For the car and literary character, see Ford Prefect
and Ford Prefect (character)
. The Ford Prefect was a line of British cars produced by the UK section of the Ford Motor Company, and a more upmarket version of its direct siblings the Ford Prefect (also called Ix) is a Fictional character in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by the British author Douglas
A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front", i. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The perfect aspect is variously considered either an aspect or tense which calls a listener's attention to the consequences generated by an action rather than the e. , put in charge) is an official of various different types.
A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post-Roman cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office The words "prefect" and "prefecture" are also used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages, which may be misleading or even incorrect. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all
Praefectus, often with a further qualification, was the formal title of many, fairly low to high-ranking, military or civil officials in the Roman Empire, whose authority was not embodied in their person (as it was with elected Magistrates) but conferred by delegation from a higher authority. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome Events and trends 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC — Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Dominate was the ' despotic ' latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse The Roman Constitution or Mos maiorum (Latin for "custom of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly The Constitution of the Roman Kingdom or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Republic or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed The Constitution of the Late Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The History of the Roman Constitution is a study of Ancient Rome that traces the progression of Roman political development from the founding of the city of Rome The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were Tribunes elected with Consular power during the Conflict of the Orders The King of Rome ( Latin: rex regis) was the Chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning "Ten Men" which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer Dux (plural duces) is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, 'to lead' and could refer to anyone who commanded troops such Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service" "(sense of duty" "courtesy" Vicarius is a Latin word meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root and origin of the English word " Vicar " and Cognate to the Persian The Vigintisexviri (sing vigintisexvir) was a college ( collegium) of minor magistrates ( magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Augustus (plural augusti) Latin for "majestic" "the increaser" or "venerable" was an Ancient Roman Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power The mos maiorum (lit ways of the ancestors) were the ancestral Traditions an unwritten code of Laws and conduct of the Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues Definition of collegiality Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common Purpose and respecting Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English " Authority " The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
The Praetorian prefect (Praefectus praetorio) began as the military commander of a general's guard company in the field, then grew in importance as the Praetorian Guard became a potential kingmaker during the Empire. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature The Praetorian Guard ( Latin: PRÆTORIANI was a special force of Guards used by Roman Emperors Before being appropriated From the Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy (c. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals 300) they became the administrators of the four Praetorian prefectures, the government level above the (newly created) dioceses and (multiplied) provinces. Events By place Roman Empire The Franks penetrate into what is now northern Belgium (approximate date The praetorian prefectures ( Latin: praefectura praetorio, in Greek variously named ἔπαρχότητα των πραιτωρίων or ὑπαρχία In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa
As Egypt was a special crown domain, a rich and strategic granary, where the Emperor enjoyed an almost pharaonic position unlike any other province or diocese, its head was styled uniquely Praefectus Augustalis, indicating that he governed in the personal name of the august emperor. An augustalis or augustale was a Gold coin minted in the Kingdom of Sicily beginning around 1231
Police and civil prefects
- Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus: city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome.
- Praefectus vigilum: commander of the Vigiles. The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani ("watchmen of the City " or Cohortes Vigilum
- Praefectus aerarii: nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury.
- Praefectus alae: commander of a cavalry battalion.
- Praefectus castrorum: camp commandant.
- Praefectus cohortis: commander of a cohort (constituent unit of a legion, or analogous unit). A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit generally consisting of one type of soldier
- Praefectus classis: fleet commander.
- Praefectus equitatus: cavalry commander.
- Praefectus equitum: cavalry commander.
- Praefectus fabrum: officer in charge of fabri, i. The military engineering of Ancient Rome 's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries e well-trained engineers and artisans.
- Praefectus legionis: equestrian legionary commander.
- Praefectus legionis agens vice legati: equestrian acting legionary commander.
- Praefectus socium (sociorum): Roman officer appointed to a command function in an ala sociorum (unit recruited among the socii, Italic peoples of a privileged status within the empire).
For some auxiliary troops, specific titles could even refer to their peoples:
- Praefectus Laetorum (Germanic, notably in Gaul)
- Praefectus Sarmatarum gentilium (from the steppes, notably in Italy)
- Praefectus urbi: a prefect of the republican era who guarded the city during the annual sacrifice of the feriae latina on Moun Alban in which the Consuls participated. Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman empire to denote communities of barbari (" Barbarians " literally Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire His former title was "custos urbi" ("guardian of the city").
Especially in Middle Latin, præfectus was used to refer to various officers—administrative, military, judicial, etc. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval —usually alongside a more precise term in the vernacular (such as Burggraf). A burgrave is a Count of a castle or fortified town The English form is derived through the French from the German Burg Graf
The term is used by the Roman Catholic Church, which based much of its canon law terminology on Roman law, in several different ways.
- The Roman Curia still has two Prefects, of the Papal Household and the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope
- The title now also attaches to the heads of some Congregations (central departments of the Curia), who are traditionally Cardinals, hence often called "Cardinal-prefect" (if not they are titled "Pro-Prefect"). A congregation is a type of Dicastery (department with a jurisdiction of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church.
- A Prefect Apostolic is a cleric (sometimes a Titular Bishop, but normally a priest) in charge of an apostolic prefecture, a type of Roman Catholic territorial jurisdiction fulfilling the functions of a diocese, usually in a missionary area or in a country that is anti-religious, such as the People's Republic of China) but that is not yet given the status of regular diocese. Main article Bishop (Catholic Church A titular bishop is a bishop of the Catholic Church who is not in charge Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES It is usually destined to become one in time.
- In the context of schools, a prefect is a pupil who has been given limited, trustee-type authority over other pupils in the school, such as a hall monitor or safety patrol. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" A hall monitor is a student volunteer in American schools who is charged with maintaining order in the school's corridors A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people
- In many British and Commonwealth schools (especially but not exclusively public schools), prefects, usually students in fifth or seventh years (depending on how many years the school in question has), have considerable power and effectively run the school outside the classroom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying upon private sources for all of its funding predominantly in the form of school fees They were once even allowed to administer corporal punishment (emulating domestic discipline) in some schools (now abolished in the UK and several other countries) under a system of self control, or sometimes used as (generally willing) 'executioner' by the staff. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior They usually answer to a senior prefect known as the Head of School (though in Canada, Head of School is more often seen as a gender-neutral term for headmaster or headmistress) or Head Prefect (colloquially, Head Boy or Head Girl or Senior Prefect) - many larger schools will have a hierarchy structure with a team or prefects, a team of senior prefects, and a Head Boy and Girl. Head Boy and Head Girl are terms commonly used in the British education system, and in private schools throughout the Commonwealth. Head Boy and Head Girl are terms commonly used in the British education system, and in private schools throughout the Commonwealth. United Kingdom In some British schools the student body or the head teacher appoints a member of the highest grade or form to perform a series of duties to help the organisation of The Head Prefect may also be the School Captain if that is an appointed position in the school in question. School Captain is a Student Elected, or Appointed, to represent the School. However, due to Health and Safety laws the staff have tended to become stricter about what responsibilities prefects may hold, for fear of being held responsible in case of litigation.
- In India, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Malaysia, prefects are student leaders in primary and secondary schools, often along the lines of other Commonwealth schools, but with fewer powers. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Singapore For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and
- In United States private residential college preparatory schools; see also "proctor". The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Proctor, an English variant of the word procurator, is a person who takes charge of or acts for another
- In Sweden, a prefect (prefekt) is the head of a university department. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
In the United States, formerly in many Catholic high schools this title was given to a member of the faculty ("prefect of discipline" in charge of student attendance, general order and such).
Modern sub-national administration
- In France (and some former French or Belgian colonies, such as Rwanda), a prefect (préfet) is the State's representative in a département. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the A prefect (préfet in France is the State's representative in a department or region. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative His agency is called the préfecture, and his circumscription is also called a prefecture in some former French republics. A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' Sub-prefects (sous-préfets, sous-préfecture) operate in the arrondissements under his control. The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. In Paris, the prefect is the head of the cıty's polıce, and is often seen as the most powerful police head in the country. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city (Above the Minister of Interior. Prefects are named by the Prime minister. )
- In Italy, a prefect (prefetto) is the State's representative in a province (provincia). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest In modern Italy the prefetto (prefect is the official representative of the central state in the provincial and other local authorities who are responsible to their A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. His agency is called the prefettura.
- In some Spanish-speaking states in Latin America, following a French-type model introduced in Spain itself, prefects were installed as governors; remarkably, in some republics (like Peru) two levels were constructed from the French model: a prefecture and a department, the one being only part of the other.
- In Greece a prefect (nomarhis, νομάρχης) is the elected head of one of the 54 prefectures (nomarhies, νομαρχίες), which are second-level administrative divisions, between the first-level Peripheries (periferies, περιφέρειες) and the third-level Municipalities (demoi, δήμοι). Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office The peripheries ( Περιφέρειες) are the official regional Administrative divisions of Greece. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The Prefectural elections (popular ballot) are held every four years along with the Municipal elections. The last Prefectural elections in Greece were held in October 2006. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- In Romania, a prefect is the appointed governmental representative in a county (judeţ), in an agency called prefectură. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania A judeţ /ʒu'deʦ/ is an Administrative division in Romania and was also used for some time in Moldova. The prefect's role is to represent the national government at local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at local level.
- In Quebec, a prefect (préfet) is the head of a regional county municipality. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The term regional county municipality or RCM ( French: municipalité régionale de comté MRC) is used in the Canadian
- In Brazil, a prefect (prefeito) is the elected head of the executive branch in a municipality. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Larger cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, etc. , also have sub-prefects, appointed to their offices by the elected prefect.
- In Georgia, a prefect (პრეფექტი) was the head of the executive branch in a municipality, appointed by the President of Georgia from 1990 to 1992. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The President of Georgia (საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი is the Commander-in-chief of Georgia.
The Prefect of Police (Préfet de police) is the officer in charge of co-ordinating police forces in the various administrative circumscriptions of Paris. The Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de Police headed by the Prefect of Police ( Préfet de Police) is an agency of the Government of France (and Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
External links A prefect (préfet in France is the State's representative in a department or region. The Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the "Pauly-Wissowa", is a German Encyclopedia of A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
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