The Praxis school was a Marxist humanist philosophical movement. Marxist humanism is a branch of Marxism that primarily focuses on Marx's earlier writings, especially the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts It originated in Zagreb and Belgrade in the SFR Yugoslavia, during the 1960s. Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian:
Prominent figures among the school's founders include Gajo Petrović and Milan Kangrga of Zagreb and Mihailo Marković of Belgrade. Gajo Petrović ( Karlovac, 12 March 1927 – Zagreb, 13 June 1993) was one of the main theorists in the Marxist humanist Milan Kangrga ( 1 May 1923 - 25 April 2008) was a Croatian philosopher born in Zagreb. Mihailo Marković (Михаило Марковић (born 24 February 1927, Belgrade, Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes) is a Serbian From 1964 to 1974 they published the Marxist journal Praxis, which was renowned as one of the leading international journals in Marxist theory. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy Furthermore, the group organized the widely popular Korčula Summer School in the island of Korčula. Korčula ( Greek Κορκυρα Μελαινα Latin Corcyra Nigra, Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic Krkar, Venetian
Due to the tumultuous sociopolitical conditions in the 1960s, the affirmation of 'authentic' Marxist theory and praxis, and its humanist and dialectical aspects in particular, was an urgent task for philosophers working across the SFRY. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: There was a need to respond to the kind of modified Marxism-Leninism enforced by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (see Titoism). League of Communists of Yugoslavia ( Savez komunista Jugoslavije) before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( Komunistička partija Jugoslavije) was Titoism is an adaptation of communist ideology named after Josip Broz Tito, leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily used to describe To vocalize and therefore begin to satisfy this need, the program of Praxis school was defined in French in the first issue of the International edition of Praxis: A quoi bon Praxis. Pedrag Vranicki (On the problem of Practice) and Danko Grlić (Practice and Dogma) expanded this program in English in the same issue (Praxis, 1965, 1, p. 41-48 and p. 49-58).
The Praxis philosophers considered Leninism and Stalinism to be apologetic due to their ad hoc nature. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Leninist and Stalinist theory was considered to be unfaithful to the Marxist theory, adjusted according to the needs of the party elite and intolerant of ideological criticism.
The defining features of the school were: 1) emphasis on the writings of the young Marx; and 2) call for freedom of speech in both East and West based upon Marx's insistence on ruthless social critique. Young Marx is one half of the concept in Marxology that Karl Marx ’s intellectual development can be broken into two broad categories the other being ‘ Mature As Erich Fromm has argued in his preface to Marković's work From Affluence to Praxis, the theory of the Praxis theoreticians was to "return to the real Marx as against the Marx equally distorted by right wing social democrats and Stalinists". Erich Pinchas Fromm ( March 23, 1900 &ndash March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned social psychologist, psychoanalyst Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left 
Different theorists emphasized different aspects of the theory. Where Mihailo Marković writes of alienation and the dynamic nature of human beings, Petrović writes of philosophy as radical critique of all existing things, emphasizing the essentially creative and practical nature of human beings. Milan Kangrga emphasizes creativity as well, but also the understanding of human beings as producers humanizing nature.
Another defining feature of the Praxis theory is the incorporation of existential philosophy into the Praxis brand of Marxist social critique, spearheaded by Rudi Supek. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence Rudi Supek ( Zagreb, 8 April 1913 - Zagreb 2 January 1993) was a Croatian Marxist sociologist member of the Praxis School
Organizing Korčula Summer School and publishing the international edition of Praxis were ways to promote open inquiry in accordance with these postulates. Erich Fromm's collection of articles from 1965 entitled Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium has been of much help in promoting the Praxis school. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. As many as six members of the Praxis school have published articles in this collection: Marković, Petrović, Danilo Pejović, Veljko Korać, Rudi Supek and Predrag Vranicki. Danilo Pejović ( 6 March 1928, Ludbreg, Croatia – 4 october 2007) was a Croatian Philosopher. Rudi Supek ( Zagreb, 8 April 1913 - Zagreb 2 January 1993) was a Croatian Marxist sociologist member of the Praxis School Predrag Vranicki ( 21 January 1922 - 31 January 2002) was a Marxist Humanist and member of the Praxis school in the 1960s
The Praxis journal was published by a group of praxis theoreticians, mainly from Zagreb University. It was published in two editions: Yugoslav and foreign. The first issue of the Yugoslav edition was published on 1 September 1964 and was published until 1974. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. As for the foreign edition, it was published between 1965 and 1973. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Its founders were Branko Bosnjak, Danko Grlić, Milan Kangrga, Rudi Supek, Gajo Petrović, Predrag Vranicki, Danilo Pejović and Ivan Kuvačić. Branko Bošnjak (1923 - Zagreb, 1996 was Croat philosopher member of the Praxis school in the former Yugoslavia. Danko Grlić ( 18 September 1923 - 1 March 1984) was Marxist humanist, member Milan Kangrga ( 1 May 1923 - 25 April 2008) was a Croatian philosopher born in Zagreb. Rudi Supek ( Zagreb, 8 April 1913 - Zagreb 2 January 1993) was a Croatian Marxist sociologist member of the Praxis School Gajo Petrović ( Karlovac, 12 March 1927 – Zagreb, 13 June 1993) was one of the main theorists in the Marxist humanist Predrag Vranicki ( 21 January 1922 - 31 January 2002) was a Marxist Humanist and member of the Praxis school in the 1960s Danilo Pejović ( 6 March 1928, Ludbreg, Croatia – 4 october 2007) was a Croatian Philosopher. The first editors of the journal were Petrović and Pejović, but in 1966 Pejović resigned from Praxis. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. After that, Supek was the co-editor of the journal together with Petrović. In January 1974 Supek also resigned and was replaced by Kuvačić as the co-editor of Praxis. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar.
Praxis has helped to restore the creative potential of Marxism. It drew inspiration from the works of Antonio Gramsci, Karl Korsch, Georg Lukacs, Ernst Bloch, Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm and Lucien Goldmann. Antonio Gramsci ('ɡramʃi ( January 23, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1937) was an Italian Philosopher, Writer, Karl Korsch ( August 15, 1886 - October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theorist György Lukács (pronounced in IPA dyɶrdyə ˈlukɑtʃ) ( April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Ernst Simon Bloch (ɛʁnst ˈziːmɔn blɔx July 8, 1885 &ndash August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher Herbert Marcuse ( July 19, 1898 &ndash July 29, 1979) was a German philosopher and sociologist, and a member of Erich Pinchas Fromm ( March 23, 1900 &ndash March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned social psychologist, psychoanalyst Lucien Goldmann (born 1913 in Bucharest but grew up in Botoşani, Romania, died 1970 in Paris) was a French philosopher and sociologist The texts in the magazine featured articles by writers from both the East and the West. Praxis editors had a strong tendency to publish articles that went against the Leninist theory and praxis promoted and enforced by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. League of Communists of Yugoslavia ( Savez komunista Jugoslavije) before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( Komunistička partija Jugoslavije) was
Korčula Summer School was preceded by a symposium organized by Gajo Petrovic and Milan Kangrga in the summer of 1963 in Dubrovnik. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; The summer school was organized by the publishers of the journal Praxis from 1964 to 1974 in the Croatian island of Korčula, with the exception of 1966, when the gathering was cancelled due to the intense attacks by the League of Communists of Croatia. Korčula ( Greek Κορκυρα Μελαινα Latin Corcyra Nigra, Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic Krkar, Venetian
The school was a meeting place for philosophers and social critics from the entire world. Some of the prominent attendees included Ernst Bloch, Eugen Fink, Erich Fromm, Jürgen Habermas, Richard Bernstein and Shlomo Avineri, to name a few. Ernst Simon Bloch (ɛʁnst ˈziːmɔn blɔx July 8, 1885 &ndash August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher Eugen Fink (* December 11 1905 in Konstanz; † July 25 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German Philosopher Jürgen Habermas (ˈjʏʁgən ˈhaːbɐmaːs born June 18, 1929 is a German Philosopher and Sociologist in the tradition of Shlomo Avineri (born in Bielsko, Poland 1933 is an Israeli Political scientist. Another peculiarity is that one of the attendants was from the Vatican, Father Gustav Wetter, which testifies to the fact that Korčula Summer School was not merely a Marxist symposium - the attendees held interests ranging from phenomenology to theology.
The articles produced during the meeting were published in the journal during the following year. Each summer, the gathering focused on a particular topic:
Due to its critical nature - the editors and authors were referred to as "professional Anti-Communists" and "enemies of self-managing socialism" - the journal was banned on several occasions. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; By 1975 it became impossible to publish the journal under the increasingly repressive conditions in SFRY. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the same year, in January, eight university professors, members of the Praxis school (Mihailo Marković, Ljubomir Tadić, Zagorka Golubović, Svetozar Stojanović, Miladin Životić, Dragoljub Mićunović, Nebojša Popov and Trivo Inđić) were expelled from the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade on the basis of a decision of the Serbian Assembly. Ljubomir Tadić (born 1925 in Smriječno village near Plužine, Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes, present-day Montenegro) is a law graduate Dragoljub Mićunović (Драгољуб Мићуновић (born June 14, 1930 in Merdare village near Kuršumlija, Kingdom of Yugoslavia Trivo Inđić, MA (born 1938 in Lušci Palanka) is an Advisor to the President of Serbia for political issues appointed by Boris Tadić
The Praxis members tried in several occasions to resume publishing of Praxis and reopening Korčula Summer School. Their efforts have failed, which was the main motive for several Praxis members to try to publish the journal abroad. They have succeeded in achieving this and by April 1981, the Praxis International journal was edited and published in Oxford in the spirit of the original Praxis journal. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, However, not all Praxis members supported this move. This move was supported by four members of the editorial board of the Praxis: Supek, Marković, Tadić and Stojanović. The majority of the Praxis theorists, however, led by Kangrga, disagreed on the basis of the fact that an international journal with the same or similar name as the original journal would reduce the possibilities of republishing the journal inside Yugoslavia. First co-editors of Praxis International were Richard J. Bernstein and Muhailo Marković. From 1986 the co-editors were Seyla Benhabib and Svetozar Stojanović. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Seyla Benhabib (born 1950 Istanbul) is a Turkish Jewish professor of Political science and philosophy at Yale and director of the
Praxis International was published until January 1994 when it continued to be published under the name Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Editors of Constellations are Andrew Arato and Nancy Fraser. Nancy Fraser (born 20 May 1947) is a critical theorist currently the Henry A
The influence of the Praxis school is mainly through its intellectual legacy as a heterodox interpretation of Marxism. This interpretation has been popular among Western Marxists and academics, notably Marshall Berman, who references the Praxis group in his major works. Western Marxism is a term used to describe a wide variety of Marxist theoreticians based in Western and Central Europe (and more recently North Marshall Berman (born 1940 is an American Marxist Humanist writer and philosopher Many praxis theoreticians taught at various universities in Europe and US. The praxis approach was appealing to the Western academia due to its emphasis on dialectical, humanist Marx.