|- Subregion||Grande Porto|
|- District or A. The administrative divisions of Portugal are undergoing changes Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Grande Porto or Greater Porto is a Portuguese NUTS3 subregion integrating the NUTS2 region of Norte, in Portugal. R.||Porto|
|Area||41. The District of Porto (sometimes Oporto in English is located on the north west coast of Portugal Rui Fernando da Silva Rio, GCIH (born 1957 in Porto) is a Portuguese Politician and Mayor of Porto (Presidente da Câmara Political parties in Portugal lists political parties in Portugal. History The Social Democratic Party was born on May 6, 1974, when Francisco Sá Carneiro, 3 km²|
|- Total||238,465 (est. 2005)|
(1,600,000 urban area) (2006)
|No. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. of parishes||15|
|Municipal holiday||John the Baptist|
|Historic Centre of Oporto*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1996 (20th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Porto (Portuguese pron. IPA: ['poɾtu]) is a city in northern Portugal and is the second largest city in Portugal, with a 2005 estimated population of 238,465 in the 15 parishes of Porto municipality, 1. "Freguesia" ( pron fɾɛgɨ'ziɐ is the Portuguese term for Civil parish, a secondary Local administrative unit in Portugal Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. "Freguesia" ( pron fɾɛgɨ'ziɐ is the Portuguese term for Civil parish, a secondary Local administrative unit in Portugal 6 million in the 14 Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto municipalities, which is an administrative and political entity, and 2. The Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto is a metropolitan area in coastal northern Portugal which covers 14 municipalities including the City of Porto, making 99 million people in the broader agglomeration of Northern Littoral Urban-Metropolitan Region (includes cities ranging from Braga to Oliveira de Azeméis). Braga (ˈBrag-uh a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the district of Braga, the oldest archdiocese Oliveira de Azeméis ( pron oli'vɐjɾɐ dɨ ɐzɨ'mɐjʃ or) is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 163  Porto's municipality is the core of a large northern Atlantic conurbation, and Porto district is one of the most industrialized districts in Portugal. In Portugal, municipality (município or concelho (meaning "council" is the most stable Subdivision of Portugal since the foundation The Atlantic World is an organizing concept for the historical study of the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Exploration to the Modern era A conurbation is an Urban area or Agglomeration comprising a number of Cities, large Towns and larger urban areas that through Population The District of Porto (sometimes Oporto in English is located on the north west coast of Portugal
One of Portugal's most internationally famous products, Port wine, was named after the city because it was originally shipped from the area or, more precisely, from Vila Nova de Gaia, a city just across the river which belongs to the same conurbation. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia, ( pron 'vilɐ 'nɔvɐ dɨ 'gajɐ is a city in Portugal. The country was also named after the Latin name of this city, Portus Cale. Portus Cale ( Latin for Port of Cale) was the old name of an ancient town and port in current day Portugal.
Porto is the cultural and administrative center of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto (Área Metropolitana do Grande Porto) metropolitan area, and Greater Porto NUTS III subregion capital (1,300,000 inhabitants), in Norte region. The Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto is a metropolitan area in coastal northern Portugal which covers 14 municipalities including the City of Porto, making A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central Grande Porto or Greater Porto is a Portuguese NUTS3 subregion integrating the NUTS2 region of Norte, in Portugal. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, ( NUTS) for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques, is a Geocode Porto is well known for its enterprising spirit, characteristic culture, people, and local cuisine. The culture of Portugal is rooted in the Latin culture of Ancient Rome, with a Celtiberian background (a mixture of pre-Roman Celts and Portuguese cuisine is characterised by rich filling and full-flavoured dishes and is an example of a Mediterranean diet. The city proper is sometimes referred to as Capital do Norte, or Capital of the North. In fact the city is today the capital of Norte, a NUTS II region which covers entire northern Portugal. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, ( NUTS) for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques, is a Geocode
Ribeira, the historic Centre of Porto, has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO (1996). A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
Historic references to the city go back to the 4th century and to Roman times, although Celtic and Proto-Celtic remnants of ancient Citadels were found in the heart of where Porto now lies. This article documents the history of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal behind its capital Lisbon. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Phonological reconstruction Consonants The phonological changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Celtic Consonants may be summarised as follows A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. In the Roman period the city developed its importance as a commercial port, primarily in the trade between Olissipona (Lisbon) and Bracara Augusta (nowadays Braga), but would fall under the Moorish Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin In 868, Vímara Peres, a Christian warlord from Gallaecia and a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure from the Moors the area from the Minho River to the Douro River, including the city of Portus Cale, later Porto and Gaia, from were the name and political entity of Portugal emerged (see Portucale). Events By Place Asia 11 May — The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated book is printed Vímara Peres Count of Portugal ( Galicia, circa 820 &mdash Guimarães, 873 was a Christian Warlord of the 9th century in west Iberia A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A warlord is a person with power who has military control over a subnational area due to Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority Gallaecia or Callaecia was the name of a Roman province that comprised This is a list of the rulers of the Kingdom of Asturias. While their existence and dates seem plausible further verifiable details about their reigns are often scarce especially In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias ( 850 - 866) the kingdom began to be known as that of León. The Kingdom of Galicia (410-1833 was a kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula for two distinct periods Alfonso III (c 848– 20 December 910 ? called the Great, was the king of Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period Rio Minho redirects here For the river of that name in Jamaica see Rio Minho (Jamaica The Minho ( pron. The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. Portus Cale ( Latin for Port of Cale) was the old name of an ancient town and port in current day Portugal. Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia, ( pron 'vilɐ 'nɔvɐ dɨ 'gajɐ is a city in Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Portucale can mean different things Portus Cale, old Roman name of an ancient town and port in current day Portugal in the area of today's Grande Porto (north of In 868 Count Vímara Peres established the First County of Portugal (Portuguese: Condado de Portucale), after the reconquest of the region north of the Douro river. Events By Place Asia 11 May — The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated book is printed A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Condado de Portucale was the first County founded in Portugal. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron.
In 1095, Teresa of León, illegitimate daughter of king Alfonso VI of Castile, married Henry of Burgundy, bringing the County of Portugal as dowry. Queen Theresa of Portugal Countess of Portugal, (Portuguese Rainha Dona Teresa Condessa de Portugal) (sometimes Infanta Teresa of León) (1080 &ndash Alfonso VI (before June 1040 &ndash June 29 / July 1, 1109) nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Henry of Burgundy Count of Portugal (1066&ndash1112 was Count of Portugal from 1093 to his death Condado Portucalense was the second County founded in Portugal. This Condado Portucalense became the focus of the Reconquista and later became the independent Kingdom of Portugal, after eventually expanding to its current frontiers into the south as it reconquered territory back from the invading Moors under the reign of King Dom Afonso Henriques, o Conquistador in the beginning of the 1st millennium. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Kingdom of Portugal was Portugal 's general designation under the monarchy. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Afonso I ( English Alphonzo or Alphonse) more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ or also Affonso (Archaic
In 1387, this city was the scene for the marriage of João I and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, symbolizing the long-standing military alliance between Portugal and England, the world's oldest military alliance, which still holds via NATO. Princess Philippa of Lancaster, LG ( 31 March, 1360 Leicester Castle &ndash July 19, 1415 Odivelas) was an English John of Gaunt 1st Duke of Lancaster (second creation 1st Duke of Aquitaine (6 March 1340 &ndash 3 February 1399 was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The North Atlantic Treaty At the time of his marriage the king stayed at the Church of St. Francis as a proof of his esteem for the Franciscans. The Igreja de São Francisco ( Church of Saint Francis) is the most important Gothic monument in Oporto, Portugal, being also noted for its
In the 14th and the 15th centuries, the shipyards of Porto contributed to the development of the [[Portugal|Portuguese}} fleet. In 1415 Henry the Navigator, son of João I, left from Porto to conquest the Muslim port of Ceuta in northern Morocco. The Infante Henrique Duke of Viseu ( Porto, March 4, 1394 – Sagres, November 13, 1460) pron Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, which Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa This expedition led to the exploratory voyages that he later sent down the coast of Africa. Portuenses are referred to this day as "tripeiros", in reference to the fact that higher quality meat would be loaded onto ships to feed sailors, while off-cuts and by-products such as tripe would be left behind and eaten by the citizens of Porto. Tripe is a type of edible Offal from the Stomachs of various Domestic animals. Tripe remains a culturally important dish in modern day Porto.
Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was already in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos (flat sailing vessels). In 1703 the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between Portugal and England. Year 1703 ( MDCCIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Methuen Treaty was an offensive military and commercial treaty between Portugal and England signed in 1703 as part of the War of the Spanish Succession It allowed English woolen cloth to be admitted into Portugal free of duty. In return, Portuguese wines imported into England would be subject to a third less duty in contrast to French imported wines. This was particularly important with regards to the Port industry. As England was at war with France it became increasingly difficult to acquire wine and so port started to become a popular replacement. In 1717 a first English trading post was established in Porto. Year 1717 ( MDCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The production of port wine then gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified To counter this English dominance, prime minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo 1st Count of Oeiras 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron He demarcated the region for production of port, to ensure the wine's quality; his was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm. Shrove Tuesday is the term used in Ireland the United Kingdom Australia and Canada to refer to the day after Shrove Monday (or the more old fashioned Collop Monday The revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos (revolt of the drunks) and became a symbol of the freedom spirit of the inhabitants of Porto.
Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that would become its icon: the Torre dos Clérigos (English: Clerics Tower). Year 1732 ( MDCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1763 ( MDCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Nicolau Nasoni (or originally Niccoló Nasoni) ( 2 June 1691 &mdash 30 August 1773) was an Italian artist and Architect Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical The Clérigos Church, pron. 'klɛɾiguʃ ( Portuguese: Igreja dos Clérigos, Church of the Clergy) is a Baroque church in
During the 18th and 19th centuries the city became an important industrial centre and saw its size and population increase. The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult is still vividly remembered in Porto. Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duc de Dalmatie (29 March 1769 26 November 1851 the Hand of Iron, was a French general and statesman named On 29 March 1809, as the population fled for the advancing troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge), the bridge collapsed under the weight. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Possibly 6,000 people drowned in the disaster. This event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I. The Dom Luís 1st Bridge is an Arch bridge that spans the Douro River between the cities of Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia. The French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his troops crossed the Douro river from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar (a former convent) in a brilliant daylight coup de main. Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS ( c A coup de main is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow Porto is also called "Cidade Invicta" (English: Unvanquished City) after its resistance to the Napoleonic Imperial army. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
In August 1820 Porto rebelled against the English presence, resulting in a civil war in Portugal. Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Liberal Revolution of 1820 ( Revolução Liberal) was a political revolution that erupted in 1820, unchained via a military insurrection in the city of Porto In 1822 a liberal constitution was accepted, partly through the efforts of the liberal assembly of Porto (Junta do Porto). Year 1822 (MDCCCXXII was a Common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Sunday of the When Miguel of Portugal took the Portuguese throne in 1828, he rejected this constitution and reigned as an absolutist monarch. Miguel I ( Miguel Maria do Patrocínio João Carlos Francisco de Assis Xavier de Paula Pedro de Alcântara António Rafael Gabriel Joaquim José Gonzaga Evaristo de Bragança e Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Porto rebelled again and had to undergo a siege of eighteen months between 1832 and 1833 by the Portuguese army. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. After the abdication of king Miguel the liberal constitution was re-established.
Unrest by republicans led to a revolt in Porto on 31 January 1891. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This would result ultimately in the creation of the Portuguese republic in 1910. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
A two-level iron bridge - Dom Luís I (designed by the Belgian engineer Téophile Seyrig, a student of Gustave Eiffel), and a railway bridge - Maria Pia, designed by Eiffel in association with Seyrig, were constructed, as well as the central railway station (São Bento, considered to be one of the most beautiful in Europe, ornamented with lavish painted tiles). Alexandre Gustave Eiffel ( December 15, 1832 &ndash December 27, 1923; in French efɛl in English usually ˈaɪfəl was a French A higher learning institution in nautical sciences (Aula de Náutica, 1762) and a stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto, 1834) were established in the city but would be discontinued later. A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a Corporation or Mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for Stock
For having resisted a military invasion in the 19th century by the Imperial Napoleonic Armies, the city is now known as The Unvanquished City (A Cidade Invicta). The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
In recent years, UNESCO recognised its historic centre as a World Heritage Site. The Clérigos Church, pron. 'klɛɾiguʃ ( Portuguese: Igreja dos Clérigos, Church of the Clergy) is a Baroque church in United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Among the architectural highlights of the city, the Oporto Cathedral is the oldest surviving structure, together with the small Romanesque Church of Cedofeita, the Gothic Igreja de São Francisco (Church of Saint Francis), the remnants of the city walls and a few 15th-century houses. The Oporto Cathedral ( Sé do Porto) located in the historical centre of the city of Porto, Portugal, is one of the city's oldest monuments and one Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which The Church of Cedofeita ( Igreja de São Martinho de Cedofeita) is a mediaeval church in the city of Oporto, in Portugal. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The Igreja de São Francisco ( Church of Saint Francis) is the most important Gothic monument in Oporto, Portugal, being also noted for its The baroque style is well represented in the city in the elaborate gilt work interior decoration of the churches of St. Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical Francis and St. Claire (Santa Clara), the churches of Mercy (Misericórida) and of the Clerics (Igreja dos Clérigos), the Palace of the Archbishop, and others. The Clérigos Church, pron. 'klɛɾiguʃ ( Portuguese: Igreja dos Clérigos, Church of the Clergy) is a Baroque church in The neoclassicism and romanticism of the 19th and 20th centuries also added interesting monuments to the landscape of the city, like the magnificent Stock Exchange Palace (Palácio da Bolsa), the Hospital of Saint Anthony, the Municipality, the buildings in the Avenida dos Aliados, the tile-adorned Sao Bento Train Station and the gardens of the Crystal Palace (Palácio de Cristal). Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The Palácio da Bolsa (Stock Exchange Palace is a historical building in Oporto, Portugal. A guided visit to the Palácio da Bolsa, and in particular the Arab Room, is a major tourist attraction. The Palácio da Bolsa (Stock Exchange Palace is a historical building in Oporto, Portugal.
In 2001, Porto shared the designation European Culture Capital. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one Calendar year during which it is given a chance to showcase its In the scope of these events, the construction of the major concert hall space Casa da Música, designed by the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas, was initiated and finished in 2005. Casa da Música is a major Concert hall space in Porto, Portugal which houses the cultural institution of the same name with its three orchestras The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Remment Lucas Koolhaas, 'rɛm 'kɔːlhas (born) is a Dutch Architect, architectural theorist, Urbanist and "Professor in Practice of Architecture Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Fantasporto International Film Festival is a great cultural event of the city, attracting many national and foreign film commentators to the city. Fantasporto, also known as Fantas, is an international Film festival, annually organized in Porto, Portugal.
Many of the city's oldest houses are at risk of collapsing. The population in Porto municipality dropped by nearly 100,000 since the 1980s, but the number of permanent residents in the outskirts and satellite towns has grown strongly. 
Porto is ranked number 3 in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these goods and services are distributed within a population 
The first Portuguese moving pictures were taken in Porto by Aurélio da Paz dos Reis and shown there on 12 November 1896 in Teatro do Príncipe Real do Porto, less than a year after the first public presentation by Auguste and Louis Lumière. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Events January - In Britain, Birt Acres and Robert W Paul developed their own film projector the Theatrograph (later known The country's first movie studios Invicta Filmes was also erected in Porto in 1917 and was open from 1918 to 1927 in the area of Carvalhido. A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films. Manoel de Oliveira, a well-known Portuguese film director and the oldest director in the world who is still active, is from Porto. Manoel Cândido Pinto de Oliveira GCSE (mɐnuˈɛɫ doliˈvɐjɾɐ (born December 12, 1908) is a Portuguese Film director born in A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. Fantasporto is a remarkable international film festival organized in Porto every year. Fantasporto, also known as Fantas, is an international Film festival, annually organized in Porto, Portugal. Many renowned Portuguese music artists and cult bands such as GNR, Rui Veloso, Sérgio Godinho, Clã, and Pluto are from the city or its metropolitan area. GNR is a Portuguese band founded in 1981 This band shares its acronym ( Grupo Novo Rock, portuguese for Group of New Rock) with the Guarda Nacional Rui Manuel Gaudêncio Veloso, commonly known as Rui Veloso, CavIH (born in 30 July 1957, Lisbon) is a Portuguese Sérgio Godinho, OL ( pron. 'sɛɾʒiu gu'diɲu is a Portuguese poet composer and singer Clã ( English Clan) is a Portuguese Pop-rock band of a mixed nature in terms of style ranging from moments of pure balladry through jazzy details For other musical groups of the same name see Pluto. Pluto is a Portuguese band which emerged from the splitting up of Ornatos
Porto has several museums, concert halls, theaters, cinemas, art galleries, libraries and book shops. The best-known museums of Oporto are the Soares dos Reis National Museum (Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis), which is dedicated especially to the Portuguese artistic movements from the 16th to the 20th century, and the Museum of Contemporary Art of the Serralves Foundation (Museu de Arte Contemporânea). Serralves Foundation ( Fundação de Serralves) is an Art foundation in Porto, Portugal. The city has concert halls of a rare beauty and elegance such as the Coliseu do Porto by the Portuguese architect Cassiano Branco; an exquisite example of the Portuguese decorative arts, it is seen by many as one of the best and most elegant concert halls in Europe. The Coliseu do Porto is a theatre in Porto, Portugal. Coliseu do Porto is arguably one of the most relevant landmarks of Porto and a prestigious venue for music Other notable venues include the Rivoli theatre, the Batalha cinema and the recent Casa da Música. Casa da Música is a major Concert hall space in Porto, Portugal which houses the cultural institution of the same name with its three orchestras The Guardian elaborated a list of world's top bookshops, featuring Lello in third . The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group.
Oporto's most popular event is St. John on the night of 23 to 24 of June. In this season it's a tradition to have a vase with bush basil decorated with a small poem. During the dinner of the great day people usually eat sardines and boiled potatoes together with red wine.
In the evening everybody gathers in downtown and hit each other with plastic hammers and leeks. There are also fires lit on the streets that are jumped over. At midnight there's a big fireworks show next to the river.
One other major event is Queima das Fitas, on the second week of May. The Queima das Fitas ( Portuguese for Burning of the Ribbons is a traditional festivity of the students of some Portuguese universities organized originally by the Basically, before the beginning of the study period preceding the school year’s last exams, academia tries to have as much fun as possible. The week comprehends 12 events, starting with the Monumental Serenata on Sunday, reaching its peak with the Cortejo Académico on Tuesday, when about 50,000 higher education students of the city march through the downtown streets till they reach the city hall. During every night of the week a series of concerts takes place on the Queimódromo, next to the city’s park; here it’s also a tradition for the students in the second last year to erect small tents where alcoholic beverages are sold in order to finance the trip that takes place during the last year of their course; an average of 50 000 students attend these shows. 
Porto is home to a number of dishes from traditional Portuguese cuisine. Portuguese cuisine is characterised by rich filling and full-flavoured dishes and is an example of a Mediterranean diet. A typical dish from this city is Tripas à Moda do Porto (Tripes à la Porto in English), which still can be found everywhere in the city today. Tripas, also known as Machitos, in Mexican cuisine are the small intestines of farm animals that have been cleaned boiled and grilled Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá (Codfish à la Gomes de Sá) is other typical dish born in Porto and popular in Portugal. Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá is essentially a Casserole of Cod, Potatoes and Onion. The Francesinha (Frenchie) is the most famous popular native snack food in Porto. Francesinha (meaning Little French Girl in Portuguese) is a Portuguese Sandwich originally from Porto, made with bread wet-cured It is a kind of sandwich with several meats covered with cheese and a special sauce made with beer and other ingredients. Port wine, an internationally renowned wine, is widely accepted as the city's dessert wine. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified Dessert wines (or pudding wines BrE) are sweet Wines typically served with Dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji
Known as the city of bridges, the first permanent bridge – the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge) – was built in 1806, but three years later, sabotaged - as tradition has it but this hasn't been fully proven - to prevent the invasion led by the French General Marshal Soult during the Peninsular War with Napoleonic troops, who were by then believed to be coming from the south. A pontoon bridge or floating bridge is a Bridge that floats on water supported by barge-or-boat-like pontoons to support the bridge deck and its dynamic Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duc de Dalmatie (29 March 1769 26 November 1851 the Hand of Iron, was a French general and statesman named The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence pitted an alliance of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal against France However, as the story goes, they appeared from the north, and the population, unaware of the situation and caught between the fire, tried to flee across it en masse, causing the death of around 4000 locals. It was replaced by the |Ponte D. Maria II popularized under the name Ponte Pênsil (suspended bridge) and built between 1841-43 and of which only the supporting pylons remain. This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type
A New bridge would be built nearby, between January 1876 and October 1877: The Ponte D. Maria, a railway bridge inaugurated the 4th of November of that same year, considered by then to be a feat of wrought iron engineering and designed by no other than Gustave Eiffel himself. The Maria Pia bridge (Ponte Maria Pia is a railway bridge built in 1877 by Gustave Eiffel in Porto, Portugal. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel ( December 15, 1832 &ndash December 27, 1923; in French efɛl in English usually ˈaɪfəl was a French But this bridge is not to be mistaken for the later |Ponte Dom Luís I, which was in turn to substitute the aforementioned Ponte Pênsil. This last bridge was made by Teophile Seyrig, a former partner of Eiffel, and its project won a governmental competition that took place in 1879. Building began in 1881 and it was opened to the public the 31st October 1886.
During the 20th century, other bridges were built: Arrabida Bridge, which at its opening had the biggest concrete supporting arch in the world, and connects north and south shores of the Douro on the west side of the city, S. The Arrábida Bridge is an arch bridge over the Douro River that connects Porto to Vila Nova de Gaia, in Portugal. João, to replace D. Maria Pia and Freixo, a highway bridge on the east side of the city. The newest bridge is Ponte do Infante, finished in 2003. Two more bridges are said to be under designing stages and due to be built in the next 10 years, one on the Campo Alegre area, nearby the Faculty of Humanities and the Arts, and another one in the area known as the Massarelos valley. Nowadays Porto is often known as "Cidade das Pontes"(City of Bridges),"Cidade Invicta"(Invencible City) and "Capital do Norte"(The Capital of Northern Region of Portugal).
Porto (Oporto) is served by Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport (IATA: OPO) which is located in Pedras Rubras(Moreira), Municipality of Maia, some 15km to the north-west of the city centre. Aeroporto Internacional Dr Francisco de Sá Carneiro also known as Aeroporto do Porto or Aeroporto de Pedras Rubras is the international airport of Porto The airport is a state-of-the-art facility, having undergone a massive program of refurbishment due to the Euro 2004 football championships being partly hosted in the city. Direct flights to a growing number of major cities in Europe and the Americas are available; from these, of special interest are low cost connections to London, Frankfurt, Liverpool, Dublin and Paris. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city It is currently the 3rd best airport in Europe and the 3rd best in the world in the category of under five million passengers.
Porto's main railway station is situated in Campanhã,located in the eastern part of the city of Oporto (connecting to lines of Douro (Peso da Regua/Tua/Pocinho), Minho (Barcelos/Viana do Castelo/Valença) and Linha do Norte (on the main line to Aveiro , Coimbra and Lisbon). Campanhã ( pron kɐ̃pɐ'ɲɐ̃ is a Portuguese parish located in the city of Porto. Aveiro (aˈvɐjɾu is a city of some 57000 people and a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 199 Coimbra (kuˈĩbɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal, former capital of the country during the first dynasty period and home to the University of Coimbra Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. From here, both metro and suburban rail services go to the city centre. The Porto Metro ( Metro do Porto) part of the Mass transit Public transport system of Porto, Portugal, is a Light-rail The main central station is at São Bento, which is itself a notable attraction,and located in the heart of Oporto, direct and connections to Braga, Linhas do Minho and Douro.
Currently the major project is the Porto Metro system. The Porto Metro ( Metro do Porto) part of the Mass transit Public transport system of Porto, Portugal, is a Light-rail It is the most expensive public construction project currently in progress in Europe, mainly due to the city's soil, which is extremely complex from a technical perspective and very expensive to dig. Consequently, the Infante bridge was built for urban traffic, replacing the Dom Luís I, which was dedicated to the subway on the second and higher of the bridge's two levels. Five lines are open: lines A (blue), B (red), C (green) and E (purple) all begin at Estádio do Dragão (home to FC Porto) and terminate at Senhor do Matosinhos, Póvoa de Varzim (via Vila do Conde), ISMAI (via Maia) and Francisco Sá Carneiro airport respectively. Estádio do Dragão (English Dragon Stadium, literally Stadium of the Dragon) is a football Stadium in Porto, Portugal Futebol Clube do Porto ( pron futɨ'bɔɫ 'klub(ɨ du 'poɾtu - short FC Porto or FCP - is a Portuguese Sports club best known Póvoa de Varzim (ˈpɔvuɐ dɨ vɐɾˈzĩ locally ˈpɔβuɐ dɨ bɐɾˈziŋ is a Portuguese city in the Northern Region and sub-region of Greater Porto Vila do Conde ( pron 'vilɐ du 'kõd(ɨ is a city and parish in Portugal with a population of 25731 ISMAI - Instituto Superior da Maia is a private institute of higher education formed in 1990 in Maia, Portugal. Line D (yellow) currently runs from Hospital S. João in the north to João de Deus on the southern side of the Douro river. The lines intersect at the central Trindade station. Trindade is a station on the Porto Metro system in Porto, Portugal. Currently the whole network spans 60 km (37 miles) using 68 stations, thus being the biggest in the country.
The city has an extensive bus network run by the STCP (Sociedade dos Transportes Colectivos do Porto, or Porto Public Transport Society) which also operates lines in the neighbouring cities of Gaia, Maia and Gondomar. STCP ( Sociedade dos Transportes Colectivos do Porto, lit Porto Public Transport Society) is the public transport company that runs the bus service in Porto Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia, ( pron 'vilɐ 'nɔvɐ dɨ 'gajɐ is a city in Portugal. Gondomar ( pron gõdu'maɾ is a city and a municipality located in the east of Portugal 's Porto Metropolitan Area. Other smaller companies connect such towns as Paços de Ferreira and Santo Tirso to the town center. History Paços de Ferreira was incorporated in 1993. Sports associations F Santo Tirso 'sɐ̃tu 'tiɾsu is a city and municipality located in the north of Porto Metropolitan Area, Porto District, Portugal. In the past the city also had trolley-buses. A tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remain, saw its construction begin in 12 September 1895, therefore being the first in the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Taxicabs are available throughout the city and are recognizable as either cream sedans or black with green top cars (usually Mercedes-Benz models).
The road system capacity is augmented by the Via de Cintura Interna, an internal highway connected to several national highways and city exits, complementing the Circunvalação 4-way road, which borders the north of the city and connects the eastern side of the city to the Atlantic shore.
Porto lies just to the north of a coastal Mediterranean climate zone that encompasses most of central and southern Portugal. As a result, its climate shares many characteristics with the coastal south: temperate dry summers, and mild rainy winters. Unlike the south, however, cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the summer dry season and the season's average length is considerably shorter. Also, the city's more northern position and coastal location off the Atlantic often results in notably cooler weather in Porto than to its south, especially during summer.
Summers are typically sunny with temperatures between 17°C and 28°C but can rise to as high as 40°C during occasional heat waves, which typically last between 5 and 10 days. During such heat waves, the humidity remains quite low, but during dry years nearby forest fires can add haze and ash to the air making breathing somewhat uncomfortable, especially at night. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. Nearby beaches are often windy and usually cooler than the urban areas. In contrast, occasional summer rainy periods usually last a few days and are characterized by frequent showers, wind, and cool temperatures around 22°C in the afternoon.
Winter temperatures typically range between 6°C during morning and 14°C during afternoon, but can occasionally drop below 0°C at night. The weather is often rainy for long stretches, although prolonged sunny periods do occur.
Spring and Fall are smooth transitions between the neighboring seasons. Rain increases in frequency between late September and late October, and becomes less common in mid April or early May. Heat waves are extremely rare outside the months of June, July, and August; yet, most residents classify the months of July, August, and September as summer months. September is in fact slightly warmer on average than June, although heat waves are usually absent.
|Temperature min/max (ºC)||6/14||6/15||8/17||8/17||11/19||14/23||15/24||15/23||14/23||12/20||8/15||7/14|
|Chance of rain||46%||31%||35%||44%||42%||21%||14%||21%||23%||54%||47%||42%|
|Typical Sky||Partly Cloudy||Sunny||Sunny||Sunny||Partly Cloudy||Sunny||Sunny||Sunny||Sunny||Partly Cloudy||Sunny||Partly Cloudy|
Porto has always rivaled Lisbon in economic power. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. The Economy of Portugal is a high income market Economy. The Global Competitiveness Report for 2005, published by the World As the most important city in the heavily industrialised northwest, many of the largest Portuguese corporations from diverse economic sectors, like Altri, Amorim, Bial, Cerealis, BPI, CIN, EFACEC, Frulact, Lactogal, Millennium bcp, Porto Editora, Sonae, and Unicer, are headquartered in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto, most notably, in the core municipalities of Maia, Matosinhos, Porto, and Vila Nova de Gaia. Altri is a Portuguese industrial conglomerate headquartered in Porto. For the Portuguese civil parish see Amorim Póvoa de Varzim. Amorim is a Portuguese conglomerate with interests For the Bangalore International Airport Limited see BIAL. Bial ( Portela e Cª S Cerealis is a Portuguese food producer and the biggest milling company in Portugal headquartered in Maia, and founded in 1919 as a Cereal processing CIN - Corporação Industrial do Norte SA is a Portuguese company that is the Iberian market leader for paint & coating products The EFACEC Group is the largest Portuguese corporation in the field of Electromechanics and Electronics, with a strong presence in different international Frulact - Ingredientes para a Indústria de Laticínios Lda is a Food industry company specialized in fruit processing headquartered in Maia, Portugal Lactogal is a Portuguese food products company focused on Dairy products Milk, Fruit juice and Mineral water. Banco Comercial Português ("Portuguese Commercial Bank" also known as BCP was founded in 1985 and is the largest Bank of Portugal Porto Editora is an important educational publisher in Portugal in the areas of educational books dictionaries and multimedia products – off and on-line Sonae ( is a conglomerate, and is the largest private employer in Portugal with a strong appeal to senior managers and young graduates União Cervejeira SA ( Unicer) is a Portuguese Beer producer owner of several beer brands including Super Bock, Cristal, Cheers The Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto is a metropolitan area in coastal northern Portugal which covers 14 municipalities including the City of Porto, making Maia ( pron 'majɐ is a parish ( Freguesia) a city and a municipality in the Porto Metropolitan Area, Grande Porto Matosinhos ( pron mɐtu'ziɲuʃ is a Portuguese city and municipality Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia, ( pron 'vilɐ 'nɔvɐ dɨ 'gajɐ is a city in Portugal.
The city's former stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto) was transformed into the largest derivatives exchange of Portugal, and merged with Lisbon Stock Exchange to create the Bolsa de Valores de Lisboa e Porto, which eventually merged with Euronext, together with Amsterdam, Brussels, LIFFE and Paris stock and futures exchanges. A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a Corporation or Mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for Stock Euronext Lisbon is a Stock exchange in Lisbon, Portugal. It belongs to the NYSE Euronext group the first global stock exchange A futures exchange is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized Futures contracts; that is a contract to buy specific quantities of a Commodity Euronext Lisbon is a Stock exchange in Lisbon, Portugal. It belongs to the NYSE Euronext group the first global stock exchange Euronext Lisbon is a Stock exchange in Lisbon, Portugal. It belongs to the NYSE Euronext group the first global stock exchange Euronext NV is a pan- European Stock exchange based in Paris and with subsidiaries in Belgium, France, Netherlands This article is about the LIFFE until the takeover by Euronext The London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange ( LIFFE A futures exchange is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized Futures contracts; that is a contract to buy specific quantities of a Commodity The building formerly hosting the stock exchange is currently one of the city's touristic attractions, the Salão Árabe (Arab Room in English) being its major highlight.
Porto hosts a popular Portuguese newspaper, Jornal de Notícias. Jornal de Notícias (JN is a Portuguese daily national newspaper widely regarded as a Newspaper of record. The building where its offices are located (which has the same name as the newspaper) was up to recently one of the tallest in the city (it has been superseded by a number of modern buildings which have been built in the last 10 years).
Porto Editora, one of the biggest Portuguese publishers, is also in Porto. Porto Editora is an important educational publisher in Portugal in the areas of educational books dictionaries and multimedia products – off and on-line Its dictionaries are among the most popular references used in the country, and the translations are very popular as well.
The economic relations between the city of Porto and the Upper Douro River have been documented since the Middle Ages. The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. However, they were greatly deepened in the modern ages. Indeed, sumach, dry fruits and nuts and the Douro olive oils sustained prosperous exchanges between the region and Porto. Sumac (ˈʃuːmæk or /ˈs(juːmæk/ also spelled sumach) is any one of approximately 250 species of Flowering plants in the Genus Rhus Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees From the riverside quays at the river mouth, these products were exported to other markets of the Old and New World. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. But the greatest lever to interregional trade relations resulted from the commercial dynamics of the Port wine (Vinho do Porto) agro industry. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese, Fortified It decidedly bolstered the complementary relationship between the large coastal urban centre, endowed with open doors to the sea, and a region with significant agricultural potential, especially in terms of the production of extremely high quality fortified wines, today known by the world-famous label Port. The development of Porto was also closely connected with the left margin of River Douro in Vila Nova de Gaia, where is located the amphitheatre-shaped slope with the Port wine cellars. Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia, ( pron 'vilɐ 'nɔvɐ dɨ 'gajɐ is a city in Portugal.
In a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, Porto was the worst-ranked. Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given Market The study was made by Minho University economics researchers and was published in Público newspaper on 30th September 2006. Minho University or Universidade do Minho is a Public university in Portugal, divided in the following spaces Largo do Paço (headquarters Público, can refer to Público (Portugal, a Portuguese newspaper Público (Spain, a Spanish newspaper launched in September 2007 The best-ranked cities in the study were Évora, Lisbon and Coimbra. Évora (ˈɛvuɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The city proper has 41159 inhabitants and the municipality has a total area of 1307 Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Coimbra (kuˈĩbɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal, former capital of the country during the first dynasty period and home to the University of Coimbra  Although, the validity of this study was questioned by some Porto's notable figures (such as local politicians and businesspersons) who argued that the city proper does not function independently but in conurbation with other municipalities. 
The city has a large number of public and private basic and secondary schools, as well as kindergartens and nurseries. Education in Portugal is regulated by the State through two ministries - the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science Technology and Higher Education Due to the depopulation of the city's interior, however, the number of students has dropped substantially in the last decade, forcing a closure of some institutions. The largest and oldest international school located in Porto is the Oporto British School established in 1894.
Porto has several institutions of higher education, the larger one being the state-managed University of Porto (Universidade do Porto), which is the largest Portuguese university with approximately 28,000 students. The University of Porto ( Universidade do Porto) is a Portuguese Public university located in Porto, and founded 22 March A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects There are also a state-managed polytechnic institute, the Instituto Politécnico do Porto (a group of technical colleges), and privately-owned institutions like the Portuguese Catholic University at Porto (Universidade Católica Portuguesa - Porto) and the Porto's Higher Education School of Arts (ESAP- Escola Superior Artística do Porto). Institute of technology, and polytechnic, are designations employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable The Porto Polytechnic Institute ( Instituto Politécnico do Porto) also referred to as Porto Polytechnic ( Politécnico do Porto) for naming and branding The Catholic University of Portugal ( Universidade Católica Portuguesa, pron. Due to the recognition, potential for employment and higher revenue, there are many students from the entire country and particularly from the north of Portugal, attending a college or university in Porto. In 2007, a Higher Education Evaluation & Accreditation Council of Taiwan's ranking, placed the University of Porto in 459. It was the only Portuguese university in the top 500 according to the Taiwanese ranking.
Porto district has the highest rate of tuberculosis positive cases in Portugal. The District of Porto (sometimes Oporto in English is located on the north west coast of Portugal Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Porto tuberculosis rates are at Third World proportions (comparatively, London faces a similar phenomenon ). Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The incidence of positive cases was 23/100 000 nationwide in 1994, with a rate of 24/100 000 in Lisbon and 37/100 000 in Porto. Porto area represented the worst epidemiological situation in the country, with very high rates in some city boroughs and in some poor fishing and declining industrial communities. Epidemiological analysis indicated the existence of undisclosed sources of infection in these communities, responsible for continuing transmission despite a cure rate of 83% in the district.  In 2002 the situation was not better with 34/100 000 nationwide and 64/100 000 in Porto district. In 2004 the situation improved to 53/100 000. 
As in most Portuguese cities, football is the most important sport in the city. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Top division champions F.C. Porto and Boavista F.C. are both from Porto, while S.C. Salgueiros, a third club, has fallen into heavy debts and now plays in the third division after being one of the most regular first division clubs during the 1980s and 1990s. Futebol Clube do Porto ( pron futɨ'bɔɫ 'klub(ɨ du 'poɾtu - short FC Porto or FCP - is a Portuguese Sports club best known Boavista Futebol Clube ( pron boɐ'viʃtɐ often simply known as Boavista, is a Sports club from Porto, Portugal that was founded Sport Comércio e Salgueiros ( pron spɔɾ ku'mɛɾsiu i saɫ There are two major grounds, the Estádio do Dragão and the Estádio do Bessa, owned by the two Portuguese Liga clubs and present in the Euro 2004. Estádio do Dragão (English Dragon Stadium, literally Stadium of the Dragon) is a football Stadium in Porto, Portugal The Estádio do Bessa (now Estádio do Bessa XXI) is a football Stadium located in the Boavista area of Porto, Portugal, used by The Portuguese Liga ( pron 'liɣɐ currently named Liga Sagres after its main sponsor, is the league competition for Portuguese The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship (or just Euro 2004) was the twelfth edition of the UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football Salgueiros, who sold their Vidal Pinheiro ground to the Porto Metro company planned to build a new one in the Arca d'Água zone, few hundred meters away from the old grounds, but due to a large underground water pocket, it is impossible to build there, and so they moved to the Estádio do Mar in Matosinhos, owned by Leixões S.C. As there isn't a multi-purpose city-owned stadium, the only one with an athletics track is the Estádio Universitário, where the rugby team of the CDUP (Porto University Sports Team) plays. Matosinhos ( pron mɐtu'ziɲuʃ is a Portuguese city and municipality Leixões Sport Club, or simply Leixões, is a Sports club from Matosinhos, Portugal. Centro Desportivo Universitário do Porto or CDUP (Sports Center of University of Porto) is a Portuguese amateur sports club for students at the University There are other football grounds, with sand or dirt surfaces, owned by clubs in the amateur league, featured in a cult show on NTV named N*Amadores, the station was renamed RTP N and the show Liga dos Últimos, the exception being FC Porto's second stadium, the Campo da Constituição, now a footballing school. RTPN is Rádio e Televisão de Portugal 's 24-hour cable and satellite News channel. The Campo da Constituição was the second ground of Portuguese football side FC Porto, built in the Constituição area of Porto.
FC Porto won the UEFA Champions League in 1987 (then known as the European Cup) and in 2004. Estádio do Dragão (English Dragon Stadium, literally Stadium of the Dragon) is a football Stadium in Porto, Portugal See also List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League winners The UEFA Champions League, which evolved from the European Champion Clubs' Cup is a seasonal club Their long time president, Jorge Nuno Pinto da Costa, is one of the most charismatic figures in Portuguese football. Jorge Nuno de Lima Pinto da Costa, pron. 'ʒɾɾʒ(ɨ 'nunu 'pĩtu dɐ 'koʃtɐ (b He managed to establish FC Porto as one of the most powerful European football clubs and reduce the influence of the Lisbon clubs. Pinto da Costa is not the only charismatic figure in the recent history of FC Porto: José Mourinho coached Porto to a victory in the 2003 UEFA Cup (beating Celtic in the final in the Estadio Olímpico de Sevilla) and their 2004 Champions League win which was clinched with a victory over Monaco. José Mário dos Santos Félix Mourinho, GOIH (ʒuˈzɛ moˈɾiɲu (born 26 January 1963 in Setúbal) is a Portuguese The Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the east end of Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. Estadio Olímpico de Sevilla or Estadio Olímpico de la Cartuja is a multi-use stadium situated in Seville, Spain. The Association Sportive de Monaco Football Club is a Monegasque football club founded in 1919 FC Porto also won the Intercontinental Cup (also known as the Toyota Cup) in 1987 and once again in 2004. The European/South American Cup, commonly referred to as the Intercontinental Cup or Toyota Cup, was a football competition endorsed by
There are other sports arenas in Porto, notably the city-owned Pavilhão Rosa Mota (now unused due to a bad relationship between the mayor and the FC Porto board), swimming pools in the Constituição area, between the Marquês and Boavista, and other minor arenas, such as the Pavilhão do Académico. Pavilhão Rosa Mota is an Arena in Porto, Portugal. It is primarily used for Basketball.
Porto is also home to the North of Portugal's only cricket club, the Oporto Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Every year, for more than 100 years, a match, the Kendall Cup, has been played between the Oporto Club and the Casuals Club of Lisbon, as well as various games against touring teams, mainly from England. The Kendall Cup is the trophy awarded to the winners of a 2 day Cricket match between representative teams from Lisbon and Porto, in Portugal Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Club and pitch are located off Rua Campo Alegre.
In 1958 and 1960, Porto's streets hosted the Formula One Portuguese Grand Prix on the Boavista street circuit. The Portuguese Grand Prix ( Grande Premio de Portugal) was a Motorsports event held for several years mostly in the 1950s and then in the 1980s and 90s Circuito da Boavista was a Formula One street course in Oporto (Porto Portugal used twice for the Portuguese Grand Prix. A reenactment of the races was held from 8 July to 10 July, 2005. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.
In Athletics competitions, every year in October is the Porto Marathon in the streets of the town. The Porto Marathon is a Marathon race in the city of Porto, Portugal, held every year in October
The following places are twin towns to Oporto:
Within the context of development cooperation, Oporto is also linked to: