, of sovereign states. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which The position is usually held by, but need not always be held by, a politician. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person In many systems the Prime Minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the Government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairperson of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential system of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the President. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries.
In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (the King, Queen, President, or Governor-General), although officially the head of the executive branch, in fact holds a ceremonial position. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The Prime Minister is often, but not always, a member of parliament and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the Royal Prerogative) which are constitutionally vested in the Crown and can be exercised without the approval of parliament. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy
As well as being Head of Government, a prime minister may have other roles or titles — the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not In British government, the Minister for the Civil Service is the head of the Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the  Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts — for example during the Second World War Winston Churchill was also Minister of Defence (although there was then no Ministry of Defence). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 A defence minister (or defense minister) is a Cabinet position which regulates the Armed forces in some sovereign nations The Ministry of Defence ( MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters Former Australian prime minister Gough Whitlam was famous for forming his cabinet entirely of himself and his deputy as soon as the overall result was beyond doubt at the 1972 federal election (see First Whitlam Ministry). Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st Issues The 1972 Election was largely focused on domestic policy issues and the role of the federal government in resolving these issues The First Whitlam Ministry often known as the "two-man Ministry" or the " Duumvirate " was the forty-eighth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and
Historically, prime ministers are often referred to as Primus inter pares, a Latin term translated as first among equals, and which reflects the original concept of a prime minister as merely the first minister or most senior minister to the monarch, not the dominant or presiding minister, a role later assumed by many prime ministers in many states. Primus inter pares ( Latin) or First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The position of "Grand Pensionary" (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris), in the 16th and 18th century United Provinces, was in many ways similar to that of a modern Prime Minister. The Grand Pensionary (Dutch raad(spensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
While the modern office of Prime Minister was developed in the UK the first actual usage of the word Prime Minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu, when, in 1624 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent The term Prime Minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Since medieval times Kings of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I; Clarendon under Charles II and Godolphin under Queen Anne. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl of Essex (c 1485 &ndash 28 July 1540) was an English statesman who served as King Henry VIII 's chief minister Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Lord Burghley redirects here For other holders of the title see Baron Burghley William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 &ndash Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon ( 18 February 1609 &ndash 9 December 1674) was an English Historian and statesman and Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Sidney Godolphin first Earl of Godolphin (c 1645 &ndash September 15, 1712) was a leading British politician of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the Minister," the "first Minister" and finally the "Prime Minister. "
The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the Monarch. Although managing the Parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a Cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the Monarch, and the Monarch usually presided over its meetings. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. When the Monarch grew tired of a first minister, they could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power. In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was Robert Harley 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer ( 5 December 1661 &ndash 21 May 1724) was an English statesman of the Stuart Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke ( 16 September 1678 &ndash 12 December 1751) was an English politician and philosopher
In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War and the Protectorate, Parliament had strengthened its position and it emerged even more powerful after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. In British history, the Protectorate was the period 1653&ndash1659 during which the Commonwealth of England Scotland and Ireland was governed by a Lord The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The King could not establish any law or impose any tax without its permission. Thus it has been said that the House of Commons became a part of the government and it has been only a further step of this development that a new kind of prime minister should emerge. This turning point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I. George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of nor interest in the details of English government. Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen In these circumstances it was inevitable that the King's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. A De facto head of state is a term used to an office-holder who fulfils some many or all of the functions of a Head of state. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole, who held office for twenty-one years. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a Walpole chaired Cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords Under Walpole, the doctrine of Cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than him have private dealings with the King, and also that when the Cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public or resign. As a later Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, said: "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing. William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 &ndash 24 November 1848 was a British Whig Statesman who "
Walpole always denied that he was "Prime Minister," and throughout the 18th century parliamentarians and legal scholars continued to deny that any such position was known to the Constitution. The title was first referred to on Government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence until 1905. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of items George II and George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the Monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ( George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places The long tenure of the wartime Prime Minister Pitt the Younger (1783-1801), combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post. William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 &ndash 23 January 1806 was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the British Empire saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. In some places alternative titles such as "Premier," "Chief Minister," "First Minister of State", "President of the Council" or "Chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same. By the late 20th century the majority of the world's countries had a "Prime Minister" or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy or a ceremonial president. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The main exceptions to this system have been the United States and the presidential republics in Latin America, modelled on the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority.
The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarchies (such as Belgium, Denmark, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Malaysia, Spain, Sweden, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom), and in republics in which the head of state is an elected (such as Finland, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Portugal, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Turkey) or unelected official (such as Singapore before 1993) with varying degrees of real power. This is a list of Prime Ministers of Belgium, known regionally as Premier Ministre in French, Eerste Minister in Dutch, The Prime Minister of Denmark (statsminister is the Head of government in Danish politics. The is the usual English-language term used for the Head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands This is a list of viceroys ( visekonge) governors ( rigsstatholder) first ministers ( førstestatsråd) and Prime ministers ( statsminister) of The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia. The Prime Minister of Spain, (officially the President of the Government, Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno) is the Spanish Head of government The Prime Minister (statsminister literally "Minister of the State" is the Head of government in Sweden. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealand's Head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Singapore This contrasts with the presidential system, in which the President (or equivalent) is both the head of state and the head of the government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. See also "First Minister" , "Premier", "Chief Minister", "Chancellor" , "Taoiseach" and "Secretary of state": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister. The term First Minister refers to the leader of a Cabinet. Canada In Canada, "First Ministers" is a collective term that refers to all Canadian A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries A Chief Minister is the elected Head of government of a sub-national (e Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. "
In some presidential or semi-presidential systems, such as those of France, Russia or South Korea, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the President but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the President and managing the civil service. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of France The politics of Russia ( the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential Republic. Politics of the Republic of Korea takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President (The premier of the Republic of China is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature. The Politics of the Republic of China (ROC takes place in a framework of a Semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament can force the resignation of the government. ) In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as (political) cohabitation. Cohabitation in government occurs in Semi-presidential systems such as France 's system when the President is from a different Political party
In parliamentary systems a prime minister can enter into office by several means.
Note that though most prime ministers are 'appointed', they are often inaccurately described as 'elected'.
The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution in individuals.
Australia's Constitution makes no mention of a Prime minister of Australia. The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General.
Canada's Constitution, being a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution (a constitution that is partly formally codified and partly uncodified) originally did not make any reference whatsoever to a Prime Minister, with his specific duties and method of appointment instead dictated by "convention. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions " In the Constitution Act, 1982, passing reference to a "Prime Minister of Canada" is added, though only regarding the composition of conferences of federal and provincial first ministers. The Constitution Act 1982 (Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (UK is a part of the Constitution of Canada. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus
Germany's Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal Chancellor. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland is the Constitution of Germany. The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler
India's Constitution of India (1950) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. The Prime Minister of India is head of the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive
Japan's Constitution of Japan (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister. The has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947 The constitution provides for a Parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights The is the usual English-language term used for the Head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime
Malta's Constitution (1964) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malta. The current Constitution of Malta was adopted as a legal order on September 21, 1964, and has been amended twenty-four times most recently in 2007 with the entrenchment The Prime Minister of Malta is the Head of Government of Malta.
The Republic of Ireland's constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann (1937), provides for the office of Taoiseach in detail, listing powers, functions and duties. The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann came into force on 29 December 1937 after having been passed by a national plebiscite the previous July The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the
The United Kingdom's Constitution, being uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a Prime Minister. The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist", indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury (office in commission), or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer (the last being Balfour in 1905). The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial
Contrary to popular and journalistic belief, most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments. A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office For example, Margaret Thatcher was only ever appointed prime minister on one occasion, in 1979. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons after a general election to reshuffle her cabinet. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election In the Parliamentary system a cabinet shuffle or reshuffle is an informal term for an event that occurs when a Head of government rotates or changes the Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office on the parliament. Hence the Irish Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the (Some constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest a taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the ) The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.
In parliamentary systems, governments are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament (though a small minority of parliaments, by giving a right to block Supply to upper houses, in effect make the cabinet responsible to both houses, though in reality upper houses, even when they have the power, rarely exercise it). For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A lower house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Upper house. Loss of supply occurs where a government in a Parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer An upper house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Lower house. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose Supply, most constitutional systems require either:
a) a letter of resignation or
b) a request of a parliamentary dissolution. A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a Parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or A motion of no confidence (also vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or confidence motion) is a Parliamentary motion A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity
The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the electorate. Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government particularly in a Westminster -based Parliamentary system However in many jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution. Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. (In the United Kingdom, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council (the then name for the Irish cabinet). The Constitution of the Irish Free State was the founding legal document of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch.
A number of different terms are used to describe prime ministers. In Germany and Austria the prime minister is actually titled Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) while the Irish prime minister is called An Taoiseach (which is rendered into English as Prime Minister). Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno) and the British First Lord of the Treasury. President of the Government is a term used in official statements to describe several Prime Ministers Croatia, Prime Minister of Croatia The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not Other common forms include President of the Council of Ministers (for example in Italy, Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), President of the Executive Council, or Minister-President. The official Title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the Head of government of the states of Italy and Poland, and formerly Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A minister-president (Ministerpräsident is the Head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments who presides over the council of ministers In the Scandinavian countries is the prime minister called statsminister in the native languages (i. e. state minister). In federations, the head of government of subnational entities like states or provinces is most commonly known as the Premier, Chief Minister or Minister-president. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" Examples of administrative divisions English terms In many of the following terms corresponding to British cultural influence areas of relatively low mean population A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries A Chief Minister is the elected Head of government of a sub-national (e A minister-president (Ministerpräsident is the Head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments who presides over the council of ministers
In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of Excellency like a president. Excellency is a Honorific style given to certain members of an organization or state In some Commonwealth countries Prime Ministers and former Prime Ministers are styled Right Honourable, for example, the Right Honourable Sir John Major. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as The Rt Hon) is an Honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In the UK where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the Scottish, Northern Ireland and Welsh Governments are styled First Minister. The term First Minister refers to the leader of a Cabinet. Canada In Canada, "First Ministers" is a collective term that refers to all Canadian
In Pakistan, the prime minister is referred to as "Wazir-e-Azam", meaning "Grand Vizier".
Irish political scientist Professor Brian Farrell coined the term "Chairman or Chief" to describe the two alternative concepts of prime ministerial leadership, in his book of the same name about the office of Taoiseach. This is a list of notable political scientists See the List of political theorists for those who study politics without using the Scientific method. Brian Farrell (born Bernard Brendan Farrell, January 9, 1929) is an Irish author journalist academic & broadcaster The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the  The term, widely used in political science worldwide, draws a distinction between a head of government who is merely a facilitator and co-ordinator of a cabinet (the "chairman"), and those who lead it forcefully from the front, setting its policy agenda and requiring all ministers to follow the leader's policies (the "chief"). Examples of "chairmen" have included Bertie Ahern (Ireland), John Major (United Kingdom) and Couve de Murville (France), while examples of chiefs included Indira Gandhi and Atal Bihari Vajpayee ,Seán Lemass (Ireland), Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair (United Kingdom), and Jacques Chirac when prime minister under cohabitation. Patrick Bartholomew "Bertie" Ahern ( Irish: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachthairn, born 12 September 1951 is an Irish politician who served Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Maurice Couve de Murville (24 January 1907 - 24 December 1999 was a French diplomat and Politician who was Minister of Foreign Affairs Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ( Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī) ( Née: Nehru (19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984 was the Prime Minister of the Atal Bihari Vajpayee (अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpeiː (born December 25 1924 The eleventh Prime Minister of India. Seán Francis Lemass (15 July 1899 &ndash 11 May 1971 was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and third Taoiseach of Ireland from 1959 until 1966 Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to
Not every prime minister fits exclusively into either category: Éamon de Valera, though a strong personality, was only interested in controlling some of his government's agenda (usually constitutional matters and Anglo-Irish affairs), and allowed large areas to decided by his colleagues. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Though superficially a chief (and called "the Chief" [the literal translation of Taoiseach] by his colleagues) historians see him as more of a chairman, particularly in later governments. Winston Churchill too, though superficially a "chief", was more chairmanlike in later governments and in those areas in which he had little personal interest. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874
As well as describing office holders, individual offices could be described as belonging to one or other category. Among the more dominant prime ministerial offices in terms of powers, and so more chieflike, are the premierships of Ireland and Spain, where premiers can hire and fire at will. In contrast, offices such as President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Prime Minister of the Third French Republic, and the premierships of Belgium and The Netherlands are more chairmanlike in format. The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State ( Irish: Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the Head of government or prime The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Lijphart referred to the premiership of the Netherlands as "primus inter pares without due emphasis on primus". 
Wilfried Martens, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows:
The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists.
|Government||List starts||Table shows|
|Term given by|
years or dates?
|Angola||1975||-||dates||Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1981||-||years||Baldwin Spencer|
|Aruba||1986||-||dates||Nelson O. Oduber|
|Bahrain||1970||-||years||Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah|
|Bangladesh||1971||yes||dates||Fakhruddin Ahmed (interim)|
|Bhutan||1952||-||dates||Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2006||-||dates||Nikola Špirić|
|British Virgin islands||1967||yes||dates||Orlando Smith|
|Burkina Faso||1971||-||dates||Tertius Zongo|
|Cape Verde||1975||-||dates||José Maria Neves|
|Cayman islands||1992||yes||dates||Kurt Tibbetts|
|Central African Republic||1958||-||dates||Élie Doté|
|Chad||1978||-||dates||Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye|
|People's Republic of China||1949||-||dates||Wen Jiabao|
|Congo (Brazzaville)||1957||yes||dates||Isidore Mvouba|
|Congo (Kinshasa)||1960||yes||dates||Antoine Gizenga|
|Cook Islands||1965||yes||dates||Jim Marurai|
|Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)||1957||yes||dates||Guillaume Soro|
|Cyprus, North||1983||yes||dates||Ferdi Sabit Soyer|
|Czech Republic||1969||-||years||Mirek Topolánek|
|Denmark||1848||-||years||Anders Fogh Rasmussen|
|Djibouti||1977||-||dates||Dileita Mohamed Dileita|
|East Timor||2002||-||dates||Xanana Gusmão|
|Equatorial Guinea||1963||-||dates||Ricardo Mangue Obama Nfubea|
|Faroe islands||1946||-||years||Jóannes Eidesgaard|
|Fiji||1966||-||dates||Frank Bainimarama (interim)|
|Gabon||1957||yes||dates||Jean Eyeghe Ndong|
|The Gambia||1961||-||dates||(Post Abolished)|
|Guinea-Bissau||1973||-||dates||Martinho Ndafa Kabi|
|North Korea||1948||-||years||Kim Yong-il|
|South Korea||1948||-||years||Han Seung-soo|
|Kuwait||1962||-||dates||Sheikh Nasser Al-Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah|
|Malaysia||1957||yes||years||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|Isle of Man||1986||-||years||Tony Brown|
|Mauritania||1957||yes||dates||Zeine Ould Zeidane|
|Morocco||1955||yes||years||Abbas El Fassi|
|Myanmar (Burma)||1948||yes||dates||Thein Sein|
|Nepal||1953||-||dates||Girija Prasad Koirala|
|Netherlands (List)||1848||yes||dates||Jan Peter Balkenende|
|Netherlands Antilles||1954||yes||years||Emily de Jongh-Elhage|
|New Zealand||1856||yes||dates||Helen Clark|
|Norfolk island||1896||-||dates||Andre Nobbs|
|Pakistan||1947||-||dates||Yousaf Raza Gillani|
|Palestinian National Authority||2003||yes||dates||Salam Fayyad|
|Papua New Guinea||1975||yes||years||Sir Michael Somare|
|Peru||1975||yes||dates||Jorge del Castillo|
|Qatar||1972||-||dates||Sheikh Hamad ibn Jassim ibn Jabr Al Thani|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||1960||-||dates||Denzil Douglas|
|Saint Lucia||1960||-||dates||Stephenson King|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1956||-||dates||Ralph Gonsalves|
|Samoa||1875||yes||dates||Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi|
|São Tomé and Principe||1974||yes||dates||Tomé Vera Cruz|
|Senegal||1957||yes||dates||Cheikh Hadjibou Soumaré|
|Singapore||1965||-||dates||Lee Hsien Loong|
|Solomon islands||1949||yes||dates||Manasseh Sogavare|
|Somalia||1949||yes||dates||Nur Hassan Hussein|
|South Africa||1910||-||dates||(Post Abolished)|
|Spain||1705||yes||years||José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero|
|Sri Lanka||1948||-||dates||Ratnasiri Wickremanayake|
|The Sudan||1952||yes||dates||(Post Abolished)|
|Syria||1920||-||dates||Muhammad Naji al-Otari|
|Taiwan (ROC)||1911||-||dates||Liu Chao-shiuan|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1956||-||dates||Patrick Manning|
|Turkey||1920||yes||dates||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||1976||yes||dates||Michael Misick|
|United Arab Emirates||1971||-||years||Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|United Kingdom||1721||yes||dates||Gordon Brown|
|Vatican||1644||n/a||years||Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone|
|Vietnam||1976||yes||dates||Nguyễn Tấn Dũng|
|Yemen||1990||yes||years||Ali Muhammad Mujawar|