Partido Comunista Português
|Leader||Jerónimo de Sousa|
|International affiliation||European United Left–Nordic Green Left|
The Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português, pron. IPA: [pɐɾ'tidu kumu'niʃtɐ puɾtu'geʃ]; or PCP) is a major left-wing political party in Portugal. Jerónimo Carvalho de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia, Loures, a suburb of Lisbon) is the General Secretary Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist, eco-socialist and communist political group with seats in the European Parliament since Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. It is a Marxist-Leninist party, and its organization is based upon democratic centralism. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist The party also considers itself to be patriotic and internationalist. Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country 
The party was founded in 1921 as the Portuguese section of the Communist International (Comintern). The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow Made illegal after a coup in the late 1920s, the PCP played a major role in the opposition to the dictatorial regime of António de Oliveira Salazar. António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɨ oli'vɐiɾɐ sɐlɐ'zaɾ During the five-decades-long dictature, the party was constantly suppressed by the political police, the PIDE, which forced its members to live in clandestine status under the threat of arrest, torture, and murder. Pide can mean several things Pita, a type of flatbread typical of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines After the bloodless Carnation Revolution in 1974, which overthrew the 48-year regime, the 36 members of party's Central Committee had, in the aggregate, experienced more than 300 years in jail. The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos was an almost bloodless military-led pro-democratic Coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon 
After the end of the dictatorship, the party became a major political force in the newly democratic state, mainly among the working class. Despite being less influential since the fall of the Socialist bloc in eastern Europe, the party still enjoys popularity in large sectors of Portuguese society, particularly in the rural areas of the Alentejo and Ribatejo, and in the heavily industrialized areas around Lisbon and Setúbal, where it holds the leadership of several municipalities. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Alentejo (ɐlẽˈtɛʒu is a south-central region of Portugal. The Ribatejo (ʁibɐˈtɛʒu is the most central of Portugal 's traditional regions or provinces, with no coastline or border with Spain Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Setúbal (sɨˈtubaɫ or) is a city and a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172 
The Party publishes the weekly Avante!, founded in 1931. Its youth organization is the Portuguese Communist Youth, a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. The Portuguese Communist Youth ( Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization
|Portuguese Communist Party|
At the end of World War I, in 1918, Portugal fell into a serious economic crisis, in part due to the Portuguese military intervention in the war. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Despite its old alliance with Britain Portugal did not form a part of the system of alliances which became enemies in World War I and thus kept its The Portuguese working classes responded to the deterioration in their living standards with a wave of strikes. Supported by an emerging labor movement, the workers achieved some of their objectives, such as an eight-hour working day. The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (aka the Short-time movement) had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where 
In September 1919, the working class movement founded the first Portuguese Labour Union Confederation, the General Confederation of Labour; however, the feeling of political powerlessness, due to the lack of a coherent political strategy among the Portuguese working class, plus the growing popularity of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917, led to the foundation of the Portuguese Maximalist Federation (FMP) in 1919. The General Confederation of Labour (Confederação Geral do Trabalho or CGT is a former Portuguese labour union confederation The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Portuguese Maximalist Federation ( Portuguese: Federação Maximalista Portuguesa or FMP) was a revolutionary movement founded in 1918 The goal of FMP was to promote socialist and revolutionary ideas and to organize and develop the worker movement. 
After some time, members of the FMP began to feel the need for a "revolutionary vanguard" among Portuguese workers. After several meetings at various labor union offices, and with the aid of the Comintern, this desire culminated in the foundation of the Portuguese Communist Party as the Portuguese Section of the Comintern onMarch 6, 1921. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of
Unlike virtually all other European communist parties, the PCP was not formed after a split of a social democratic or socialist party, but from the ranks of anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist groups, the most active factions in the Portuguese labor movement. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement.  The party opened its first headquarters in the Arco do Marquês do Alegrete Street in Lisbon. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Seven months after its creation, the first issue of O Comunista (The Communist), the first newspaper of the party, was published. 
The first congress of the party took place in Lisbon in November 1923, with Carlos Rates as leader. José Carlos Rates was one the first General Secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party, after the Party's foundation in 1921 The congress was attended by about a hundred members of the party and asserted its solidarity with socialism in the Soviet Union and the need for a strong struggle for similar policies in Portugal; it also stated that a fascist uprising in Portugal was a serious threat to the party and to the country. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology 
After the military coup of May 28, 1926, the party was outlawed and had to operate in secrecy. The 28th May 1926 coup d'état, sometimes called 28th May Revolution or during the period of Estado Novo By coincidence, the coup was carried out on the eve of the second congress, forcing the suspension of party business. In 1927, the party's main office was closed. The party was first reorganized in 1929 under Bento Gonçalves. For the city named Bento Gonçalves in Brazil, see Bento Gonçalves (city Bento António Gonçalves, GOL Adapting the its new illegal status, the party reorganized as a network of clandestine cells. 
Meanwhile, in 1938, the PCP had been expelled from the Comintern. The reason for the expulsion was a sense of distrust in the Comintern caused by a sudden breakdown in the party's activity after a period of strong communist tumult in the country, accusations of alleged embezzlement of money carried out by some important members of the party and, mainly, the weak internal structure of the party, dominated by internal wars. The action against the PCP, signed by Georgi Dimitrov, was in part taken due to some persecution against Comintern member parties or persons (like the Communist Party of Poland or Béla Kun) led by Stalin. Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Георги Димитров Михайлов also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Георгий Михайлович Димитров This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland Béla Kun ( February 20 1886 – August 29 1938) born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist Politician Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party These series of events would, in part, lead to the end of the Comintern in 1943. The PCP would only reestablish its relations with the communist movement and the Soviet Union in 1947, after sporadic contacts made through the communist parties of Spain and France and later through Mikhail Suslov. Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov ( Russian: Михаил Андреевич Суслов; November 21, 1902 - January 25, 1982 
After the 1933 rise of Salazar's dictatorial Estado Novo regime, suppression of the party grew. António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɨ oli'vɐiɾɐ sɐlɐ'zaɾ Many members were arrested, tortured, and executed. Many were sent to the Tarrafal concentration camp in the Cape Verde Islands. For the parish in the island of São Nicolau see Tarrafal (São Nicolau. This included Bento Gonçalves, who would die there. The vast wave of arrests led to a major reorganization in 1940 and 1941, named the "Reorganization of '40". The first congress held after these changes was held in 1943 and stated that the party should unite with all those who also wanted an end to the dictatorship. Another important conclusion was the need to increase the party's influence inside the Portuguese army. The party was able, for the first time, to assure a strong clandestine organization, with a network of clandestine cadres, which would significantly aid the resistance against Salazar's regime. En cadre is a military expression for a group around whom a unit is formed or a training staff 
In 1945, with the defeat of the major fascist regimes in World War II, Salazar was forced to fake some democratic changes to keep up a good image in the eyes of the West, so in October of that year, the democratic resistance was authorized to form a platform, which was named Movement of Democratic Unity (Portuguese: Movimento de Unidade Democrática, or MUD). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Movement of Democratic Unity ( Portuguese: Movimento de Unidade Democrática or MUD) was a quasi-legal platform of Portuguese democratic organizations Initially, the MUD was controlled by the moderate opposition, but it soon became strongly influenced by the PCP, which controlled its youth wing.  In the leadership of the youth wing were several communists, among them Octávio Pato, Salgado Zenha, Mário Soares, Júlio Pomar and Mário Sacramento. Octávio Floriano Rodrigues Pato started working at 14 in a shoe factory Francisco Salgado Zenha, GCL ( May 2, 1923, Braga &ndash November 1, 1993 Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (ˈmaɾiu suˈaɾɨʃ born 7 December 1924 Portuguese politician Julio Pomar, GOL, GCM (born in Lisbon 1926 is a Portuguese painter Mário Emílio de Morais Sacramento (July 7 1930 - March 27 1969 was a Portuguese doctor and Essayist  This influence led to the MUD being outlawed by the government in 1948, after several waves of suppression.
The fourth congress, held in July 1946, pointed to massive popular struggle as the only way to overthrow the regime, and stated the policies that would help the party lead that same popular movement. This, along with the consolidation of the clandestine work, was the main conclusion of the congress. A brief report of the conclusions of this congress were published by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. At this time, Álvaro Cunhal traveled to Yugoslavia with the aid of Bento de Jesus Caraça to improve relations with the Socialist Bloc. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Bento de Jesus Caraça, GCSE, GOL (April 18 1901 – June 25 1948 was an influential Portuguese mathematician economist and statistician Later, in 1948, he traveled to the Soviet Union to speak with Mikhail Suslov, after which the bonds between the PCP and the International Communist Movement were reestablished. This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained self-aware political movement  Soon after returning from the Soviet Union, Cunhal was arrested by the PIDE. Pide can mean several things Pita, a type of flatbread typical of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines
The fifth congress, held in September 1957, was the first and only congress to be held outside Portugal. In Kiev, the Party approved its first program and statutes. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the For the first time, the party took an official position on colonialism, stating that every people had the right of self-determination, and made clear its support of the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies, such as MPLA in Angola, FRELIMO in Mozambique, and PAIGC in Guinea-Bissau. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho is an Angolan political party Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Liberation Front of Mozambique, better known by the acronym FRELIMO, from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (IPA /fɾeˈlimo/ Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde ( Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde) or PAIGC is a Political party The Republic of Guinea-Bissau (ˈgɪni bɨˈsaʊ República da Guiné-Bissau ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɐ giˈnɛ biˈsau is a country in Western Africa, and one of the smallest
In January 1960, a group of ten PCP members managed to escape from the high-security prison in Peniche. Peniche ( pron pɨ'niʃ(ɨ is a seaside municipality and a city in Portugal, with approximately 28164 inhabitants in the municipality and about 15600 in the city  The escape returned to freedom many of the leading figures of the Party, among them, Álvaro Cunhal, who would be elected in the following year the first secretary-general in nineteen years. Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal (ˈalvɐɾu kuˈɲal Sé Nova Coimbra, 10 November 1913 — Lisbon Among the escapees was also Jaime Serra, who would help to organize a secret commando group, the Armed Revolutionary Action (Portuguese: Acção Revolucionária Armada or ARA). The ARA was the armed branch of the PCP that would be responsible in the 1970s for some military action against the dictatorial regime.
In 1961, the Colonial War in Africa began, first in Angola and in the next year in Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau. The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial also known as the Overseas War in Portugal (Guerra do Ultramar or in the former colonies as the Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa The Republic of Guinea-Bissau (ˈgɪni bɨˈsaʊ República da Guiné-Bissau ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɐ giˈnɛ biˈsau is a country in Western Africa, and one of the smallest The war lasted thirteen years and devastated Portuguese society, forcing many thousands of Portuguese citizens to leave the country, both to seek a better future in countries like France, Germany or Switzerland and to escape conscription. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The PCP, which had been involved in the formation of the nationalist guerrilla movements, along with the Soviet Union, immediately stated its opposition to the war, and its support for the anticolonial movements. The war prompted unrest in Portuguese society and helped lead to the decline of the Salazar regime. 
In 1962, the "Academic Crisis" occurred. The Academic Crisis is the name given to a Portuguese governmental policy instigated in 1962 by the Portuguese dictatorial regime entailing the boycott and closure The Salazar regime, fearing the growing popularity of democratic ideas among students, made several student associations and organizations illegal, including the National Secretariat of Portuguese Students. Most members of this organization were intellectual communist militants who were persecuted and forbidden to continue their university studies.  With assistance from the PCP, the students responded with demonstrations that culminated on March 24 with a large student demonstration in Lisbon. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. The demonstration was brutally suppressed by the police, leading to hundreds of injuries among the protesters.  Immediately thereafter, the students began a strike against the regime.
In the sixth congress, in 1965, Álvaro Cunhal, elected secretary-general in 1961, released the report The Path to Victory—The Tasks of the Party in the National and Democratic Revolution, which became a document of major influence in the democratic movement. Widely distributed among the clandestine members, it contained eight political goals, such as "the end of the monopolies in the economy," "the need for agrarian reform and redistribution of the land," and "the democratization of access to culture and education" — policies that the Party considered essential to make Portugal a fully democratic country. Nine years later, on April 25, 1974, the Carnation Revolution occurred, putting an end to 48 years of resistance and marking the beginning of a new cycle in the party's life. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos was an almost bloodless military-led pro-democratic Coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon
Immediately after the revolution, basic democratic rights were reestablished in Portugal. On April 27, political prisoners were freed. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated On April 30, Álvaro Cunhal returned to Lisbon, where he was received by thousands of people. Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal (ˈalvɐɾu kuˈɲal Sé Nova Coimbra, 10 November 1913 — Lisbon May Day was commemorated for the first time in 48 years, and an estimated half million people gathered in the FNAT Stadium (now May 1st Stadium) in Lisbon to hear speeches by the Cunhal and the socialist Mário Soares. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (ˈmaɾiu suˈaɾɨʃ born 7 December 1924 Portuguese politician  On May 17, the party's newspaper, Avante!, produced the first legal issue in its history.
The following months were marked by radical changes in the country, always closely followed and supported by PCP. A stormy process to give independence to the colonies started with the full support of the party and, within a year, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe became independent countries. The Republic of Guinea-Bissau (ˈgɪni bɨˈsaʊ República da Guiné-Bissau ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɐ giˈnɛ biˈsau is a country in Western Africa, and one of the smallest Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa The Republic of Cape Verde ( Portuguese: Cabo Verde, 'kabu 'veɾdɨ is a Republic located on an Archipelago in the Macaronesia São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an Island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial
Six months after the Carnation Revolution, on 20 October 1974, the party's seventh congress took place. Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. More than a thousand delegates and hundreds of Portuguese and foreign guests attended. The congress set forth important statements that discussed the ongoing revolution in the country. The 36 members of the elected central committee had in the aggregate experienced more than 300 years in jail.  On January 12, 1975 the PCP became the first legally recognized party. Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The revolutionary process continued. On 11 March 1975, the left-wing military forces defeated a coup attempt by rightists in the military. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  This resulted in a turn in the revolutionary process to the political left, with the main sectors of the economy, such as the banks, transportation, steel mills, mines, and communications companies, being nationalized. This was done under the lead of Vasco Gonçalves, a member of the military wing who supported the party and who had become prime minister after the first provisional government resigned. General Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves (ˈvaʃku gõˈsaɫvɨʃ Lisbon 3 May 1922 &ndash 11 June 2005) was a Portuguese The party then asserted its complete support for these changes and for the Agrarian Reform process that implemented collectivization of the agricultural sector and the land in a region named the "Zone of Intervention of the Agrarian Reform" or "ZIRA", which included the land south of the Tagus River. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government The Tagus ( Latin Tagus, Spanish Tajo, Portuguese Tejo, pron.  The PCP took the lead of that process and drove it according to the party's program, organizing thousands of peasants into cooperatives. Combined with the party's strong clandestine organization and support of the peasants' movement during the preceding years in that region, these efforts made the south of Portugal the major stronghold of the PCP. The party gained more than half of the votes in Beja, Évora, and Setúbal in subsequent elections. The District of Beja ( pron 'bɛʒɐ is located in the South of Portugal, the district Capital is the city of Beja. The District of Évora ( pron 'ɛvuɾɐ is located in Alentejo, in southern Portugal. The District of Setúbal ( pron sɨ'tubaɫ or) is located in the Southwestern of Portugal, the District Capital is the city of Setúbal
One year after the revolution, the first democratic elections took place to elect the parliament that would write a new constitution to replace the constitution of 1933. The party achieved 12. 52% of the vote and elected 30 members of parliament. In the end, as the party wanted, the constitution included several references to "socialism" and a "classless society" and was approved with the opposition of only one party, the right-wing Democratic Social Center (Portuguese: Centro Democrático Social or CDS).
In 1976, after the approval of the constitution, the second democratic election was carried out and the PCP raised its share of the vote to 14. 56% and 40 seats. In the same year, the first Avante! Festival took place, and the eighth congress was held in Lisbon from 11–14 November. Every year in the first weekend of September (since 1976 the Avante! Festival (Portuguese Festa do Avante!) is held named after the official The congress mainly stated the need to continue the quest for socialism in Portugal and the need to defend the achievements of the revolution against what the party considered to be a political step backward, led by a coalition of the Socialist Party and the right-wing Centro Democrático Social, who opposed the agrarian reform process. Partido Socialista redirects here For other parties with similar names see Socialist Party.
In 1979, the party held its ninth congress, which analyzed the state of post-revolutionary Portugal, right-wing politics, and the party's struggles to nationalize the economy. In December 1979, new elections took place. The party formed the United People Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Povo Unido or APU) in coalition with the Portuguese Democratic Movement (Portuguese: Movimento Democrático Português or MDP/CDE) and increased its vote to 18. The United People Alliance ( Portuguese: Aliança Povo Unido or APU) was an electoral and political coalition between The Portuguese Democratic Movement / Democratic Electoral Commissions ( Portuguese: Movimento Democrático Português / Comissões Democráticas Eleitorais or MDP/CDE 96% and 47 seats. The election was won by a centrist/right-wing coalition led by Francisco Sá Carneiro, which immediately initiated policies that the party considered to be contrary to working-class interests. Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL (fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku sa kɐɾˈnɐiɾu Porto Despite a setback in a subsequent election in 1980, in which the PCP dropped to 41 seats, the party achieved several victories in local elections, winning the leadership of dozens of municipalities in the FEPU coalition. The Electoral Front United People ( Portuguese: Frente Eleitoral Povo Unido or FEPU) was an electoral front of the Portuguese Communist Party After the sudden death of Sá Carneiro in an air crash in 1980, the party achieved 44 seats and 18. 20% of the vote as part of the APU in the 1983 elections. Also in 1983, the party held its tenth congress, which again criticized what it saw as the dangers of right-wing politics.
In 1986, the surprising rise of Mário Soares, who reached the second round in the presidential election, defeating the party's candidate, Salgado Zenha, made the party call an extra congress. Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (ˈmaɾiu suˈaɾɨʃ born 7 December 1924 Portuguese politician The Portuguese presidential election of 1986 was held on January 26, the second round took place on February 16. Francisco Salgado Zenha, GCL ( May 2, 1923, Braga &ndash November 1, 1993 The eleventh congress was called with only two weeks' notice, in order to decide whether or not to support Soares against Freitas do Amaral. Ancestors Soares was supported, and he won by a slight margin. Had he not been supported by the PCP, he would have probably lost. In 1987, after the resignation of the government, another election took place. The PCP, now in the Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) with the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (Portuguese: Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" or PEV) and the Democratic Intervention (Portuguese: Intervenção Democrática or ID), saw an electoral decline to 12. The Unitarian Democratic Coalition ( Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist The Ecologist Party "The Greens" ( Portuguese: Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" pron The Democratic Intervention (Portuguese Intervenção Democrática or ID) is a Portuguese left-wing political association founded in order to promote and defend 18% and 31 seats.
In 1988, the PCP held another congress, the twelfth, in which more than 2000 delegates participated and which put forth a new program entitled "Portugal, an Advanced Democracy for the 21st Century. Manifesto of the Communist Party ( often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is The Unitarian Democratic Coalition ( Portuguese: Coligação Democrática Unitária or CDU) is an electoral and political coalition between the Portuguese Communist "
At the end of the 1980s, the Socialist Bloc of Eastern Europe started to disintegrate, and the party faced one of the biggest crises in its history. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were With many members leaving, the party called a thirteenth congress for May 1990, in which a huge ideological battle occurred. The majority of the more than 2000 delegates decided to continue the party's "revolutionary way to Socialism"—ie, to retain its Leninist ideology. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. By so doing, it clashed with what many other communist parties around the world were doing. The congress asserted that socialism in the Soviet Union had failed, but a unique historical experience, several social changes, and several achievements by the labor movement had been influenced by the Socialist Bloc. Álvaro Cunhal was reelected secretary-general, but Carlos Carvalhas was elected assistant secretary-general. Carlos Alberto do Vale Gomes Carvalhas, GCC (born in São Pedro do Sul, November 9, 1941) is a Portuguese Politician
In the legislative election of 1991, the party won 8. The Portuguese legislative election of 1991 took place on October 6. 84% of the national vote and 17 seats, continuing its electoral decline.
The fourteenth congress took place in 1992, and Carlos Carvalhas was elected the new secretary-general, replacing Álvaro Cunhal. Carlos Alberto do Vale Gomes Carvalhas, GCC (born in São Pedro do Sul, November 9, 1941) is a Portuguese Politician The congress analyzed the new international situation created by the disappearance of the Soviet Union and the defeat of socialism in Eastern Europe. The party also traced the guidelines intended to put Cavaco Silva and the right-wing government on its way out, a fact that would happen shortly after. In 1995, the right-wing Social Democratic Party was replaced in the government by the Socialist Party after the October legislative election, in which the PCP received 8. History The Social Democratic Party was born on May 6, 1974, when Francisco Sá Carneiro, Partido Socialista redirects here For other parties with similar names see Socialist Party. The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. 61% of the votes.
In December 1996, the fifteenth congress was held, this time in Porto, with more than 1600 delegates participating. The congress criticized the right-wing policies of the socialist government of António Guterres and debated the future of the PCP following the debacle of the Socialist Bloc. António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres, GCC (ɐ̃ˈtɔniu guˈtɛʁɨʃ born April 30, 1949) is a Portuguese politician a In the subsequent local elections, the party continued to decline, but in the legislative election of 1999, the party increased its voting percentage for the first time in many years. The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on October 10. The sixteenth congress was held in December 2000, and Carlos Carvalhas was reelected secretary-general. In the legislative election of 2002, the PCP achieved its lowest voting result ever, with only 7. The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. 0% of the vote.
In November 2004, the seventeenth party congress elected Jerónimo de Sousa, a former metal worker, as the new secretary-general. Jerónimo Carvalho de Sousa (born 13 April 1947 in Santa Iria de Azóia, Loures, a suburb of Lisbon) is the General Secretary
In the legislative election of February 2005, the Party increased its share of the vote and won 12 of the 230 seats in parliament, receiving about 430,000 votes (7. The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. 60%).
After the 2005 local election, in which the PCP regained the presidency of 7 municipalities, the party holds the leadership of 32 (of 308) municipalities, most of them in Alentejo and Setúbal and holds the leadership of hundreds of civil parishes and local assemblies. Alentejo (ɐlẽˈtɛʒu is a south-central region of Portugal. The District of Setúbal ( pron sɨ'tubaɫ or) is located in the Southwestern of Portugal, the District Capital is the city of Setúbal The local administration by PCP is usually marked by concern about such issues as preventing privatization of the water supply, funding culture and education, providing access to sports, and promoting health, facilitating participatory democracy, and preventing corruption. Participatory democracy is a process emphasizing the broad Participation (decision making of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems  The presence of the Greens in the coalition also keeps an eye on environmental issues such as recycling and water treatment. Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce
The PCP's work now follows the program of "Advanced Democracy for the 21st Century. " Issues like the decriminalization of abortion, workers' rights, the increasing fees for the health service and education, the erosion of the social safety net, low salaries and pensions, imperialism and war, and solidarity with other countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, Palestine, Cuba and the Basque Country are constant concerns in the party's agenda. An The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The Basque Country ( Basque Euskadi, Spanish País Vasco) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.  Since 21 April 2005, Portugal has awaited a referendum on abortion decriminalization. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The party has two members (Ilda Figueiredo and Pedro Guerreiro) elected to the European Parliament, after achieving 9. Maria Ilda da Costa Figueiredo (born 30 October, 1948 in Troviscal) is a Portuguese politician and Member Pedro Miguel Neves Guerreiro (born February 25, 1966 in Lisbon) is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU 2% of the vote in the European Election of 2004. Elections to the European Parliament were held from 10 June 2004 to 13 June 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according They sit in the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group. European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist, eco-socialist and communist political group with seats in the European Parliament since
|Results since 1994|
(year links to election page)
|Year||Coalition||Type of Election||Votes||%||Mandates|
(source: Portuguese Electoral Commission)
|Results in Presidential Elections|
(year links to election page)
(source: Portuguese Electoral Commission)
The PCP's statutes define it as the political party of the proletariat and of all Portuguese workers, and also as the vanguard of all working people. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian A vanguard party is a Political party at the forefront of a mass action movement or revolution That vanguard role results from its class nature and its close liaison with the masses, mobilizing them and winning their support.
The PCP organizes in its ranks the industrial and office workers, small and medium farmers, intellectuals and technical workers, small and medium shopkeepers, and industrialists, who fight for democracy and for socialism, the party considers itself the legitimate pursuer of the Portuguese people's best traditions of struggle and of their progressive and revolutionary achievements throughout their history. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution
The PCP takes Marxism-Leninism as its theoretical basis, which is a materialist and dialectic conception of the world and a scientific tool of social analysis. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Dialectical materialism, according to many followers of Karl Marx 's thinking is the philosophical basis of Marxism. In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions These principles guide the party's action and enable it to systematically answer new challenges and realities. The party also orients its members and its activity in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, of cooperation between the communist parties and revolutionary and progressive forces, and of solidarity with the workers of other countries. International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. 
The main principle that guides the party's internal structure, being a Leninist party, is democratic centralism, which implies that all party organs are elected from bottom to top and may be dismissed by those who elected them, if needed; the members who have tasks in any structure of the party are responsible to both lower and upper levels, being obliged to report the activities to both and to give consideration to their opinions and criticisms; lower-level structures must respect the decisions of the upper structures; every member is free to give his opinion during the discussion, and the structures must take in account the contribution of every member; every member must obey the decisions achieved by consensus or by a majority; every member must work along with his own structure; the party does not recognize the existence of organized factions inside it. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist 
The structure and internal organization of the PCP are defined by its statutes. The most recent statutes were approved in the seventeenth congress, held in 2004. The upper organs of the PCP at the national level are the congress, the central committee, and the central commission of control. A congress is a formal meeting of representatives from different countries (or by extension Constituent States, or independent organisations (such as different Trade Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a Leninist (commonly also Trotskyist) or Communist party, whether ruling or
The supreme organ of the party is its congress, which is summoned by the outgoing central committee and held every four years. The congress is composed of delegates elected by the respective lower organs proportional to each organ's membership size. The congress approves its theses after a wide discussion period inside the organizations and may also change the party's program and statutes. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature All the decisions of the congress are made by the delegates voting. With the exception of the voting for the central committee, which a recent Portuguese law requires to be secret, all voting, including the approval of the theses, are conducted by a show of hands. The theses, after approval, guide all the party's political actions and stances until the next congress.
The main organ between the congresses is the central committee, which is elected in the congresses under a proposal of the retiring central committee. This proposal may only be made after a long period of hearing the lower structures in order to include in it the names they propose. The CC may not change the orientation present in the congress' theses. The main task of the central committee is to define the guidelines of the party's political work and decide the immediate tasks of the party, assuring that the lower structures comply with those decisions. The CC elects, from its members, its Political Bureau, its Secretariat and also the Central Commission of Control. Politburo, short for Political Bureau, Russian Politicheskoye Buro, is the executive organization for a number of Political parties, most notably This last must assure the compliance between the Party's activities and the statutes, and control the Party's finances. The CC may, or may not, elect the Party's General Secretary from its members.
The intermediate organs of the Party are, by rule, the organs that coordinate an organization of district, municipality and parish levels, but organizations at a neighborhood or professional class level also exist. The main organ of an intermediate part of the party's structure is the Assembly. The Assembly works as a small Congress for the organization members. A deliberative assembly is an Organization, comprising of members that uses Parliamentary procedure for making decisions The Assembly elects the regional or municipal committees, which are responsible for applying the theses of the Assembly to the organization's work.
The base level organ of the Party is the cell. The cell is defined as being the link between the Party and the working class and the masses. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types A cell is composed of a minimum of three Party members and exists at a work place or neighborhood level. The cell may elect its own secretariat, which has the responsibility of discussing and putting into practice the Party's guidelines. The cell must ensure the recruitment of new members, promote the reading of the Avante! and the other publications, ensure that the members pay their quota and keep the upper structures aware of the cell's political work. 
The Portuguese Communist Party publishes the weekly Avante! (Forward!), widely distributed throughout the country, and also the magazine of theoretical discussion O Militante (The Militant), published each two months. O Militante ( The Militant) is a magazine of theoretical discussion founded in 1932 and published by The Party's press also includes the bulletin Emigração (Emigration), targeted at the large Portuguese diaspora, and the magazine Portugal e a UE (Portugal and the EU), directed by the Party's members elected in the European Parliament, which presents information related to the European politics and to the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU European United Left–Nordic Green Left is a socialist, eco-socialist and communist political group with seats in the European Parliament since Both Avante! and O Militante are sold in the Party's offices to the members. Buying Avante! is considered one of the members' duties. Avante! is also sold among other newspapers in many news stands around the country.
Avante! was illegally printed and distributed from February 1931 until May 1974.  Many times, the newspaper distribution suffered breakdowns due to the suppression by the political police of Party members who helped to distribute the newspaper, or due to the destruction of the clandestine printing offices. Successfully evading official censorship, Avante! was one of the very few Portuguese newspapers that freely reported on events like World War II, the Colonial War in Africa or massive workers' strikes and waves of student protest against the dictatorship. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial also known as the Overseas War in Portugal (Guerra do Ultramar or in the former colonies as the Avante! continues to be printed after more than three decades of democracy and has now a full online edition. The Avante! Festival was named after the newspaper. Every year in the first weekend of September (since 1976 the Avante! Festival (Portuguese Festa do Avante!) is held named after the official
During the campaign for the Portuguese legislative election of 2005, the Party created a radio broadcast in its website and also a digital forum, being the first Portuguese party to use the internet actively in an electoral campaign. The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. After the last Congress, the statutes were changed and the Party now considers its website as another official media and it is regularly updated. The campaign radio broadcast evolved into an online radio named Comunic was created. It broadcasts thematic interviews with Party's members, music and propaganda.
Usually the Party's largest political campaigns and struggles are supported by massive leaflet distributions and advertising posters in hot spots like train stations, factories, universities, main streets and avenues or markets. The free television spots that the Portuguese law grants to the parties, either in the campaign time or out of it, are used by PCP to promote initiatives and political campaigns.
The Party also owns a publishing company, Edições Avante! (Avante! Editions) that publishes and sells several books related to the Party's history or to Marxism. Classics of Marxism-Leninism, such as The Communist Manifesto, Capital, On the Jewish Question, or What is to be Done?, several books of Portuguese authors on the history of the Party and the resistance, official documents like the program or the statutes, books from foreign authors, like Ten Days that Shook the World and several other works are present in the Avante! Edition's catalog. Manifesto of the Communist Party ( often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is On the Jewish Question is a work by Karl Marx, written in 1843, and first published in Paris in 1844 under the German title What Is to Be Done? (Что делать? was a political pamphlet written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902 Ten Days that Shook the World (1919 is a book by American journalist and Socialist John Reed, about the October Revolution 
The youth organization of PCP is the Portuguese Communist Youth (Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa) and was founded in November 10, 1979, after the unification of the Communist Students League and the Young Communist League. The Portuguese Communist Youth ( Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party The Portuguese Communist Youth ( Portuguese: Juventude Comunista Portuguesa or JCP) is the youth organization of the Portuguese Communist Party Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Young Communist League (in Portuguese: União dos Jovens Comunistas) was the youth wing of the Portuguese Communist Party. The Portuguese Communist Youth is a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, a youth non-governmental organization that congregates several left-wing youth organizations from all the continents. The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization The WFDY holds an international event, named World Festival of Youth and Students, in which the Portuguese Communist Youth uses to participate. The World Festival of Youth and Students is an international event organized by the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY a left-wing youth organization jointly with
The youth wing follows a structure similar to the Party's, also based on the Leninist principle of Democratic centralism, and both organizations maintain a cooperative relationship. Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist JCP is, however, an independent organization.
Mainly composed by students and some working class young people, the Portuguese Communist Youth has, as its main political concerns, such issues as the promotion of a free and public education for all ages, employment, peace and housing. It also promotes international solidarity brigades for countries like Cuba, Palestine or Venezuela, alone or with other European Communist youth organizations like KNE or SDAJ. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Socialist German Workers Youth ( German: Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend, SDAJ is a political youth organization in Germany. It has its main organizational strength among high-school and university students, with a strong presence among the Students' unions.
Every year, in the first weekend of September, the party holds a festival called the Avante! Festival (Portuguese: Festa do Avante!). Every year in the first weekend of September (since 1976 the Avante! Festival (Portuguese Festa do Avante!) is held named after the official Every year in the first weekend of September (since 1976 the Avante! Festival (Portuguese Festa do Avante!) is held named after the official After taking place in different locations around Lisbon, like the Lisbon International Fair, Ajuda or Loures, it is now held in Amora, a town near Seixal, on land bought by the Party after a massive fundraising campaign in the early 1990s. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Ajuda ( pron. ɐˈʒudɐ is a Portuguese parish ( Freguesia) in the municipality of Lisbon with and 17961 inhabitants Loures ( pron 'lo(owɾɨʃ is a city and a municipality to the north of Lisbon. Seixal ( pron sɐj'ʃaɫ is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 96 The Party considered this campaign to be the only way to avoid the boycott organised by the owners of the previous festival grounds, a boycott that ultimately resulted in the Festival not being held in 1987
The festival attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors. The events themselves consist of a three-day festival of music, with hundreds of Portuguese and international bands and artists across five different stages, ethnography, gastronomy, debates, a books and music fair, theatre (Avanteatro) and sporting events. Several foreign communist parties also participate. 
Famous artists, Portuguese and non-Portuguese, have performed at the Festival, including Chico Buarque, Baden Powell, Ivan Lins, Zeca Afonso, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Holly Near, Johnny Clegg, Charlie Haden, Judy Collins, Richie Havens, Tom Paxton, The Soviet Circus Company, the Kuban Cossack Choir, Dexys Midnight Runners, The Band, Hevia, Brigada Victor Jara, Adriano Correia de Oliveira, Carlos Paredes, Jorge Palma, Manoel de Oliveira, Babylon Circus, and many others. Francisco Buarque de Hollanda (born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) popularly known as Chico Buarque, is a Singer Baden Powell de Aquino ( August 6, 1937 - September 26, 2000) widely known simply as Baden Powell, was a Brazilian Guitarist Ivan Guimarães Lins (b June 16, 1945) is a Brazilian musician José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, also known as Zeca Afonso ( pron. Buffy Sainte-Marie (born Beverly Sainte-Marie, February 20, 1941 or this date in 1942 is an Academy Award -winning Canadian First Holly Near (born June 6, 1949 in Ukiah California) is an American Singer-songwriter, teacher and Social change Jonathan (Johnny Clegg, born June 7, 1953 in Rochdale (near Manchester) Lancashire, ( UK Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a Jazz Double bassist probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Judith Marjorie Collins (born May 1, 1939 in Seattle, Washington) is an American folk and standards Singer Richie Havens (born January 21, 1941) is an American folk Singer and Guitarist. Thomas Richard Paxton (born October 31, 1937) is a well-known American folk singer and Singer-songwriter who has been writing Kuban Cossack Chorus (Кубанский Казачий Хор is one of the leading ensembles of Folk music in Russia. Dexys Midnight Runners are a British pop Group with soul influences who achieved their major success in the early to mid 1980s The Band was a rock group active from 1967 to 1976 and again from 1983 to 1999 Hevia, or José Ángel Hevia Velasco, is a Spanish piper &ndash specifically an Asturian gaita piper born in 1967 in Villaviciosa Asturias The Brigada Víctor Jara ( Portuguese for Víctor Jara Brigade is a Portuguese folk band with a Adriano Maria Correia Gomes de Oliveira, GCIH, ComL, or just Adriano ( April 9, 1942 &ndash October 16, Carlos Paredes, ComSE, pron. 'kaɾluʃ pɐ'ɾedɨʃ ( February 16 1925 &ndash July 23 Jorge Manuel d’Abreu Palma, known as Jorge Palma (born on June 4, 1950 in Lisbon, Portugal) is a Portuguese Singer Manoel Cândido Pinto de Oliveira GCSE (mɐnuˈɛɫ doliˈvɐjɾɐ (born December 12, 1908) is a Portuguese Film director born in Babylon Circus is a ten piece ska and reggae group founded in 1995 in Lyon, France.
The preparation of the party begins right after the end of the previous festival. Hundreds of the Party's members and friends, mostly young people, volunteer for the hard work of building a small town in a few months.