The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe (5th/4th century BC - 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, northern Germany, and the Netherlands north of the Rhine River, all of them regions that feature many extensive archaeological excavation sites, which have yielded a wealth of artifacts. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Objects discovered at the sites suggest that the Pre-Roman Iron Age cultures evolved without a major break out of the Nordic Bronze Age, but there were strong influences from the Celtic Iron-Age Hallstatt culture in Central Europe. The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Hallstatt culture was the predominant During the first century BC, Roman influence began to be felt even in Denmark. 
Archaeologists first made the decision to divide the Iron Age into distinct pre-Roman and Roman Iron Ages after Emil Vedel unearthed a number of Iron Age artifacts in 1866 on the island of Bornholm. The Roman Iron Age ( 1 - 400) is the name that Swedish Archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located  They did not exhibit the same permeating Roman influence seen in most other artifacts from the early centuries AD, indicating that parts of northern Europe had not yet come into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the Iron Age. Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland
It is markedly distinct from the Celtic La Tène culture south of it, whose advanced iron-working technology exerted a considerable influence, when, around 600 BC northern people began to extract bog iron from the ore in peat bogs, a technology which they had acquired from their Central European neighbours. The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site Bog iron refers to impure Iron deposits that develop in bogs or Swamps by the Chemical or Biochemical Oxidation of iron carried An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also The oldest iron objects found have been needles, but edged tools, swords and sickles, are found as well. Bronze continued to be used during the whole period, but was mostly used for decoration.
Funerary practices continued the Bronze Age tradition of burning the corpses and placing the remains in urns, a characteristic of the Urnfield culture. An urn is a Vase, ordinarily covered and without handles that usually has a narrowed neck above a footed Pedestal. The Urnfield culture (c 1300 BC - 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. During the previous centuries, influences from the Central European La Tène culture spread to Scandinavia from North-Western Germany and there are finds from this period from all the provinces of southern Scandinavia. The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site Archaeologists have found swords, shieldbosses, spearheads, scissors, sickles, pincers, knives, needles, buckles, kettles, etc. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos from this time. Bronze continued to be used for torques and kettles, the style of which were a continuity from the Bronze Age. A torc, also spelled torq or torque is a rigid piece of personal adornment made from twisted metal Some of the most prominent finds are the Gundestrup silver cauldron and the Dejbjerg wagons from Jutland, two four-wheeled wagons of wood with bronze parts. The Gundestrup cauldron is a richly-decorated silver vessel thought to date from the La Tène Period in the first century to second century BC This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland.
The cultural change that ended the Bronze Age was affected by the expansion of Hallstatt culture from the south and accompanied by a deteriorating climate, which caused a dramatic change in the flora and fauna.  In Scandinavia, this period is often called the Findless Age due to the lack of finds. While the finds from Scandinavia are consistent with a loss of population, the southern part of the culture, the Jastorf culture, was in expansion southwards. The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age Material culture in what is now north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC forming the southern part of the It consequently appears that the climate change played an important role in the southward expansion of the tribes, considered Germanic, into continental Europe. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic There are differing schools of thought on the interpretation of geographic spread of cultural innovation, whether new material culture reflects a possibly warlike movement of peoples ("demic diffusion") southwards or whether innovations found at Pre-Roman Iron Age sites represents a more peaceful cultural diffusion. In addition to its usual meaning in Social science, in Archaeology, the term culture is also used in reference to several related concepts unique to Demic diffusion is a Demographic term referring to a migratory model developed by Cavalli-Sforza, that consists of population Diffusion into and across Cultural diffusion, as first conceptualized by Alfred L Kroeber in his influential 1940 paper Stimulus Diffusion, or trans-cultural diffusion in later reformulations The current view in the Netherlands hold that iron age innovations, starting with Hallstatt (800 BC), did not involve intrusions and feature a local development from Bronze Age culture.  Another iron age nucleus considered to represent a local development is the Wessenstedt culture (800 - 600 BC). Wessenstedt is located in the Lüneburg Heath, is a quarter of Natendorf having about 150 inhabitants and belongs to Altes Amt Ebstorf of district
The bearers of this northern Iron Age culture were likely speakers of Germanic languages. The stage of development of this Germanic is not known, although Proto-Germanic has been proposed. Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English The late phase of this period sees the beginnings of the Germanic migrations, starting with he invasions of the Teutons and the Cimbri until their defeat at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, presaging the more turbulent Roman Iron Age and Age of Migrations. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors The Cimbri were a Celtic or Germanic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late The Battle of Aquae Sextiae ( Aix-en-Provence) took place in 102 BC. The Roman Iron Age ( 1 - 400) is the name that Swedish Archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name
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