|Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
Took office: 27 June 2007
|Style:||The Right Honourable|
|Appointed by:||Elizabeth II|
|First :||Sir Robert Walpole (generally regarded as the first incumbent)|
|Formation:||4 April 1721|
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The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as The Rt Hon) is an Honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a Constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is Head Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial Alistair Maclean Darling (born 28 November 1953 is a British Politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since 28 June 2007 The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the David Wright Miliband The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office Jacqueline Jill "Jacqui" Smith (born 3 November 1962 is a British Politician for the Labour Party. See also Lord Chancellor The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of the Parliament This article discusses types of Acts and the process of law-making in Parliament The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The Lord Speaker is the speaker of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Helene Valerie Hayman Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949 in Wolverhampton) is Lord Speaker of the House of Lords The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945 is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons Harriet Ruth Harman Prime Minister's Questions ( PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition, in the United Kingdom is led by the Leader of the Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition (sometimes known as the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons) in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966 is a British Politician and the current leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of Her Majesty's In British parliamentary practice the Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (usually known simply as 'The Shadow Cabinet' is a group of members from Her Majesty's Loyal The United Kingdom does not have a single unified Judicial system, but separate judicial systems serving England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in Northern Ireland: The civil, criminal and heraldic Courts of Scotland are responsible for the administration of Justice. The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of avowed respect for its subjects' Human rights. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping Political history Pre-Union politics See also Parliament of England The English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon " Regional Assembly " is the name which has been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies The Greater London Authority ( GLA) is the city-wide governing body for London, England. Current situation The largest party is the Scottish National Party, which campaigns for Scottish independence. The Scottish Government (SG ( Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba) is the executive arm of the government of Scotland. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral The emergence of a Welsh polity During the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century the notion of a distinctive Welsh polity gained credence The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG (Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. General demographics Population 1685267 The population of Northern Ireland has increased annually since 1978 The Northern Ireland Executive is the executive arm of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved Legislature for Northern Ireland The Northern Ireland Assembly ( Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann Semmlie) is the devolved For other meanings see Reserved powers disambiguation page In the United Kingdom reserved matters, also referred to as reserved The United Kingdom has five distinct types of Elections UK general elections elections to national/regional parliaments and assemblies elections to the European Parliament This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. Brief history and overview Prior to the mid-19th century Politics in the United Kingdom Results Overview For events leading up to the date of the election see article Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom general Leadership of the main parties David Cameron became Conservative leader in December 2005 replacing Michael Howard. The United Kingdom (UK is a key player in international politics with interests throughout the world The European Union is a unique entity possessing elements of Intergovernmentalism, Supranationalism and a Multi-party Parliamentary democracy Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located She or he acts as the head of Her Majesty's Government and like the Prime Ministers of other countries with similar political systems is (along with his or her Cabinet) the de facto wielder of executive powers in the British Government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, often summed-up under the label of "royal prerogative". This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy According to constitutional convention, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet (which he or she heads) are accountable for their actions to Parliament, of which (by convention) they are members. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories
Historically, the monarch's chief minister (if, as was not always the case, any one person could be singled out as such) might have held any of a number of offices: Lord Chancellor, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord High Steward, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Privy Seal, or Secretary of State among others. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the The position of Lord High Steward of England is the first of the Great Officers of State. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom ranking beneath the Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. With the emergence, in the 18th century, of government by a cabinet of these ministers, its head came in time to be called the "Prime Minister", often abbreviated to PM (sometimes also "Premier" or "First Minister"). To this day the Prime Minister always also holds one or more of the other ministerial positions (since 1905 it has always been that of First Lord of the Treasury). The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not Sir Robert Walpole is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister in the modern sense; although adoption of the phrase "Prime Minister" in any formal or official sense did not come until many years later (indeed, at Walpole's time it would have been seen as an insult). Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman is often considered the first to officially bear the label; see "The office" below. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, GCB (7 September 1836 &ndash 22 April 1908 was a British Liberal Statesman who served as Prime Minister
The Prime Minister is appointed by the Sovereign, who is bound by constitutional convention to choose the individual most likely to command the support of the House of Commons (normally, the leader of the party with a plurality in that body). Alternative meaning Constitutional convention (political meeting A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords Should the Prime Minister lose the confidence of the House of Commons (indicated, for example, by the passage of a no confidence motion), he or she is morally obliged by similar conventions either to resign (in which case the Sovereign can try to find another Prime Minister who has the House's confidence) or to request the monarch to call a general election. A motion of no confidence (also vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or confidence motion) is a Parliamentary motion A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election Since the premiership is in some small sense still a de facto position, the office's powers are mainly a matter of custom rather than law, deriving from the incumbent's ability to give the sovereign binding advice on the appointment of his Cabinet colleagues, as well as from certain uses of the royal prerogative which may be exercised directly by the Prime Minister, or by the Monarch on the Prime Minister's advice. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy Some commentators have pointed out that, in practice, the powers of the office are subject to very few checks, especially in an era when Parliament and the Cabinet are seen as unwilling to challenge dominant Prime Ministers as they are bound by a policy of collective cabinet responsibility.
The bulk of the power over parliament of the United Kingdom has historically been vested in the Sovereign, acting on the advice of bodies such as Parliament and the Privy Council. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. Over the years, the Cabinet evolved from the Privy Council, as the monarch began the practice of consulting a few confidential advisers rather than the Council at large. These bodies, however, bore little resemblance to modern Cabinets; they were often not led by a single figure such as a Prime Minister, they often failed to act in unison, and they were appointed and dismissed entirely at the whim of the monarch, with little parliamentary control. The history of the British Prime Ministers owes much more to speculation of historians, rather than to legal acts. The origin of the term prime minister and the question to whom the designation should first be applied have long been issues of scholarly and political debate.
The first mention of "Prime Minister" in an official government document occurred during the premiership of Benjamin Disraeli. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was The title has been used since then in documents, letters and conversation (and, in conversation at least, may have been used before then). In 1905 the title "Prime Minister" was noted in a royal warrant that placed the Prime Minister, mentioned as such, in the order of precedence in Britain immediately after the Archbishop of York. An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of items By this time legal recognition of the title seems to have occurred and it was later mentioned in the Chequers Estate Act 1917, and the Ministers of the Crown Act 1937. Chequers, or Chequers Court, is a Country house near Ellesborough, to the south east of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England
There are numerous categorical testimonies deep into the 19th century decrying the notion of a First or Prime Minister, credibly declaring the concept as alien to the Constitution, and the term actually emerges as a creature of historians, not lawyers or Parliament — indeed the contrary is best documented.
In 1741, it was declared in the Commons that "According to our Constitution we can have no sole and prime minister . . . every . . . officer has his own proper department; and no officer ought to meddle in the affairs belonging to the department of another. " In the same year the Lords agreed that "We are persuaded that a sole, or even a first minister, is an officer unknown to the law of Britain, inconsistent with the Constitution of the country and destructive of liberty in any Government whatsoever. " These were very much partisan assessments of the day, however.
On the other hand, in an interview by Lord Melville with William Pitt the Younger in 1803, the latter argued that "this person generally called the first minister" was an absolute necessity for a government to function, and expressed his belief that this person should be the minister in charge of the finances. Henry Dundas 1st Viscount Melville ( April 28, 1742 &ndash May 28 1811) was a Scottish lawyer and politician William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 &ndash 23 January 1806 was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In 1806, it was asserted in the Commons that "the Constitution abhors the idea of a prime minister", and as late as 1829 the Commons again asserted that "nothing could be more mischievous or unconstitutional than to recognise by act of parliament the existence of such an office. "
Beatson's Political Index of 1786 gives the list of Prime Ministers and Favourites from the Accession of Henry VIII to the Present Time. Since 1714, Beatson could only find one Sole Minister, and that was Sir Robert Walpole. At all subsequent periods he felt that he had to bracket two, three, or even four people as joint or co-equal ministers whose advice the King took, and who therefore controlled the governance of the country.
The first Act of Parliament to mention the position of Prime Minister was the Chequers Estate Act, which received the Royal Assent on December 20, 1917. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It dealt with the gift to the Crown of the Chequers Estate by Sir Arthur and Lady Lee, for use as a country home for future Prime Ministers.
Finally, the Ministers of the Crown Act, which received the Royal Assent on July 1, 1937, gave official recognition to the position of Prime Minister and made provision for paying "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister" — the former being the office that since the 18th century, has usually been held by the Prime Minister:
To give statutory recognition to the existence of the position of Prime Minister, and to the historic link between the Premiership and the office of First Lord of the Treasury, by providing in respect to that position and office a salary of…
The Act made a certain distinction between "position" (Prime Minister) and "office" (First Lord of the Treasury), emphasising the unique character of the position and recognising the existence of the Cabinet. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nevertheless, in spite of this recognition, the brass plate outside the Prime Minister's front door still bears the title of "First Lord of the Treasury. "
The lack of official recognition for the position of Prime Minister sometimes causes problems when trying to positively identify prime ministers in the British history. Thus, every list of British Prime Ministers may omit certain politicians, depending on the criteria selected by a researcher. For instance, unsuccessful attempts to form ministries, such as that of William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath in 1746, or the summons of the sovereign to ministers who refused to form a ministry are often ignored. William Pulteney 1st Earl of Bath, PC ( 22 March 1684 &ndash July 7, 1764) was an English Politician, dubbed
The origins of the modern term "Prime Minister" date back to the time after the Glorious Revolution (1688), when Parliament's power began to grow steadily at the expense of that of the monarch. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union It was under William III and his successor, Anne, that the Cabinet began to take its modern shape. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of Individuals such as Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin and Robert Harley were recognised as the leaders of their respective ministries, but they cannot be considered Prime Ministers in the modern sense, given that they exercised little control over their colleagues. Sidney Godolphin first Earl of Godolphin (c 1645 &ndash September 15, 1712) was a leading British politician of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth Robert Harley 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer ( 5 December 1661 &ndash 21 May 1724) was an English statesman of the Stuart Similarly, the Cabinets of Anne's successor, George I, were led by individuals such as Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, and Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, but these individuals were not truly Prime Ministers, as we now understand the office. George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend ( April 18, 1674 &ndash June 21, 1738) was an English statesman James Stanhope 1st Earl Stanhope, PC (c 1673 – February 5 1721) English and British statesman and soldier was born in Paris, the eldest Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland (c 1674&ndash 19 April 1722) was an English statesman
Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland, who were joint leaders of their Cabinet, were succeeded in 1721 by Sir Robert Walpole, who held the influential office of First Lord of the Treasury. Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a Previous holders of the post had often been important figures in government, but not to such a degree as Walpole. His influence grew even stronger because the King, George I, was not active in British politics, preferring to concentrate on his native Hanover. The Electorate of Hanover (or more formally the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg; Kurfürstentum Hannover Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg became the ninth Electorate Walpole is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister, not just because of his influence in Government, but because he could persuade (or force) his colleagues in the Cabinet to act in a harmonious and unified fashion, instead of intriguing against each other for more power. Walpole's office, First Lord of the Treasury, became strongly associated with the leadership of the Government; it became the position which the Prime Minister almost always held.
Though Walpole is considered the first "Prime Minister," these words were used as a term of reproach by his political opponents. His tenure was not as important in terms of constitutional development as some have imagined. His term and power were primarily based on the favour of the Crown, rather than the support of the House of Commons. His immediate successors were not nearly as powerful as he; the influence of the Crown continued to remain paramount. Still, the powers of the monarch were slowly diminished, and those of the Prime Minister gradually increased, over the course of the following years. Indeed, during the last years of George II's life, policy was chiefly directed by Ministers such as William Pitt the Elder. William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 &ndash 11 May 1778 was a British Whig Statesman who achieved his greatest fame as
The reign of George III, which began in 1760 upon the death of George II, is particularly notable for developments in the office of Prime Minister. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places Over the course of his reign, the King was sometimes forced by parliamentary pressure to appoint Prime Ministers and Ministers whom he did not personally favour. Control over the composition of the Cabinet had not, however, been completely lost by the King; in some cases, George was able to prevent the appointment of politicians whom he detested (for instance, Charles James Fox). The Right Honourable Charles James Fox ( 24 January 1749 &ndash 13 September 1806) was a prominent British Whig The influence of the monarch nevertheless continued to gradually wane; this trend became clearly noticeable during the reign of William IV, the last King to appoint a Prime Minister against the wishes of Parliament. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until William attempted to impose his personal will in 1834, when he dismissed William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne (whose Whig administration he disliked) and replaced him with a Conservative, Sir Robert Peel. William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 &ndash 24 November 1848 was a British Whig Statesman who Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April Peel, however, found it impossible to govern without the support of the House of Commons, which remained Whig-dominated despite a general election, and was forced to resign from his position. A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election Since Peel's administration, the Sovereign has had very little discretion in appointing Prime Ministers.
As the Royal influence over ministerial appointments disappeared, the power of the House of Commons rose, its political superiority over the House of Lords being established by the Parliament Act 1911. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949 that form part of the Constitution of the United During the early twentieth century, the convention that the Prime Minister should be responsible not to the Lords, but to the Commons, took root. The associated convention that the Prime Minister should actually be a member of the Lower House was developed. The last Prime Minister to lead his whole administration from the Lords was Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, from 1895 to 1902. "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury. The last Prime Minister to be a member of the Lords during his tenure was Alec Douglas-Home, 14th Earl of Home in 1963. Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963 was a British Lord Home was the last Prime Minister who was a hereditary peer, but, within days of attaining office, he disclaimed his peerage, abiding by the convention that the Prime Minister should sit in the House of Commons. A junior member of his Conservative Party who had already been selected as candidate in a by-election in a staunch Conservative seat stood aside, allowing Douglas-Home to contest the by-election, win and thus procure a seat in the lower House.
For the complete list of British Prime Ministers, see List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and
The official status of the Prime Minister remains ambiguous. A Prime Minister has virtually no statutory authority in his or her own right; all the actual business of running the country and spending the budget is (in theory) carried out by the holders of more explicitly-defined Cabinet offices, who are empowered to do so by various Acts of Parliament. The Prime Minister holds at least one of these more tangible ministerial offices himself—normally First Lord of the Treasury—and indeed receives his or her salary and public accommodation only by virtue of that office.
The title "Prime Minister", however, is not altogether a matter of convention, as in 1905 it was in a sense given official recognition when the "Prime Minister" was named in the order of precedence, outranked, among non-royals, only by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, The Moderator of the Church of Scotland and by the Lord Chancellor. The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is different in each of its four constituent member nations The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. Furthermore, the office is not entirely without statutory justification, since it has in fact been explicitly named a number of times in emergency wartime legislation. All sorts of official pronouncements are issued from Downing Street in the name of the "Prime Minister" without further circumlocution or explanation. Downing Street is the street in London, England, which for over two hundred years has contained the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers The first prime minister in this sense is therefore considered by some to have been Henry Campbell-Bannerman, although the term "Prime Minister" first appeared on official documents during the premiership of Benjamin Disraeli and was used informally before then. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, GCB (7 September 1836 &ndash 22 April 1908 was a British Liberal Statesman who served as Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was
By convention, as noted above, the Prime Minister also holds the office of First Lord of the Treasury. The only Prime Ministers who have not also served as First Lord for a significant part of their administrations are William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (who was Lord Privy Seal) and, for most of his three premierships, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (who was either Foreign Secretary or Lord Privy Seal except for the first few months of his second premiership when he was First Lord). William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 &ndash 11 May 1778 was a British Whig Statesman who achieved his greatest fame as "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the Since Lord Salisbury's retirement in 1902, every Prime Minister has also been First Lord of the Treasury. Some have held yet more offices; for example until 1942 nearly every Prime Minister was either Leader of the House of Commons or Leader of the House of Lords, depending upon which House they sat in. The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position most often Lord President Some have also held specific ministerial posts; for example Ramsay MacDonald was both First Lord and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs during his first premiership in 1924. James Ramsay MacDonald ( 12 October 1866 &ndash 9 November 1937) was a British politician and twice Prime Minister of the United The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the Since the 1960s every prime minister has also been Minister for the Civil Service. In British government, the Minister for the Civil Service is the head of the Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the
More recently, there is also the associated post of Deputy Prime Minister. The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is a senior member of the British Cabinet. An officer with such a title need not always exist; rather, the existence of the post is dependent on the form of Cabinet organisation preferred by the Prime Minister and his or her party. The Deputy Prime Minister does not automatically succeed if a vacancy in the premiership is suddenly created, nor does he or she generally assume any specific additional powers when the Prime Minister is outside the country. It may be necessary for the Deputy to stand in for the Prime Minister on occasion, for example by taking the dispatch box during Prime Minister's Question Time or by attending international conferences or bilateral meetings when the Prime Minister is unavailable. Prime Minister's Questions ( PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Since the resignation of John Prescott on 27 June 2007 there has been no Deputy Prime Minister. John Leslie Prescott (born 31 May 1938 is a British Labour Party Politician, former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
In the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the position which corresponds with that of Prime Minister is First Minister. Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The term First Minister refers to the leader of a Cabinet. Canada In Canada, "First Ministers" is a collective term that refers to all Canadian (See First Minister of Scotland, First Minister of Wales, and First Minister of Northern Ireland. The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba First Meinister o Scotland is the head of the devolved Scottish The First Minister ( Prif Weinidog) is the leader of the Welsh Assembly Government, Wales ' devolved administration which was established in 1999 The First Minister and the deputy First Minister (Irish Céad-Aire agus an Leas-Chéad-Aire, Ulster Scots: Heid Männystèr an tha Heid Männystèr depute )
The office of Prime Minister is governed not by codified laws, but by unwritten and, to some extent, fluid customs known as constitutional conventions, which have developed over years of British history. Alternative meaning Constitutional convention (political meeting A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is These conventions are for the most part founded on the underlying principle that the Prime Minister and his fellow Ministers must not lose the support of the democratically elected component of Parliament: the House of Commons. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Sovereign, as a constitutional monarch, always acts in accordance with such conventions, as do Prime Ministers themselves. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is
There is no term of office for a prime minister. The prime minister holds office "at Her Majesty's pleasure". As however to gain supply (control of exchequer funds) that requires that the government be answerable to, and acceptable to, the House of Commons, in reality the convention "at her Majesty's pleasure" means "at the pleasure of the House of Commons". Whenever the office of Prime Minister falls vacant, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing the new successor; the appointment is formalised at a ceremony known as Kissing Hands. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the Sovereign must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Commons: usually, the leader of the party which has a majority in that House. If no party has a majority (an unlikely occurrence, given the United Kingdom's First Past the Post electoral system), two or more groups may form a coalition, whose agreed leader is then appointed Prime Minister. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member The majority party becomes "Her Majesty's Government," and the next largest party becomes "Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition". The head of the largest Opposition party becomes the Leader of the Opposition and holds the title "Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition". The Leader of the Opposition (sometimes known as the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons) in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads By tradition, before a new Prime Minister can enter 10 Downing Street for the first time as its occupant, he or she is required to announce to the country and the world that he or she has kissed hands with the monarch of the day, and thus has become Prime Minister. This is usually done by saying words to the effect of:
Although it wasn't required, Tony Blair also said these words after he was re-elected in 2001 and 2005. Results |} Total votes cast 26368204 All parties with more than 500 votes shown Results Overview For events leading up to the date of the election see article Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom general
The period in office of a Prime Minister is not linked to the term of Members of the House of Commons. A prime minister once appointed continues in office as Her Majesty's head of government until either they resign, are dismissed (in reality something not likely to happen except in exceptional circumstances) or die. Resignation can be triggered off by the passage of a Motion of No Confidence or by rejecting a Motion of Confidence in the House of Commons. A motion of no confidence (also vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or confidence motion) is a Parliamentary motion A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a Parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or In those situations, a prime minister must either resign or seek a dissolution. A Loss of Supply also amounts to a loss of confidence. Loss of supply occurs where a government in a Parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer Such defeats for the Government, however, are rare; there have only been three defeats on confidence issues in the twentieth century: twice in 1924, and once in 1979. The first in 1924 took place immediately after an inconclusive election result and led to an immediate change of government, but in the other two cases a general election was called (and in both, the incumbent government was defeated).
Where a prime minister loses a general election modern constitution conventions dictate that that prime minister immediately submit his or her resignation. Previous precedent, until the early twentieth century, dictated that a prime minister wait until actually defeated on their legislative programme in a vote on the Speech from the Throne before resigning. This option has never entirely been discarded, and might be adopted again if, say, a General Election produced a Parliament with no overall majority. For instance, something of the kind occurred after the general election of February 1974, which did not produce an absolute majority for any party, Edward Heath opted not to resign immediately, instead negotiating with a third party (the Liberal Party) to form a coalition. Results |} Total votes 31321982 All parties are shown The seats won by the Ulster Unionists are compared with those won by Unionist MPs in the 1970 election Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Heath did eventually resign when the negotiations failed.
Contrary to myth a prime minister is not reappointed after every general election. They continue in office, but may use the opportunity to reshuffle the cabinet, with only those ministers moved or brought in going to the Palace for appointment. As a result, though prime minister during a number of parliaments in succession, Margaret Thatcher was only actually appointed prime minister once, in 1979.
Whatever the reason—the expiry of Parliament's five-year term, the choice of the Prime Minister, or a Government defeat in the House of Commons—the dissolution is followed by general elections. If his or her party has lost a majority in the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is compelled to resign (or request a dissolution, but the Sovereign is not compelled to accept such a request). The leader of the party or coalition now in the majority is then appointed Prime Minister by the Sovereign. The custom that requires the Prime Minister to resign immediately after an electoral loss is only of relatively recent invention. Previously, Prime Ministers had the option of meeting Parliament, and then inviting an effective vote of confidence.
As well as losing the confidence of the House of Commons, prime ministers may also in effect be forced to resign if they lose the confidence of their party. This was what led Margaret Thatcher to resign in 1990. The last Prime Minister to die in office was Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (in 1865). "Lord Palmerston" and "Henry Temple" redirect here The only Prime Minister to be assassinated was Spencer Perceval (in 1812). Spencer Perceval, KC (1 November 1762 &ndash 11 May 1812 was a British statesman and Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister's chief duty is to "form a Government"—that is to say, to create a Cabinet or Ministry which will sustain the support of the House of Commons—when commissioned by the Sovereign. He or she generally co-ordinates the policies and activities of the Cabinet and the various Government departments, acting as the "face" of Her Majesty's Government. The Sovereign exercises much of his or her royal prerogative on the Prime Minister's advice. (For the prerogative of dissolving Parliament, see "Term" above. )
The Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is the Sovereign. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces Under longstanding parliamentary custom and practice, however, the Prime Minister holds de facto decision-making power over the deployment and disposition of British forces, hence the Commander-in-Chief without portfolio. The Prime Minister can authorise, but not directly order, the use of Britain's nuclear weapons. The United Kingdom was the third state to test an independently developed Nuclear weapon in October 1952
The Prime Minister also has a wide range of powers of appointment. In most cases, the actual appointments are made by the Sovereign, but the selection and recommendation is made by the Prime Minister. Ministers, Privy Counsellors, Ambassadors and High Commissioners, senior civil servants, senior military officers, members of important committees and commissions, and several other officials are selected, and in some cases may be removed, by the Prime Minister. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis Furthermore, peerages, knighthoods, and other honours are bestowed by the Sovereign only on the advice of the Prime Minister. He also formally advises the Sovereign on the appointment of Archbishops and Bishops of the Church of England, but his discretion is limited by the existence of the Crown Nominations Commission. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The appointment of Church of England diocesan Bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process reflecting the church's traditional tendency towards compromise The appointment of senior judges, while on the advice of the Prime Minister for constitutional reasons, is now on the basis of recommendations from independent bodies. The only important British honours over which the Prime Minister does not have control are the Orders of the Garter, Thistle, and Merit, and the Royal Victorian Order, which are all within the "personal gift" of the Sovereign. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an Order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The Royal Victorian Order (RVO is a Dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry in the Commonwealth realms Created by Queen Victoria The extent of the Sovereign's ability to influence the nature of the Prime Ministerial advice is unknown, but probably varies depending upon the personal relationship between the Sovereign and the Prime Minister of the day.
There exist several limits on the powers of the Prime Minister. Firstly, he or she is (theoretically at least) only a first among equals in the Cabinet. Primus inter pares ( Latin) or First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people The extent of a Prime Minister's power over the Cabinet may vary. In some cases, the Prime Minister may be a mere figurehead, with actual power being wielded by one or more other individuals. Weak or titular Prime Ministers were more common prior to the twentieth century; examples include William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire and William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. William Cavendish 4th Duke of Devonshire, KG, PC (8 May 1720 &ndash 2 October 1764 styled Lord Cavendish before 1729 and Marquess of Hartington William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck 3rd Duke of Portland PC (14 April 1738 &ndash 30 October 1809 was a British Whig and Tory At the opposite extreme, however, Prime Ministers may dominate the Cabinet so much that they become "Semi-Presidents. " Examples of dominant Prime Ministers (more common during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries) include William Ewart Gladstone, David Lloyd George, Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, and Tony Blair. David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 &ndash 9 November 1940 was a British Conservative Politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The powers of some Prime Ministers waxed or waned, depending upon their own level of energy, political skills or outside events: Ramsay MacDonald, for example, was dominant in his Labour governments, but during his National Government his powers diminished so that by his final years in Downing Street he was merely the figurehead of the government. James Ramsay MacDonald ( 12 October 1866 &ndash 9 November 1937) was a British politician and twice Prime Minister of the United In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. In modern times, Prime Ministers have never been merely titular; dominant or somewhat dominant personalities are the norm.
The Prime Minister's powers are also limited by the House of Commons, whose support the Government is obliged to maintain. The House of Commons checks the powers of the Prime Minister through committee hearings and through Question Time, a weekly occurrence in which the Prime Minister is obliged to respond to the questions of the Leader of the Opposition and other members of the House. Question Time in a Parliament occurs when Backbenchers (members of the parliament who are not Ministers) ask questions of the Prime Minister which In practice, however, a Government with a strong majority need rarely fear "backbench rebellions. "
Members of Parliament may hold ministerial offices (up to 90 paid offices, of varying levels of seniority, exist), and may fear removal for failing to support the Prime Minister. Party discipline, furthermore, is very strong; a Member of Parliament may be expelled from his or her party for failing to support the Government on important issues, and although this will not mean he or she must resign as an MP, it would make re-election difficult for most. Restraints imposed by the House of Commons grow weaker when the Government's party enjoys a large majority in that House. In general, however, the Prime Minister and his or her colleagues may secure the House's support for almost any bill.
However, even a government with a healthy majority can on occasion find it is unable to pass legislation due to opposition from MPs. For example, on January 31, 2006 Tony Blair's Government was defeated over proposals to outlaw religious hatred, while on November 9, 2005 it was defeated over plans which would have allowed police to detain terror suspects for up to 90 days without charge. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On other occasions, the Government may be forced to alter its proposals in order to avoid defeat in the Commons, as Tony Blair's Government did in February 2006 over education reforms. 
The House of Lords is considerably less restrictive of the Prime Minister's power. Under the Salisbury Convention, the House of Lords normally does not seek to oppose any measure promised by the Government in its election manifesto. The Salisbury Convention (sometimes the Salisbury/Addison Convention) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom which puts forward that the When the House of Lords does oppose the Prime Minister, it is generally ineffectual in defeating entire Bills (though almost all Bills are successfully modified by the Upper House during their passage through Parliament). Peers (members of the House of Lords) are created by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister; by obtaining the creation of several new peers, the Prime Minister may flood the House of Lords with individuals supportive of his position. The threat of such a tactic was used in 1911 to ensure the passage of the Parliament Act 1911, which, together with the Parliament Act 1949, reduces the House of Lords's powers and establishes the supremacy of the Commons (in particular, the House of Lords can only delay, but not reject, most bills on which the Commons insist). The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949 that form part of the Constitution of the United
The role and power of the Prime Minister have been subject to much change in the last fifty years. There has gradually been a change from Cabinet decision making and deliberation to the dominance of the Prime Minister. As early as 1965, in a new introduction to Walter Bagehot's classic work The English Constitution, Richard Crossman identified a new era of "Prime Ministerial" government. The English Constitution is a Book by Walter Bagehot. Written in 1867, it explores the Constitution of the United Kingdom Richard Howard Stafford Crossman, known as Dick Crossman, ( 15 December 1907 &ndash 5 April 1974 was a British Labour Party Some commentators, such as the political scientist Michael Foley, have argued there is a de facto "British Presidency". In Tony Blair's government, many sources such as former ministers have suggested that decision-making is centered around him and Gordon Brown, and the Cabinet is no longer used for decision making.  Former ministers such as Clare Short and Chris Smith have criticised the total lack of decision-making in Cabinet. Clare Short, PC, MP, (born 15 February 1946 is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. Christopher Robert "Chris" Smith Baron Smith of Finsbury PC (born 24 July 1951 is a British Labour Party politician and former Member of On her resignation, Short denounced "the centralisation of power into the hands of the Prime Minister and an increasingly small number of advisers" The Butler Review of 2004 condemned Blair's style of "sofa government". On February 3 2004, the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraq 's Weapons of mass destruction which played
Ultimately, however, the Prime Minister will be held responsible by the nation for the consequences of legislation or of general government policy. Margaret Thatcher's party forced her from power after the introduction of the poll tax; Sir Anthony Eden fell from power following the Suez Crisis; and Neville Chamberlain resigned after being criticised for his handling of negotiations with Germany prior to the outbreak of World War II, and for failing to prevent the fall of Norway to the Nazi onslaught. The Community Charge, popularly known as the " poll tax " was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of the rates to part fund Local government Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 &ndash 9 November 1940 was a British Conservative Politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
Unlike in the United States there is no minimum age specific to the Office of Prime Minister other than that for a member of parliament (18). This is because the United Kingdom elects a party into government and not a person to be its leader.
There is an age limit for Scottish First Minister. The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba First Meinister o Scotland is the head of the devolved Scottish
Gordon Brown on 2 July 2007 proposed transferring parts of the Prime Minister's traditional authority to Parliament. He has said he intends to yield certain traditional Prime Ministerial powers conferred on the office by royal prerogative, including the ability to declare war, thus giving the Parliament more powers and rights to vet and veto appointments to senior public positions, in a bid to crack down on cronyism. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. For the record label see Crony Records Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends especially by appointing them to positions of authority 
The Prime Minister had no special precedence until the order of precedence first recognized the office in 1905. The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is different in each of its four constituent member nations Throughout the United Kingdom, he or she outranks all others except the Royal Family, the Lord Chancellor, and senior ecclesiastical functionaries (in England and Wales, the Anglican Archbishops of Canterbury and York; in Scotland, the Lord High Commissioner and the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; in Northern Ireland, the Anglican and Roman Catholic Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin and the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church). The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role held for 12 months The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most senior office-bearer within the The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI (Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern
Despite the fact that the Prime Minister is not the Head of State, he or she may carry out some of the duties of that position, for example representing the country in International Affairs. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state
The Prime Minister draws his or her salary not as Prime Minister, but as First Lord of the Treasury. At present, he or she receives £127,334 (ca. US$250,000), in addition to his or her salary of £60,277 (ca. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been US$120,000) as a Member of Parliament.  Until 2006 the Lord Chancellor was the highest paid member of the government ahead of the Prime Minister. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. This reflected the Lord Chancellor's position at the top of the judicial pay scale, as British judges are on the whole better paid than British politicians and until 2005 the Lord Chancellor was both politician and the head of the judiciary. There are various levels of Judiciary in England and Wales — different types of courts have different styles of Judges They also form a strict Hierarchy The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 stripped the Lord Chancellor of his judicial functions and his salary was reduced below the Prime Minister's. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c 4 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2005.
As of 2007, the Prime Minister's aggregate salary is comparable to the US$400,000 salary of the President of the United States. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by
The Prime Minister traditionally resides at 10 Downing Street in London, which George II offered to Sir Robert Walpole as a personal gift. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Walpole, however, only accepted it as the official home of the First Lord, taking up his residence there in 1735. The Prime Minister only resides in 10 Downing Street in his or her capacity as First Lord; the few nineteenth century Prime Ministers who were not First Lords were forced to live elsewhere. Though most First Lords have lived in 10 Downing Street, some preferred to reside in their private residences. This happened when they were often aristocrats with grand Central London homes of their own, such as Palmerston's Cambridge House and seems unlikely to occur again. The term Central London refers to the districts of London England which are considered closest to the centre Cambridge House is a Grade I listed mansion on the northern side of Piccadilly (Number 94 in central London, England. Furthermore, some such as Harold Macmillan and John Major have lived in Admiralty House whilst 10 Downing Street was undergoing renovations or repairs. (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Admiralty House in London was designed by Sir Robert Taylor and his protege Samuel Pepys Cockerell and opened in 1786
Adjacent to Downing Street is 11 Downing Street, the home of the Second Lord of the Treasury (who, in modern times, has also filled the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer). After he became Prime Minister in 1997, Tony Blair found 10 Downing Street too small for his large family, and he swapped residences with the Chancellor and Second Lord, Gordon Brown, then a bachelor. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is However, the Prime Ministerial offices are still maintained in Number 10. 12 Downing Street is the residence of the Chief Whip. The Chief Whip is a political office in some Legislatures assigned to an elected member whose task is to administer the whipping system that ensures that members of
The Prime Minister is also entitled to use the country house of Chequers in Buckinghamshire. Chequers, or Chequers Court, is a Country house near Ellesborough, to the south east of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England.
The Prime Minister, like other Cabinet Ministers and senior Members of Parliament, is customarily a member of the Privy Council; thus, he or she becomes entitled to prefix "The Right Honourable" to his or her name. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as The Rt Hon) is an Honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain Membership of the Council is retained for life (unless the individual resigns it, or is expelled—both rare phenomena). It is a constitutional convention that only a Privy Counsellor can be appointed Prime Minister, but invariably all potential candidates have already attained this status. The only occasion when a non-Privy Councillor was the natural appointment was Ramsay MacDonald in 1924, but the issue was resolved by appointing him to the Council immediately prior to his appointment as Prime Minister.
It is customary for the Sovereign to grant a Prime Minister some honour or dignity when that individual retires from politics. The honour commonly, but not invariably, bestowed on Prime Ministers is membership of the United Kingdom's most senior order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The practice of creating retired Prime Ministers Knights of the Garter has been fairly prevalent since the middle-nineteenth century. On the retirement of a Prime Minister who is Scottish, it is likely that the primarily Scottish honour of the Order of the Thistle will be used instead of the Order of the Garter, which is generally regarded as an English honour. The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an Order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
It has also been common for Prime Ministers to be granted peerages upon their retirement as a Member of Parliament, which elevates the individual to the House of Lords. The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" For this reason, the peerage is rarely awarded immediately on the Prime Minister's resignation from that post, unless he or she steps down as an MP at the same time. Formerly, the peerage bestowed was usually an earldom (which was always hereditary), with Churchill offered a dukedom. Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning " Chieftain " and referring especially to chieftains Sir Winston Churchill received numerous honours and awards throughout his career as a Statesman and Author. However, since the 1960s, hereditary peerages have generally been eschewed, and life peerages have been preferred, although in the 1980s Harold Macmillan was created Earl of Stockton on retirement. In the United Kingdom, life peers are created members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as Hereditary (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Earl of Stockton is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Harold Wilson, James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher accepted life peerages. Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963 was a British James Harold Wilson Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 &ndash 24 May 1995 was one of the most prominent British politicians Leonard James Callaghan Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005 was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 However, neither Edward Heath nor John Major accepted peerages of any kind on stepping down as MPs. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher's son Mark is a baronet, which he inherited from his father Denis, but this is not a peerage. Sir Mark Thatcher 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953 is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Baroness Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) or the rare female equivalent a baronetess (abbreviation Btss) is the holder Major Sir Denis Thatcher 1st Baronet, MBE, TD (10 May 1915 &ndash 26 June 2003 was an English Businessman, and the husband of the
Of the nineteen Prime Ministers since 1902, eight have been created both peers and Knights of the Garter; three were ennobled but not knighted; three became Knights of the Garter but not peers; and five were not granted either honour—in two cases due to their death while still active in politics; two others declined honours.
The retired Prime Ministers who are still living are:
In November 2004, the polling company MORI, in association with the University of Leeds, questioned 258 political science academics in the United Kingdom (139 of whom replied) on the perceived success of twentieth century Prime Ministers. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research University in Leeds, West Yorkshire; one of the largest in the United Kingdom with The results showed that Clement Attlee was rated as most successful, followed by Churchill and Lloyd George. Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only Anthony Eden was rated as the least successful. Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician
In August 2006, BBC History Magazine historian, Francis Beckett ranked each 20th century Prime Minister on how well they implemented their policies. Margaret Thatcher and Clement Attlee topped this poll, with Anthony Eden and Neville Chamberlain coming bottom. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 &ndash 9 November 1940 was a British Conservative Politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Beckett said that Lady Thatcher, "took one sort of society, and turned it into another". 
According to the Department for Constitutional Affairs, the Prime Minister is made a Privy Counsellor as a result of taking office and should be addressed by the official title prefixed by "The Right Honourable" and not by a personal name. The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA was a United Kingdom government department.
This form of address is employed at formal occasions but is rarely used by the media. Tony Blair, the previous Prime Minister, was frequently referred to in print as "the Prime Minister", "Mr Blair", "Tony Blair" or "Blair".  Colleagues sometimes referred to him simply as "Tony".  He was usually addressed as "Prime Minister".