Postconstructivism was a transitional architectural style that existed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, typical of early Stalinist architecture before World War II. Architectural styles classify Architecture in terms of Form, techniques, Materials, time period region etc The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalin 's Empire style Stalinist Gothic, or Socialist Classicism World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The term postconstructivism was coined by Selim Khan-Magomedov, a historian of architecture, to describe the product of avant-garde artists' migration to Stalinist neoclassicism . Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Khan-Magomedov identified postconstructivism with 1932-1936, but the long construction time and vast size of the country extended the period to 1941.
Existence of this style is evident, but Khan-Magomedov's explanation of its evolution as a natural process inside the architectural community, rather than a by-product of plain State intervention, is disputed.
This section is based on Khan-Magomedov's "Soviet avant-garde architecture", vol. 1, "Avant-garde to postconstructivism and beyond" 
In 1932-1933, during the Palace of Soviets contest, the State sent a clear message to architects that the age of experiment was over and the new buildings must follow the classical canon. The Palace of Soviets (Дворец Советов Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, At this time, architectural profession was divided into three generations:
According to Khan-Magomedov, two forerunners of the style were Ivan Fomin and Ilya Golosov. Ivan Aleksandrovich Fomin (February 3 1872 Oryol – June 12 1936 Moscow) was a Russian Architect and Educator. Ilya Alexandrovich Golosov (born 1883 Moscow - died 1945 Moscow was a Russian Soviet architect They converged on the same style from opposite directions - neoclassicism and constructivism. Fomin's concept, easily formulated, erected in steel and granite in Moscow (Dynamo Building), was well understood even by the inexperienced youth. "The youth instinctively followed those who managed to declare their stance clearly. The youth believed that this period is a self-sufficient cultural stage, not a transition to something else".  In 1933-1934, Golosov publicly disposed with the avantgarde. He returned to Neoclassicism, trying to avoid direct citations from the past. For example, he used square columns instead of traditional, round ones. Square, lean columns without capitals became a trademark feature of the emerging style. Golosov's entries in public design contests exposed his style to numerous followers.
Ivan Fomin and Ilya Golosov. Original concepts (never materialized):
Ivan Fomin. Kursky Rail Terminal, 1933
Ivan Fomin. Kursky Rail Terminal, 1933
Ilya Golosov. Ogiz Building, 1934
Ilya Golosov. Trade Union College, 1938
Khan-Magomedov defined postconstructivism as neoclassical shapes without neoclassical detailing. Golosov and his followers deliberately replaced the proven historical details (columns, capitals, friezes and cornices) with their own inventions - to differentiate themselves from pure Revivalists. In several traditions of Architecture including Classical architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput 'head' forms the crowning member In Architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an Entablature and may be plain or &ndash in the Ionic or Corinthian order &ndash The term cornice comes from Italian cornice, meaning “ledge The main volumes follow the classical rules, and usually are perfectly symmetrical.
Ilya Golosov and Vladimir Vladimirov. Apartment buildings in Moscow
Ilya Golosov. Yauzsky, 2, 1936-1941
Ilya Golosov. Yauzsky, 2, fragment
Vladimirov. Aviazhilstroy, Patriarshy Ponds, Penthouse with octagonal columns
Vladimirov. Aviazhilstroy, Patriarshy Ponds, Balcony
Postconstructivism benefited from a natural reaction against both the avantgarde and the eclectics of the past. It was perceived as new, and at the same time allowed grand buildings that were to the taste of provincial elite. Another benefit in a time of total rationing was that, unlike Constructivism, the new style minimized use of steel and cement, turning back to primitive masonry with wooden floors and partitions. This helps explain the spread of Postconstructivism in 1930s.
Evolution - Constructivism to Postconstructivism to Stalinism (Moscow)
School 518 by Ivan Zvezdin, 1933-1935
Schosse Entuziastov housing by Guryev-Gurevich and Zaltsmann, 1935-36
Schosse Entuziastov housing by Guryev-Gurevich and Zaltsmann, 1935-36
Pravda Club, by Molokov and Chekmotayev, 1935-1937
Karpovka housing, by Igor Fomin, 1934
Kirovsky prospect housing by Simonov, Abrosimov, Khryakov, 1934
District Soviet, by Igor Fomin, 1930-1935
Kuibyshev housing, by Matveyev and Bosim, 1936
Sverdlovk, hospital, by Yugov, 1936-1939
Sverdlovsk, 1932 tower
Sverdlovsk, housing by Oransky, 1936
By 1936, the left-wing "class of 1929" and younger (Mordvinov, Alabyan) had gained some practical experience. School 518 is a high school in the historical Balchug area of Moscow, Russia. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Between 1924 and 1991 Yekaterinburg Russia was also known as Sverdlovsk and in railway timetables it still is Samara (Сама́ра ( Kuybyshev (ru Ку́йбышев from 1935 to 1990 is one of the largest cities in Russia. These architects completely lacked the classical training of older Constructivists; lack of skill prevented them from inventing their own incarnation of classical legacy; all they could do was copying. As a result, they buried their avantgarde teachers and proceeded straight to pure neoclassicism. They could not stop at postconstructivism because they - unlike Golosov or Fomin - could not innovate. Meanwhile, Fomin died in 1936, and Golosov was ageing physically, clearing the road for the young.
Another group of young architects, seeking academic training, joined the workshops of Zholtovsky and other old neoclassicists. They, too, skipped over postconstructivism - straight to the Stalinist canon. Their old mentors were still active and enjoyed the support of the State. There was no need for inventing new shapes or styling anymore. Postconstructivist projects draggedon for a few more years; World War II finally sealed the fate of this style. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Authors like Dmitry Khmelnizky appreciate Khan-Magomedov's studies of 1920s and 1930s, but completely disagree with him on the origins and evolution of early Stalinist architecture  and the demise of Constructivism.
Khan-Magomedov barely mentions the role of State (or Stalin personally) in those events, presenting the demise of avant-garde as a natural evolution within the professional community. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party He admits that the profession was manipulated by the "class of 1929" youth, but does not study the forces that shaped and directed their assaults. Not a word on Stalin's personal influence, not a word on rising terror. Khan-Magovedov discusses the 1929-1931 political assaults by VOPRA at length, but fails to mention that they were part of an all-out national campaign. As Khmelnitsky summarized it, "Postconstructivism was born by terror. The very term is misleading. Traces of the Constructivist style in the Postconstructivism of 1930s are a sign of indecision, not tradition. They banned constructivism, but didn't explain what to do. . . the result is an architectural pathology. Comparison with European parallels is useless. There were no European parallels, even Nazi architecture does not come close". Nazi architecture was an architectural plan and integral part of the Nazi party 's plans to create a Cultural and
Postconstructivism merged closely with Soviet adaptations of Art Deco. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Some examples of this style, like the 1934 Lenin Library by Vladimir Schuko, may be mistaken for Postconstructivism. Vladimir Schuko may refer to Vladimir Schuko (1878-1939, Russian architect and stage painter Vladimir Schuko (1928-1958, Russian architect In fact, Schuko was a seasoned Neoclassicist and the Library was his attempt to differentiate into proletarian classic with Art Deco tools. The situation inside professional community was even more diverse than Khan-Magomedov's picture. Vladimirov's apartment block featured above is usually classified as an Art Deco adaptation, too.
The general public is seldom aware of the concept of postconstructivism. Real estate agents classify these buildings as early stalinka, and that's how they are perceived by the public. In Moscow, such buildings are gradually torn down or completely rebuilt (see facadism); demolition of postconstructivist buildings, with few exceptions, goes unnoticed even within preservationist community. Facadism (also façadism or facadomy) is the practice of renovating old Buildings leaving the Facade of a building intact while demolishing and One recently lost example was A.A. Samoilov's building on Novy Arbat in Moscow, torn down in 2006.
The buildings of the 1920s-1930s were built using primitive technologies (masonry, wet stucco, wooden ceilings and partitions), low-grade materials and a low-grade workforce. Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water Poor initial quality and inadequate maintenance led to rapid decay. Excluding a few well-maintained, high-class apartment buildings, early stalinka are unsafe. February 10, 1999, a fire in Samara police department, built 1936, killed 57 men and women. Samara (Сама́ра ( Kuybyshev (ru Ку́йбышев from 1935 to 1990 is one of the largest cities in Russia. On February 13, 2006, Panteleimon Golosov's Constructivist Pravda Building burnt down, killing one person and injuring four. Panteleimon Alexandrovich Golosov (born 1882 Moscow - died 1945 Moscow was a Russian Constructivist architect and brother of Ilya Golosov.
Proper reconstruction of Constructivist or early stalinka buildings is challenging. The structures are weak, and often require complete demolition. A notable example is School 518 (Balchug, Moscow), designed in 1933 by Ivan Zvezdin (1899-1979) and completed in 1935. School 518 is a high school in the historical Balchug area of Moscow, Russia. Balchug (Ба́лчуг also known as Bolotny Ostrov (Боло́тный о́стров is an island in the very centre of Moscow, squeezed between the Moskva Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Praised by Khan-Magomedov, the only Postconstructivist building entered on the national monument register, the school was reconstructed in 2001 to modern safety standards. Most of load-bearing walls and all 1935 interiors were completely rebuilt from scratch .
New postconstuctivist or early stalinka buildings are rare. Preobrazhenskaya Zastava (Преображенская Застава) mixed-use project (two blocks, 308 apartments and retail stores) was completed in 2002-2005. Unusually for present-day Moscow, it actually looks like a period piece, not a cheap modern replica. There are no trademark square columns or slim porticos, yet it is the best attempt to recreate a style of 1930s. On a smaller scale, Russian architectural firms design country houses in true postconstructivist shape .