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Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Five sola s are five Latin phrases (or slogans that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers' basic theological beliefs The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618[[ 619|/19]] by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Covenant theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for The regulative principle of worship is a 20th century term used for a teaching shared by Calvinists and Anabaptists on how the second commandment and Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. Reformed Christian confessions of faith are documents of the faith of various Reformed churches. The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. Theodore Beza ( Théodore de Bèze or de Besze) ( June 24, 1519 &ndash October 13, 1605) was a French John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (1 January 1484 &ndash 11 October 1531 was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. This article is about the theologian (b 1703 for other uses of Jonathan Edwards see Jonathan Edwards. The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative Christian Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Theological Seminary, in Princeton The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Afrikaner Calvinism is according to theory a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Scotland is traditionally a Christian nation with around 65% claiming to be Christian at the 2001 census. Denominationalism|List of Christian denominations|Church (disambiguation A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name structure and doctrine within The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Hallmarks include Calvinist theology and the presbyterian form of church governance. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders A form of Calvinism, Presbyterianism evolved primarily in Scotland before the Act of Union in 1707. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into Most of the few Presbyteries found in England can trace a Scottish connection. Although some modern adherents still hold to the theology of Calvin and his immediate successors, there is a wide range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Modern Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation. The Scottish Reformation was Scotland 's formal break with the Roman Catholic Church in 1560 and the events surrounding this Local congregations are governed by Presbyteries made up of representatives of the congregation, a conciliar approach which is found at other levels of decision-making (Kirk Session and General Assembly). Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders Theoretically, there are no bishops in Presbyterianism; however, some groups in Eastern Europe, and in ecumenical groups, do have bishops. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The office of elder is another distinctive mark of Presbyterianism: these are specially commissioned non-clergy who take part in local pastoral care and decision-making at all levels. An elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος; see Presbyter) in Christianity is a person valued for his Wisdom who accordingly holds a particular
The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the European Reformation of the 16th century, with the example of John Calvin's Geneva being particularly influential. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Most Reformed churches who trace their history back to Britain are either Presbyterian or Congregationalist in government. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, a high regard for the authority of the Bible, and an emphasis on the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed "
In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians have played an important role in the Ecumenical Movement, including the World Council of Churches. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation The World Council of Churches ( WCC) is an international Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions, especially in the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation, and particularly in the theology of Some Presbyterian Churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodists. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations However, others are more conservative, holding rigid interpretations of traditional doctrines and shunning, for the most part, relations with non-Reformed bodies.
Presbyterian denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbuteros (πρεσβύτερος), which means "elder. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly " (Presbyterian church in Acts 14:23, 20:17, Titus 1:5).
Among the early church fathers, it was noted that the offices of elder and bishop were identical, and weren't differentiated until later, and that plurality of elders was the norm for church government. St. Jerome (347-420) "In Epistle Titus", vol. Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος iv, said, "Elder is identical with bishop, and before parties multiplied under diabolical influence, Churches were governed by a council of elders. " This observation was also made by Chrysostom (349-407) in "Homilia i, in Phil. This article refers to the Christian saint For other uses of the name see Chrysostomos. i, 1" and Theodoret (393-457) in "Interpret ad. Theodoret (c 393 &ndash c 457 was an influential author theologian and Christian Bishop of Cyrrhus Syria (423-457 Phil. iii", 445.
Presbyterianism was first described in detail by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg, who believed that the early Christian church implemented presbyterian polity. Martin Bucer (or Butzer) ( 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a Protestant reformer whose principal ministry was Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders  The first modern implementation was by the Geneva church under the leadership of John Calvin in 1541. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and 
John Knox (1505-1572), a Scot who had spent time studying under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560 (see Scottish Reformation Parliament). Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking This article is about the pre-1707 parliament The article on the devolved legislative body established in 1999 is at Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Reformation was Scotland 's formal break with the Roman Catholic Church in 1560 and the events surrounding this The Scottish Reformation Parliament is the name given to the Scottish Parliament commencing in 1560 that passed the major pieces of legislation leading The Church of Scotland was eventually reformed along Presbyterian lines, to become the national, established Church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the Acts of Union 1707 between Scotland and England guaranteed the Church of Scotland's form of government. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into However, legislation by the United Kingdom parliament allowing patronage led to splits in the Church, notably the Disruption of 1843 which led to the formation of the Free Church of Scotland. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories Patronage is the support encouragement privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization The Disruption of 1843 was a Schism within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 ministers of the Church broke away over the issue of the Church's Further splits took place, especially over theological issues, but most Presbyterians in Scotland were reunited by 1929 union of the established Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland. The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘UF Church’ is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland
In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Thomas Cartwright is thought to be the first Presbyterian in England. Thomas Cartwright (c 1535 &ndash 27 December 1603) was an English Puritan churchman Cartwright's controversial lectures at Cambridge University condemning the episcopal hierarchy of the Elizabethan Church led to his deprivation of his post by Archbishop John Whitgift and his emigration abroad. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the John Whitgift (c 1530 &ndash February 29, 1604) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England permitted Presbyterianism. The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, on 3 November 1640, following the Bishops' Wars. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the return of Episcopal church government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. Episcopal polity is a form of church governance which is hierarchical in structure with the chief authority over a local Christian church resting in a Bishop (Greek By the 19th century many English Presbyterian congregations had become Unitarian in doctrine.
A number of new Presbyterian Churches were founded by Scottish immigrants to England in the 19th century and later. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Following the 'Disruption' in 1843 many of those linked to the Church of Scotland eventually joined what became the Presbyterian Church of England in 1876. Some, that is Crown Court (Covent Garden, London), St Andrew's (Stepney, London)) and Swallow Street (London), did not join the English denomination, which is why there are Church of Scotland congregations in England such as those at Crown Court, and St Columba's, Pont Street (Knightsbridge) in London. A Scottish Presbyterian congregation was first established in London during the reign of King James I of England and VI of Scots following the Union of the Crowns in 1603 St Columba's Church is one of the two London congregations of the Church of Scotland.
In 1972, the Presbyterian Church of England (PCofE) united with the Congregational Church in England and Wales to form the United Reformed Church (URC). An unrelated American church of similar name is the United Reformed Churches in North America. Among the congregations the PCofE brought to the URC were Tunley (Lancashire) , Aston Tirrold (Oxfordshire) and John Knox Presbyterian Church, Stepney, London (now part of Stepney Meeting House URC) - these are among the sole survivors today of the English Presbyterian churches of the 17th century. Aston Tirrold is a village and Civil parish in the South Oxfordshire district of Oxfordshire, about four miles south-east of Didcot, on the north The URC also has a presence in Scotland, mostly of former Congregationalist Churches. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Two former Presbyterian congregations, St Columba's, Cambridge (founded in 1879), and St Columba's, Oxford (founded as a chaplaincy by the PCofE and the Church of Scotland in 1908 and as a congregation of the PCofE in 1929), continue as congregations of the URC and university chaplaincies of the Church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.
In recent years a number of smaller denominations adopting Presbyterian forms of church government have organised in England, including the International Presbyterian Church planted by evangelical theologian Francis Schaeffer of L'Abri Fellowship in the 1970s, and the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales founded in the North of England in the late 1980s. Francis August Schaeffer ( 30 January 1912 &ndash 15 May 1984) a forerunner of the Presbyterian Church in America. L'Abri ( French for "the Shelter" is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in The Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales ( EPCEW) is a Reformed Church of England and Wales.
In Wales Presbyterianism is represented by the Presbyterian Church of Wales, which was originally composed largely of Calvinistic Methodists. The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (cy ''Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd'' is a denomination Calvinistic Methodists are a body of Christians forming the Presbyterian Church of Wales and claiming to be the only denomination of the Presbyterian order
Presbyterianism was introduced by Scottish plantation settlers to Ulster having been strongly encouraged to emigrate by James VI of Scotland, later James I of England. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James An estimated 100,000 Scottish Presbyterians moved to the northern counties of Ireland between 1607 and the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. This is often presented today as an act of English imperialism. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, along with Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland, suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. The Penal Laws in Ireland (Na Péindlíthe refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters in favour Presbyterianism is represented in Ireland by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI (Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern
Even before Presbyterianism spread abroad from Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family, some of which later rejoined only to separate again. In what some interpret as rueful self-reproach, some Presbyterians refer to the divided Presbyterian churches as the "Split P's".
In North America, because of past--or current--doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one place. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PC(USA)). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Presbyterian Church (USA or PC (USA is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, the Evangelical Presbyterian Church, the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church, the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA is a Protestant denomination, the second largest Presbyterian church body in the United States The Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC is a small conservative Presbyterian denomination located primarily in the United States. The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC is an American church body holding to presbyterian governance and Reformed theology expressed in an orthodox The Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (RPCNA a Christian church, is a small Presbyterian denomination with churches throughout the The Bible Presbyterian Church, an American Protestant denomination was formed in 1937 predominantly through the efforts of such conservative The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church is a small denomination, formed from the merger of the Associate ( Seceder) and most of the Reformed Presbyterian The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is a moderately large (almost 50000 active members and about 800 congregations theologically moderate Presbyterian body spawned by The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States is a small Presbyterian denomination with twelve congregations in the United States. All the latter bodies, with perhaps the exception of the Cumberland Presbyterians, are theologically conservative and profess some degree of evangelicalism. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel
The territory within about a 50-mile (80 km) radius of Charlotte, North Carolina is historically the greatest concentration of Presbyterianism in the Southern U. S. , while an almost-identical geographic area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania contains probably the largest number of Presbyterians in the entire nation. With their members' traditional stress on higher education, the largest Presbyterian congregations can often be found in affluent, prestigious "uptown" suburbs of American cities.
The PC(USA), beginning with its predecessor bodies, has, in common with other so-called "mainline" Protestant denominations, experienced a significant decline in members in recent years; some estimates have placed that loss at nearly half in the last forty years .
In Canada, the largest Presbyterian denomination--and indeed the largest Protestant denomination--was the Presbyterian Church in Canada, formed in 1875 with the merger of four regional groups. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Presbyterian Church in Canada is the name of a Protestant Christian church, of Presbyterian and reformed Theology In 1925, the United Church of Canada was formed with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada. The United Church of Canada was founded in 1925 as a merger of four Christian denominations two thirds of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (then the largest Canadian Protestant Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently A sizable minority of Canadian Presbyterians, primarily in southern Ontario but also throughout the entire nation, withdrew, and reconstituted themselves as a non-concurring continuing Presbyterian body. They regained use of the original name in 1939.
Presbyterianism arrived in Latin America in the 19th century. The biggest Presbyterian church is Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil, which has around five hundred thousand members. In total, there are more than one million Presbyterian members in all of Latin America. Some Latin Americans in North America are active in the Presbyterian Cursillo Movement. Cursillos in Christianity (in Spanish Cursillos de Cristiandad, short course of Christianity is a ministry of the Roman Catholic Church.
Presbyterianism arrived in Africa in the 19th century through the work of Scottish missionaries. The church has grown extensively and now has a presence in at least 23 countries in the region.  The Presbyterian Church of East Africa, based in Kenya is particularly strong with 500 clergy and 4 million members. Presbyterian Church of East Africa (PCEA is a Presbyterian denomination headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.  African presbyterian churches often incorporate diaconal ministries including social services, emergency relief, and the operation of mission hospitals. A number of partnerships exist between presbyteries in Africa and the PC(USA), including specific connections with Lesotho, Malawi, and South Africa.
In South Korea, a congregation in Seoul, Myungsung Presbyterian Church, claims to be the largest Presbyterian Church in the world. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea. Myung Sung Presbyterian Church is currently the largest Presbyterian church in the world Presbyterians are the largest Protestant denomination in that country, and there are many Korean Presbyterians in the United States, either with their own church sites or sharing space in pre-existing churches.
In the mainly Christian Indian state of Mizoram, the Presbyterian denomination is the largest denomination; it was brought to the region with missionaries from Wales in 1894. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes.
But prior to Mizoram, the Welsh Presbyterians (missionaries) started venturing into the north-east of India through the Khasi Hills (presently located within the state of Meghalaya in India) and established Presbyterian churches all over the Khasi Hills from 1840's onwards. The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India, and is part of the Patkai range and of the Meghalaya subtropical forests Meghalaya is a small state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means "The Abode of Clouds" in Sanskrit and Hence there is a strong presence of Prebyterians in Shillong (the present capital of Meghalaya) and the areas adjoining to it . Shillong ( Khasi Shillong ( Hindi: शिलांग Bengali: শিলং is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smallest states in The Welsh missionaries built their first church in Cherrapunji (aka Sohra) in 1846 which is also in Meghalaya and is renowned for being the wettest place on earth. Cherrapunji (also spelled as Cherrapunjee) is a town in East Khasi Hills district in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Sohra, also known as Chur(rra (a British Raj corruption is one of the Hima (Khasi tribal chieftainships constituting petty Khasi Hills (karikor)
In Taiwan, the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan has been an important supporter of the use of Taiwanese languages (as opposed to Mandarin Chinese, which has become dominant since the Nationalists fled to the island) as a consequence of its advocacy of vernacular scriptures and worship services. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. 
There is also a Presbyterian Church in Lahore, Pakistan. ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and
In New Zealand Presbyterian is the dominant denomination in Otago and Southland due largely to the rich Scottish and to a lesser extent Ulster-Scots heritage in the region. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The area around Christchurch, Canterbury, is dominated philosophically by the Anglican (Episcopalian) denomination.
Originally there were two branches of Presbyterianism in New Zealand, the northern Presbyterian church which existed in the North Island and the parts of the South Island north of the Waitaki River, and the Synod of Otago and Southland, founded by Free Church settlers in southern South Island. The Waitaki River is a large River in the South Island of New Zealand, some 110 km long The Synod of Otago and Southland is a synod of the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ The two churches merged in 1901, forming what is now the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand. The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ is the main Presbyterian church in New Zealand.
In Australia Presbyterianism is the fourth largest denomination of Christianity with nearly 720,000 Australians claiming to be Presbyterian in the 2001 Commonwealth Census. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Presbyterian churches were founded in each colony, some with links to the Church of Scotland and others to the Free Church, including a number founded by John Dunmore Lang. John Dunmore Lang ( 25 August 1799 &ndash 8 August 1878) Australian Presbyterian clergyman writer politician and activist was the Some of these bodies merged in the 1860s. In 1901 the churches linked to the Church of Scotland in each state joined together forming the Presbyterian Church of Australia but retaining their state assemblies. The Presbyterian Church of Australia is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Australia.
In 1977, two thirds of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, along with the Congregational Union of Australia and the Methodist Church of Australasia, combined to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The Congregational Union of Australia was a Congregational denomination in Australia. The Methodist Church of Australasia was a Methodist denomination based in Australia. The Uniting Church in Australia ( UCA) was formed on June 22 1977 when many congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, The majority of the other third did not join due to disagreement with the Uniting Church's liberal views, though a portion remained due to cultural attachment.
The Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu is the largest denomination in the country with approximately one-third of the population of Vanuatu members of the church. Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu ( French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu) is an Island The PCV (Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu) is headed by a moderator with offices in Port Vila. Port Vila (ˌpɔrt ˈviːlə is the capital city of Vanuatu. It is also Vanuatu's largest city The PCV is particularly strong in in the provinces of Tafea, Shefa, and Malampa. Tafea is the southernmost province of Vanuatu. The name is an Acronym for the five islands that make up the province Malampa is a province of Vanuatu, made up of three main islands Malakula, Ambrym and Paama, from which the province's name is derived The Province of Sanma is mainly Presbyterian with a strong Roman Catholic minority in theFrancophone areas of the province. The adjective francophone (alternately Francophone) means French -speaking typically as primary language whether referring to individuals groups or places There are some Presbyterian people, but no organised Presbyterian churches in Penama and Torba both of which are traditionally Anglican. Penama is a province of Vanuatu, occupying the islands of Ambae, Maewo, and Pentecost. Vanuatu is the only country in the South Pacific with a significant Presbyterian heritage and membership. The PCV is a founding member of the Vanuatu Christian Council (VCC). The PCV runs many primary schools and Onesua secondary school. Although the church has lost several members due to the encroachment of American fundamentalist sects, the church is still strong especially in the rural villages. The PCV was taken to Vanuatu by missionaries from Scotland.
Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization (or "church order") and worship; often using a book of order, or 'Book of Forms' to regulate common practice and order. Evangelical Presbyterian Church Free Presbyterian Church (Australia Presbyterian Church of Australia Presbyterian The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some contemporary branches. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as an important confessional document - second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible - in Presbyterian churches. The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed Confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition
Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church [often referred to as 'subordinate standards'; see Doctrine (below)]. It is generally considered that the point of such learning is to enable one to put one's faith into practice; most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, by generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform, as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.
Presbyterian government is by councils (known as courts) of elders. Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders Teaching and ruling elders are ordained and convene in the lowest council known as a session or consistory responsible for the discipline, nurture, and mission of the local congregation. Teaching elders (pastors) have responsibility for teaching, worship, and performing sacraments. Pastors are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the pastor's service, but this call must be ratified by the local presbytery.
Ruling elders are usually laymen (and laywomen in some denominations) who are elected by the congregation and ordained to serve with the teaching elders, assuming responsibility for nurture and leadership of the congregation. Often, especially in larger congregations, the elders delegate the practicalities of buildings, finance, and temporal ministry to the needy in the congregation to a distinct group of officers (sometimes called deacons, which are ordained in some denominations). This group may variously be known as a 'Deacon Board', 'Board of Deacons' 'Diaconate', or 'Deacons' Court'.
Above the sessions exist presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of teaching elders and ruling elders from each of the constituent congregations. The presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional or national assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, such as the Church of Scotland or the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA); some bodies, such as the Presbyterian Church in America and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Presbyterian polity is a method of Church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of Presbyters or elders The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. The Presbyterian Church (USA or PC (USA is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA is a Protestant denomination, the second largest Presbyterian church body in the United States The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (or PCI (Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.
Presbyterian governance is practised by Presbyterian denominations and also by many other Reformed churches. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically
Presbyterianism is historically a confessional tradition, which means that the doctrines taught in the church are compared to a doctrinal standard. However, there has arisen a spectrum of approaches to "confessionalism. " The manner of subscription, or the degree to which the official standards establish the actual doctrine of the church, turns out to be a practical matter. That is, the decisions rendered in ordination and in the courts of the church largely determine what the church means, representing the whole, by its adherence to the doctrinal standard.
Some Presbyterian traditions adopt only the Westminster Confession of Faith, as the doctrinal standard to which teaching elders are required to subscribe, in contrast to the Larger and Shorter catechisms, which are approved for use in instruction. The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed Confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition The Westminster Larger Catechism along with the Westminster Shorter Catechism is a central Catechism of Calvinists in the English tradition throughout The Westminster Shorter Catechism (also known simply as the Shorter Catechism hereinafter referred to as the WSC) was written in the 1640s Many Presbyterian denominations, especially in North America, have adopted all of the Westminster Standards as their standard of doctrine which is subordinate to the Bible. The Westminster Standards are the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Westminster Shorter Catechism, the Westminster Larger Catechism, the Directory These documents are Calvinistic in their doctrinal orientation, although some versions of the Confession and the catechisms are more overtly Calvinist than some other, later American revisions. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed Confession of faith, in the Calvinist theological tradition The Presbyterian Church in Canada retains the Westminster Confession of Faith in its original form, while admitting the historical period in which it was written should be understood when it is read.
The Westminster Confession is 'The principal subordinate standard of the Church of Scotland' (Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland II), but 'with due regard to liberty of opinion in points which do not enter into the substance of the Faith' (V). The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. This formulation represents many years of struggle over the extent to which the confession reflects the Word of God and the struggle of conscience of those who came to believe it did not fully do so (e. g. , William Robertson Smith). William Robertson Smith ( 8 November, 1846 – 31 March, 1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar Some Presbyterian Churches, such as the Free Church of Scotland, have no such 'conscience clause'. Conscience is a hypothesized Ability or faculty that distinguishes whether our actions are right or wrong For more detail, see the article of the Church of Scotland. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.
The Presbyterian Church USA has adopted the Book of Confessions, which reflects the inclusion of other Reformed confessions in addition to the Westminster documents. The Presbyterian Church (USA or PC (USA is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. The Book of Confessions is the book of doctrinal statements of the Presbyterian Church (USA (PCUSA and is designated "Part 1" of the PCUSA Constitution "Part These other documents include ancient creedal statements, (the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed), 16th century Reformed confessions (the Scots Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Second Helvetic Confession, all of which were written before Calvinism had developed as a particular strand of Reformed doctrine), and 20th century documents (The Theological Declaration of Barmen and the Confession of 1967). The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of The Scots Confession (also called the Scots Confession of 1560) is a Confession of Faith written in 1560 by six leaders of the Protestant Reformation See also Catechism, Reformed Christian confessions of faith The Heidelberg Catechism is a Protestant confessional document taking the form of a series Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. The Barmen Declaration or The Theological Declaration of Barmen 1934 is a statement of the Confessing Church opposing the Nazi-supported "German-Christian" The Confession of 1967 is a confessional standard or guide of the Presbyterian Church (USA.
The Presbyterian Church in Canada developed the confessional document Living Faith  and retains it as a subordinate standard of the denomination. It is confessional in format, yet like the Westiminster Confession, draws attention back to the original text of the bible.
Presbyterians in Ireland who rejected Calvinism and the Westminster Confessions formed the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. The Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland derives its name and its liberal and tolerant identity from early eighteenth century Presbyterian ministers refusing to subscribe to
Presbyterian denominations who trace their heritage to the British Isles usually organise their church services inspired by the principles in the Directory of Public Worship, developed by the Westminster Assembly in the 1640s. Presbyterian worship documents worship practices in Presbyterian churches in this case the practises of the many churches descended from the Scottish Presbyterian church at The Directory for Public Worship (known in Scotland as the Westminster Directory having been approved by the Scottish Parliament in 1645 was a manual of directions for worship The Westminster Assembly of Divines was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. This directory documented Reformed worship practices and theology adopted and developed over the preceding century by British Puritans, initially guided by John Calvin and John Knox. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian It was enacted as law by the Scottish Parliament, and became one of the foundational documents of Presbyterian church legislation elsewhere.
Historically, the driving principle in the development of the standards of Presbyterian worship is the Regulative principle of worship, which specifies that (in worship), what is not commanded is forbidden. The regulative principle of worship is a 20th century term used for a teaching shared by Calvinists and Anabaptists on how the second commandment and 
Presbyterians traditionally have held the Worship position that there are only two sacraments:
Over subsequent centuries, many Presbyterian churches modified these prescriptions by introducing non-biblical hymns, instrumental accompaniment and ceremonial vestments to worship. Infant baptism is the Christian religious practice of baptizing infants or young children Aspersion ( la aspergere) in a Religious context is the act of sprinkling with Water, especially Holy water. Affusion ( la affusio) is a method of Baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics
Presbyterians believe that churches are buildings to come to worship God. In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made The decor in some instances may be austere so as not to detract from worship; however, many Presbyterian churches in North America, Scotland and France can be rather ornate in appearance, like St Giles Cathedral in Scotland, Fourth Presbyterian in Chicago, Fifth Avenue Presbyterian in New York City, Shadyside Presbyterian Church in Pittsburgh, and many others. Interior decoration or decor is the Art of decorating a room so that it is attractive easy to use and functions well with the existing Architecture Shadyside Presbyterian Church is a large congregation of the Presbyterian Church (U The differing factor from a Presbyterian church and a Roman Catholic church may be the placement of saints and very ornate statues and altars that the Roman church may still retain. In a Presbyterian (Reformed Church) one will not usually find a Crucifix hanging behind the Chancel. However, one may find stained glass windows that depict the crucifixion, behind a chancel.
Confession of Faith: