Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA, around 9000 BC) represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her Archaeological excavations at Jericho The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in Tell Halaf ( Akkadian: Guzana; تل حلف, Syria) The Tell (mound of Ubaid (عبيد near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the Prehistoric Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic Neolithic Europe is the time between roughly from 7000 BC (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) to ca The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC stretching around the course of Danube in what today is Serbia This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in the South Asia. Mehrgarh, ( Urdu: مﮩرگڑھ) one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC sites in Archaeology, lies on what Paleo-Indians or Paleo-Americans were the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a The Uruk period (ca 4000 to 3100 BC existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, The Yamna (from Russian / Ukrainian яма "pit" also known as Pit Grave or Ochre Grave culture) is a late copper age /early The Corded Ware culture, alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European Archaeological horizon that The emergence of Metallurgy in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the region's history with distinctive works of metal apparent in The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines About 150 arrangements of prehistoric circular ditches are known to archaeologists spread over Germany, Austria and Slovakia and the Czech Republic henge is a prehistoric Architectural structure. In form it is a nearly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20 Metres (65 feet) in diameter Prehistoric religion is a general term for the religious beliefs and practices of prehistoric peoples The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often It succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipaleolithic (Mesolithic) as the domestication of plants and animals was in its beginnings and triggered by the Younger Dryas. The Natufian culture (natʏˈfjẽː existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals The Younger Dryas Stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze, was a brief (approximately
The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and the following Pre-Pottery Neolithic B were originally defined by Kathleen Kenyon in the type site of Jericho (Palestinian Territories). Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her Archaeological excavations at Jericho Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon ( 5 January, 1906 &ndash 24 August, 1978) was an important English Archaeologist of Neolithic In Archaeology a type site (also known as a type-site or typesite) is a site that is considered the model of a particular Archaeological Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô During this time, pottery was yet unknown. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware They precede the ceramic Neolithic (Yarmukian).
10,200-9,200 BP (uncalibrated) in the climatic phase Dryas II (arid climate). Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of
There is evidence for the use of wheat, barley and legumes from carbonized seeds, but whether these seeds were collected, planted or even brought into the settlements as part of animal dung used for fuel remains the subject of debate. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored Sickle-blades and grinding stones certainly indicate the use of cereals. A sickle is a hand-held Agricultural Tool with a curved Blade typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for Hay. Some scholars speak of an 'agriculture prédomestique'.
The settlements consist of round semi-subterranean houses with stone foundations and terrazzo-floors. Terrazzo is a Faux - Marble flooring or Countertopping material The superstructures were constructed of unbaked mudbricks with plano-convex cross-sections. A mudbrick is a firefree Brick made of Clay, or mud mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw The hearths were small and covered with cobbles. Heated rocks were used in cooking, which led to an accumulation of fire-cracked rock in the buildings. Almost every settlement contains storage bins made either stones or mud-brick. The sites are much larger than in the preceding Natufian and contain traces of communal structures, like the famous tower of Jericho, possibly built against floods. There is no relation to the biblical wall of Jericho that "came tumblin down. "
Around 8,000 BCE during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) the world's first town Jericho appeared in the Levant and was surrounded by a stone wall and contained a population of 2000-3000 people and a massive stone tower. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA around 9000 BC represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô There is much debate over the function of the wall, for there is no evidence of any serious warfare at this time. No battles were fought at Jericho. One possibility is the wall was built to protect the salt resources of Jericho. .
The lithic industry is based on blades struck from regular cores. In Archaeology a blade is a type of Stone tool created by striking a long narrow flake from a stone core. Sickle-blades and arrowheads continue traditions from the late Natufian culture, transverse-blow axes and polished adzes appear for the first time. A sickle is a hand-held Agricultural Tool with a curved Blade typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for Hay. An arrowhead is point of an Arrow, or a shape resembling such a point as Archaeological artifacts arrowheads are a subclass of Projectile points The Natufian culture (natʏˈfjẽː existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon An adze or adz (ædz is a tool used for smoothing rough-cut Wood in hand Woodworking.
With more sites becoming known, the archaeologists have defined a number of regional variants: