Pottery is the ceramic ware made by potters. It also refers to a group of materials that includes earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. Earthenware is a common Ceramic material which is used extensively for Pottery tableware and decorative objects Stoneware a Vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture made primarily from nonrefactory fire clay Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures The places where such wares are made are called potteries.
Pottery is made by forming a clay body into objects of a required shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln to induce reactions that lead to permanent changes, including increasing their strength and hardening and setting their shape. Historically the production of Pottery has been a characteristic of human activity in most areas of the world Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or Ovens in which controlled temperature regimes are produced There are wide regional variations in the properties of clays used by potters and this often helps to produce wares that are unique in character to a locality. It is common for clays and other minerals to be mixed to produce clay bodies suited to specific purposes; for example, a clay body that remains slightly porous after firing is often used for making earthenware or terra cotta flower-pots. Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material and is measured as a fraction between 0–1 or as a Percentage between 0–100% Earthenware is a common Ceramic material which is used extensively for Pottery tableware and decorative objects Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction
Prior to most shaping processes, air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed. This is called de-airing and can be accomplished by a machine called a vacuum pug, or manually by wedging. Historically the production of Pottery has been a characteristic of human activity in most areas of the world Wedging can also help to ensure an even moisture content throughout the body. Once clay body has been de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After shaping it is dried before firing. There are a number of stages in the drying process. Leather-hard refers to the stage when the clay object is approximately 75-85% dry. Trimming and handle attachment often occurs at the leather-hard state. A clay object is said to be "bone-dry" when it reaches a moisture content at or near 0%. Unfired objects are often termed greenware.
The potter's most basic tools are the hand, but many additional tools have been developed over the long history of pottery manufacture, including the potter's wheel and turntable, shaping tools (paddles, anvils, ribs), rolling tools (roulettes, slab rollers, rolling pins), cutting/piercing tools (knives, fluting tools, wires) and finishing tools (burnishing stones, rasps, chamois). The hands ( med / lat: manus pl manūs are the two intricate prehensile multi- Fingered body parts normally located at the end of each arm of a In Pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares
Pottery can be shaped by a range of methods that include:
Handwork or handbuilding. This is the earliest and the most individualized and direct forming method. Wares can be constructed by hand from coils of clay, from flat slabs of clay, from solid balls of clay — or some combination of these. Parts of hand-built vessels are often joined together with the aid of slurry or slip, a runny mixture of clay and water. Handbuilding is slower and more gradual than wheel-throwing, but it offers the potter a high degree of control over the size and shape of wares. While it isn't difficult for an experienced potter to make identical pieces of hand-built pottery, the speed and repetitiveness of wheel-throwing is more suitable for making precisely matched sets of wares such as table wares. Tableware or Table Appointments includes the dishes, Glassware, and eating utensils ( Knives, Forks Spoons Some potters find handbuilding more conducive to fully using the imagination to create one-of-a-kind works of art, while other potters find the spontaneity and immediacy of wheel-thrown pottery as their source of inspiration. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual
The potter's wheel. Gülşehir, formerly Arapsun, ancient Zoropassos, is a town and district of Nevşehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey Erfurt (ˈɛɐ̯fʊɐ̯t is a City in central Germany. It is the Capital of the state of Thuringia with a population of 202619 (2006 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Memphis is a City in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the County seat of Shelby County. A ball of clay is placed in the center of a turntable, called the wheel-head, which the potter rotates with a stick, or with foot power (a kick wheel or treadle wheel) or with a variable speed electric motor. A treadle OE ''tredan'' = to tread is a part of a machine which is operated by the foot to produce reciprocating or rotary motion in a machine such as a weaving loom (reciprocating An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. (Often, a disk of plastic, wood or plaster — called a bat — is first set on the wheel-head, and the ball of clay is thrown on the bat rather than the wheel-head so that the finished piece can be removed intact with its bat, without distortion. )
During the process of throwing the wheel rotates rapidly while the solid ball of soft clay is pressed, squeezed, and pulled gently upwards and outwards into a hollow shape. The first step, of pressing the rough ball of clay downward and inward into perfect rotational symmetry, is called centering the clay, a most important (and often most difficult) skill to master before the next steps: opening (making a centered hollow into the solid ball of clay), flooring (making the flat or rounded bottom inside the pot), throwing or pulling (drawing up and shaping the walls to an even thickness), and trimming or turning (removing excess clay to refine the shape or to create a foot). Generally speaking an object with rotational symmetry is an object that looks the same after a certain amount of Rotation.
The potter's wheel can be used for mass production, although it is often employed to make individual pieces. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of Wheel-work makes great demands on the skill of the potter, but an accomplished operator can make many near to identically similar plates, vases, or bowls in the course of a day's work. Because of its inherent limitations, wheel-work can only be used to create wares with radial symmetry on a vertical axis. "Bilateral symmetry" redirects here For bilateral symmetry in mathematics see Reflection symmetry. In Mathematics, the Cartesian coordinate system (also called rectangular coordinate system) is used to determine each point uniquely in a plane These can then be altered by impressing, bulging, carving, fluting, faceting, incising, and by other methods making the wares more visually interesting. History Facetting has not been studied as extensively as Stellation. Incised means cut particularly with a "V" shape It is a term found in a number of disciplines Often, thrown pieces are further modified by having handles, lids, feet, spouts, and other functional aspects added using the techniques of handworking.
Jiggering and jolleying: These operations are carried out on the potter's wheel and allow the time taken to bring wares to a standardised form to be reduced. Historically the production of Pottery has been a characteristic of human activity in most areas of the world Jiggering is the operation of bringing a shaped tool into contact with the plastic clay of a piece under construction, the piece itself being set on a rotating plaster mould on the wheel. The jigger tool shapes one face whilst the mould shapes the other. Jiggering is used only in the production of flat wares, such as plates, but a similar operation, jolleying, is used in the production of hollow-wares, such as cups. Jiggering and jolleying have been used in the production of pottery since at least the 18th century. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system In large-scale factory production jiggering and jolleying are usually automated, which allows the operations to be carried out by semi-skilled labour.
Roller-head machine: This machine is for shaping wares on a rotating mould, as in jiggering and jolleying, but with a rotary shaping tool replacing the fixed profile. Historically the production of Pottery has been a characteristic of human activity in most areas of the world The rotary shaping tool is a shallow cone having the same diameter as the ware being formed and shaped to the desired form of the back of the article being made. Wares may in this way be shaped, using relatively unskilled labour, in one operation at a rate of about twelve pieces per minute, though this varies with the size of the articles being produced. The roller-head machine is now used in factories world-wide.
RAM pressing: A factory process for shaping table wares and decorative ware by pressing a bat of prepared clay body into a required shape between two porous moulding plates. A RAM press (or ram press) is a machine invented in the USA in the mid-1940s that is used to press Clay into moulded shapes such as plates After pressing, compressed air is blown through the porous mould plates to release the shaped wares.
Granulate pressing: As the name suggests, this is the operation of shaping pottery by pressing clay in a semi-dry and granulated condition in a mould. Molding is the process of Manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. The clay is pressed into the mould by a porous die through which water is pumped at high pressure. The granulated clay is prepared by spray-drying to produce a fine and free flowing material having a moisture content of between about five and six per cent. A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete Solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would Granulate pressing, also known as dust pressing, is widely used in the manufacture of ceramic tiles and, increasingly, of plates. A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as Ceramic, stone, metal or even Glass.
Slipcasting: is often used in the mass-production of ceramics and is ideally suited to the making of wares that cannot be formed by other methods of shaping. Slipcasting is a technique for the mass-production of Pottery, especially for shapes not easily made on a wheel A slip, made by mixing clay body with water, is poured into a highly absorbent plaster mould. A slip is a suspension in water of clay and/or other materials used in the production of Ceramic ware Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Water from the slip is absorbed into the mould leaving a layer of clay body covering its internal surfaces and taking its internal shape. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Excess slip is poured out of the mould, which is then split open and the moulded object removed. Slipcasting is widely used in the production of sanitary wares and is also used for making smaller articles, such as intricately-detailed figurines.
Pottery may be decorated in a number of ways, including:
Additives can be worked into the clay body prior to forming, to produce desired effects in the fired wares. In-glaze is a method of decorating Ceramic articles where the decoration is applied on the surface of the glaze before the glost fire so that it matures simultaneously On-glaze is a method of decorating Ceramic articles where the decoration is applied after it has been glazed In a discussion of Material science, enamel (or vitreous enamel or porcelain enamel in U Coarse additives, such as sand and grog (fired clay which has been finely ground) are sometimes used to give the final product a required texture. Grog (also called firesand or chamotte) is a Ceramic raw material Contrasting colored clays and grogs are sometimes used to produce patterns in the finished wares. Colorants, usually metal oxides and carbonates, are added singly or in combination to achieve a desired colour. Combustible particles can be mixed with the body or pressed into the surface to produce texture.
Agateware: So-named after its resemblance to the quartz mineral agate which has bands or layers of colour that are blended together. Agateware is Pottery decorated with a combination of contrasting colored clays This article is about the semi-precious stone For other uses see Agate (disambiguation. Agatewares are made by blending clays of differing colours together, but not mixing them to the extent that they lose their individual identities. The wares have a distinctive veined or mottled appearance. The term 'agateware' is used to describe such wares in the United Kingdom; in Japan the term neriage is used and in China, where such things have been made since at least the Tang Dynasty, they are called marbled wares. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Great care is required in the selection of clays to be used for making agatewares as the clays used must have matching thermal movement characteristics.
Banding: This is the application, by hand or by machine, of a band of colour to the edge of a plate or cup. Also known as lining, this operation is often carried out on a potter's wheel.
Burnishing: The surface of pottery wares may be burnished prior to firing by rubbing with a suitable instrument of wood, steel or stone, to produce a polished finish that survives firing. Burnishing (metalworking Burnishing is a form of Pottery decoration in which the surface of the pot is polished using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula It is possible to produce very highly polished wares when fine clays are used, or when the polishing is carried out on wares that have been partially dried and contain little water, though wares in this condition are extremely fragile and the risk of breakage is high.
Engobe: This is a clay slip, often white or cream in colour, that is used to coat the surface of pottery, usually before firing. Its purpose is often decorative, though it can also be used to mask undesirable features in the clay to which it is applied. Engobe slip may be applied by painting or by dipping, to provide a uniform, smooth, coating. Engobe has been used by potters from pre-historic times until the present day, and is sometimes combined with sgraffito decoration, where a layer of engobe is scratched through to reveal the colour of the underlying clay. Sgraffito ("scratched" plural Scraffiti and often also written Scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor produced by applying layers of Plaster tinted With care it is possible to apply a second coat of engobe of a different colour to the first and to incise decoration through the second coat to expose the colour of the underlying coat. Engobes used in this way often contain substantial amounts of silica, sometimes approaching the composition of a glaze. The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Glaze is a layer or coating of a Vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color decorate strengthen or waterproof it
Litho: This is a commonly used abbreviation for lithography, although the alternative names of transfer print or decal are also common. Lithography is a method for Printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface Transfer printing is a mass-production method of applying an Image to a curved or uneven surface These are used to apply designs to articles. The litho comprises three layers: the colour, or image, layer which comprises the decorative design; the covercoat, a clear protective layer, which may incorporate a low-melting glass; and the backing paper on which the design is printed by screen printing or lithography. There are various methods of transferring the design while removing the backing-paper, some of which are suited to machine application
Gold: Decoration with gold is used on some high quality ware. Different methods exist for its application, including:
Glaze is a glassy coating applied to pottery, the primary purposes of which include decoration and protection. Glaze is a layer or coating of a Vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color decorate strengthen or waterproof it Glazes are highly variable in composition but usually comprise a mixture of ingredients that generally, but not always, mature at kiln temperatures lower than that of the pottery that it coats. One important use of glaze is in rendering pottery vessels impermeable to water and other liquids. Glaze may be applied by dusting it over the clay, spraying, dipping, trailing or brushing on a thin slurry composed of glaze minerals and water. Brushing tends not to give an even covering but can be effective as a decorative technique. The colour of a glaze before it has been fired may be significantly different than afterwards. To prevent glazed wares sticking to kiln furniture during firing, either a small part of the object being fired (for example, the foot) is left unglazed or, alternatively, special refractory spurs are used as supports. These are removed and discarded after the firing. Special methods of glazing are sometimes carried out in the kiln. One example is salt-glazing, where common salt is introduced to the kiln to produce a glaze of mottled, orange peel texture. Pottery referred to as salt glazed or salted is created by adding common salt, Sodium chloride, into the chamber of a hot Kiln For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a Materials other than salt are also used to glaze wares in the kiln, including sulphur. In wood-fired kilns fly-ash from the fuel can produce ash-glazing on the surface of wares. Ash glazes are types of high temperature glazes for Stoneware Pottery that include the ashes of trees shrubs plants or grasses within the glaze
Firing produces irreversible changes in the body. It is only after firing that the article can be called pottery. In lower-fired pottery the changes include sintering, the fusing together of coarser particles in the body at their points of contact with each other. Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, by heating the material (below its Melting point - solid state sintering until its particles adhere In the case of porcelain, where different materials and higher firing-temperatures are used the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the constituents in the body are greatly altered. In all cases the object of firing is to permanently harden the wares and the firing regime must be appropriate to the materials used to make them. As rough guide, earthenwares are normally fired at temperatures in the range of about 1000 to 1200 degrees Celsius; stonewares at between about 1100 to 1300 degrees Celsius; and porcelains at between about 1200 to 1400 degrees Celsius. However, the way that ceramics mature in the kiln is influenced not only by the peak temperature achieved, but also by the duration of the period of firing. Thus, the maximum temperature within a kiln is often held constant for a period of time to soak the wares, to produce the maturity required in the body of the wares.
The atmosphere within a kiln during firing can affect the appearance of the finished wares. An oxidising atmosphere, produced by allowing air to enter the kiln, can cause the oxidation of clays and glazes. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state A reducing atmosphere, produced by limiting the flow of air into the kiln, can strip oxygen from the surface of clays and glazes. This can affect the appearance of the wares being fired and, for example, some glazes containing iron fire brown in an oxidising atmosphere, but green in a reducing atmosphere. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The atmosphere within a kiln can be adjusted to produce complex effects in glaze.
Kilns may be heated by burning wood, coal and gas, or by electricity. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter When used as fuels, coal and wood can introduce smoke, soot and ash into the kiln which can affect the appearance of unprotected wares. For this reason wares fired in wood- or coal-fired kilns are often placed in the kiln in saggars; lidded ceramic boxes, to protect them. Saggar firing is an alternative firing process for Pottery. Saggars are boxlike containers made of high fire Clay or specialized Fireclay which Modern kilns powered by gas or electricity are cleaner and more easily controlled than older wood- or coal-fired kilns and often allow shorter firing times to be used. In a Western adaptation of traditional Japanese Raku ware firing, wares are removed from the kiln while hot and smothered in ashes, paper or woodchips, which produces a distinctive, carbonised, appearance. " Though you wipe your hands and brush off the dust and dirt from the vessels what is the use of all this fuss if the heart is still impure? " Japanese tea master Carbonization or Carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an Organic substance into Carbon or a carbon-containing residue through Pyrolysis This technique is also used in Malaysia in creating traditional labu sayung.
It is believed that the earliest pottery wares were hand-built and fired in bonfires. The is the time in Japanese prehistory from about 14000 BC to 400 BC. Established 1872 the, or TNM, is the oldest and largest Museum in Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Firing times were short but the peak-temperatures achieved in the fire could be high, perhaps in the region of 900 degrees Celsius, and were reached very quickly. Clays tempered with sand, grit, crushed shell or crushed pottery were often used to make bonfire-fired ceramics, because they provided an open body texture that allows water and other volatile components of the clay to escape freely. The coarser particles in the clay also acted to restrain shrinkage within the bodies of the wares during cooling, which was carried out slowly to reduce the risk of thermal stress and cracking. In the main, early bonfire-fired wares were made with rounded bottoms, to avoid sharp angles that might be susceptible to cracking. The earliest intentionally constructed kilns were pit-kilns or trench-kilns; holes dug in the ground and covered with fuel. Pit firing is the oldest known method of firing Clay. Unfired pots are nestled together in a pit in the ground and are then covered with burnable materials such as wood shavings Holes in the ground provided insulation and resulted in better control over firing.
The earliest known ceramic objects are Gravettian figurines such as those discovered at Dolni Vestonice in the modern-day Czech Republic. The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická Venuše in Czech) is a Venus figurine, a statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry). The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická Venuše is a Venus figurine, a Ceramic Statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29000&ndash25000  The earliest known pottery vessels may be those made by the Incipient Jōmon people of Japan around 10,500 BCE . The term "Jōmon" means "cord-marked" in Japanese. The is the time in Japanese prehistory from about 14000 BC to 400 BC. This refers to the markings made on clay vessels and figures using sticks with cords wrapped around them. Pottery which dates back to 10,000 BCE have also been excavated in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National  It appears that pottery was independently developed in North Africa during the tenth millennium b. p.  and in South America during the seventh millennium b. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a p. 
The invention of the potter's wheel in Mesopotamia sometime between 6,000 and 4,000 BCE (Ubaid period) revolutionized pottery production. In Pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The Tell (mound of Ubaid (عبيد near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the Prehistoric Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic Specialized potters were then able to meet the expanding needs of the world's first cities. Pottery was in use in ancient India during the Mehrgarh Period II (5500 - 4800 BCE) and Merhgarh Period III (4800 - 3500 BCE), known as the ceramic Neolithic and chalcolithic. Mehrgarh, ( Urdu: مﮩرگڑھ) one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC sites in Archaeology, lies on what The sixth millennium is a period of time that will begin on January 1, 5001 and will end on December 31, 6000 The fifth millennium is a period of time that will begin on 1 January, 4001, and will end on 31 December 5000. The fifth millennium is a period of time that will begin on 1 January, 4001, and will end on 31 December 5000. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a Pottery, including items known as the ed-Dur vessels, originated in regions of the Indus valley and has been found in a number of sites in the Indus valley civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin  
In the Mediterranean, during the Greek Dark Ages (1100–800 BCE), artists used geometric designs such as squares, circles and lines to decorate amphoras and other pottery. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. An amphora (plural amphorae or amphoras) is a type of Ceramic Vase with two handles and a long neck narrower than the body The period between 1500-300 BCE in ancient Korea is known as the Mumun Pottery Period. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The Mumun pottery period is an Archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC 
The quality of pottery has varied historically, in part dependent upon the repute in which the potter's craft was held by the community. A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers For example, in the Chalcolithic period in Mesopotamia, Halafian pottery achieved a level of technical competence and sophistication, not seen until the later developments of Greek pottery with Corinthian and Attic ware. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Tell Halaf ( Akkadian: Guzana; تل حلف, Syria) Thanks to its hardy nature pottery bulks large in the archaeological record of Ancient Greece, and because we have so much of it (some 100000 vases are recorded in the Corpus Thanks to its hardy nature pottery bulks large in the archaeological record of Ancient Greece, and because we have so much of it (some 100000 vases are recorded in the Corpus The distinctive Red Samian ware of the Early Roman Empire was copied by regional potters throughout the Empire. Samian ware is a kind of bright red Roman Pottery also known as terra sigillata (although this is not quite correct on the continental mainland terra The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Dark Age period saw a collapse in the quality of European pottery which did not recover in status and quality until the European Renaissance. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere
For archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians the study of pottery can help to provide an insight into past cultures. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Pottery is durable and fragments, at least, often survive long after artifacts made from less-durable materials have decayed past recognition. Combined with other evidence, the study of pottery artifacts is helpful in the development of theories on the organisation, economic condition and the cultural development of the societies that produced or acquired pottery. The study of pottery may also allow inferences to be drawn about a culture's daily life, religion, social relationships, attitudes towards neighbours, attitudes to their own world and even the way the culture understood the universe.
Chronologies based on pottery are often essential for dating non-literate cultures and are often of help in the dating of historic cultures as well. Trace element analysis, mostly by neutron activation, allows the sources of clay to be accurately identified and the thermoluminescence test can be used to provide an estimate of the date of last firing. Neutron activation is the process in which Neutron radiation induces Radioactivity in materials and occurs when atomic nuclei capture Free neutrons Some mineral substances such as Fluorite store energy when exposed to Ultraviolet or other Ionising radiation. Examining fired pottery shards from prehistory, scientists learned that during high-temperature firing, iron materials in clay record the exact state of Earth's magnetic field at that exact moment.
Due to the large number of pottery factories, or colloquially, 'Pot Banks', the city of Stoke-on-Trent in England became known as The Potteries, one of the first industrial cities of the modern era where, as early as 1785, two hundred pottery manufacturers employed 20,000 workers. Stoke-on-Trent ( often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city in Staffordshire, England which forms a linear Conurbation almost 12 miles (19 The Potteries Urban Area is a Conurbation in North Staffordshire in the West Midlands region of England.
The Potters is the nickname of the local football club, Stoke City F.C.. Stoke City Football Club is a football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, England.