|Portland Aerial Tram|
|Operated by||Oregon Health & Science University|
|Type||bi-cable aerial tramway|
|Vertical distance||500 feet (152 m)|
|Horizontal distance||3,300 feet (1,006 m)|
|Duration of one-way trip||3 minutes|
|Maximum speed||22 mph (35 km/h)|
|Number of cars||2|
|Passenger capacity||78 per car|
|Daily round trips (passengers)||3,700 (one-way-trips)|
|Began service||December 2006|
|Tramway manufacturer||Doppelmayr CTEC|
|Official website||Portland Aerial Tram|
The Portland Aerial Tram is an aerial tramway in Portland, Oregon carrying commuters between the city's South Waterfront district and the main Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) campus, located in the Marquam Hill neighborhood. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Oregon Health & Science University ( OHSU) is a public University in Oregon with a main campus including three Hospitals in Portland An aerial tramway is a type of Aerial lift in which a cabin is suspended from a cable and is pulled by another cable Doppelmayr CTEC is an Aerial lift manufacturer based in Salt Lake City Utah and Saint-Jérôme Quebec and part of the An aerial tramway is a type of Aerial lift in which a cabin is suspended from a cable and is pulled by another cable Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers The South Waterfront (or SoWa is a new high-rise district under construction on former Brownfield industrial land in the South Portland neighborhood south of Oregon Health & Science University ( OHSU) is a public University in Oregon with a main campus including three Hospitals in Portland Homestead is a Southwest Portland Oregon neighborhood in the city's West Hills. It is the second commuter aerial tramway in the United States (after New York City's Roosevelt Island Tramway). The Roosevelt Island Tramway is an Aerial tramway in New York City that spans the East River and connects Roosevelt Island to Manhattan  The tram travels a horizontal distance of 3,300 feet (5/8 mi, 1 km) and a vertical distance of 500 feet (150 m) in a ride that lasts three minutes. 
The tram was jointly funded by OHSU, the City of Portland, and by South Waterfront property owners, with the bulk of the funding coming from OHSU. The Government of Portland Oregon, a city in the US state of Oregon, is based on a City commission government system It is owned by the city and operated by OHSU. While the majority of passengers are affiliated with OHSU, it is open to the public and operated as part of Portland's public transportation network that includes the Portland Streetcar, MAX Light Rail, and Tri-Met buses. Like transportation in the rest of the United States, the primary mode of local transportation in Portland Oregon is the Automobile. The Portland Streetcar is a Streetcar system in Portland Oregon that serves areas surrounding downtown. Metropolitan Area Express (MAX is a Light rail system in the Portland metropolitan area in the U TriMet, more formally known as the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, is a public agency that operates mass transit in a region that After opening in December 2006, the tram carried its one millionth passenger on October 17, 2007. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
The tram cost $57 million to build—a nearly fourfold increase over initial cost estimates, which was one of several sources of controversy concerning the project. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  A round-trip tram ticket costs $4; the tram is free for OHSU employees, patients, students, and visitors. 
The tram consists of two stations and a single intermediate tower. Two tram cars operate on parallel track ropes and are pulled in unison by a haul rope which is driven by an engine at the lower terminal; when one car is at the upper terminal, the other is at the lower terminal, and vice versa.  The lower station is located beside an OHSU facility in the South Waterfront neighborhood, adjacent to a stop on the Portland Streetcar line, which connects the South Waterfront neighborhood with downtown Portland. South Portland is a long narrow neighborhood just south of Downtown Portland Oregon, hemmed in between the Willamette River and the West Hills The upper station is located adjacent to OHSU Hospital, on the university's Marquam Hill campus. The two stations are exactly east and west of each other separated by a horizontal distance of 3,300 feet (5/8 mi, 1 km) and a vertical distance of 500 feet (150 m). The maximum vertical clearance between the tram and the ground is 175 feet (53. 4 m)
The tram route crosses over Interstate 5 as well as major thoroughfares such as Barbur Boulevard, Oregon Route 10 (Naito Parkway), and Oregon Route 43 (Macadam Avenue). In the US state of Oregon, Interstate 5 traverses across the state passing through the major cities of Portland, Salem, Eugene, Oregon Route 10 is an Oregon State highway which serves Portland and some of its western Suburbs Route description OR 10 begins Oregon Route 43 is an Oregon State highway that runs between the cities of Oregon City and Portland, mostly along the western flank of the The intermediate tower is located east of Interstate 5 close to the South Waterfront station. In the US state of Oregon, Interstate 5 traverses across the state passing through the major cities of Portland, Salem, Eugene, As a result of this configuration, much of the journey is significantly elevated above the ground, making the tram easily visible for some distance, and providing tram riders with good views of the eastern metropolitan area and the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington. The alternative to riding the tram is via public roadways which require a 1. 9 mile (3. 1 km) route with numerous stoplights and intersections.  This route includes a short stretch of busy U.S. Route 26, as well as twisty Sam Jackson Park Road which ascends the side of the Tualatin Mountains to the hospital campus. In the US state of Oregon, US Route 26 is a major cross-state State highway, connecting U The Tualatin Mountains (also known as the West Hills or Southwest Hills of Portland) are a range of hills on the western border of Multnomah County
The upper station is a freestanding steel and concrete tower 140 feet above grade and houses the tram's counterweight. It is structurally separate from nearby OHSU Hospital and connects to the hospital's ninth floor via a skybridge. Early examples of skywalks Copenhagen, Denmark: skywalk connecting courts building to adjacent uses 18th century Faaborg Structural separation between the tram and the hospital is necessary to avoid vibrations from tram machinery interfering with delicate microsurgery performed in the hospital. Microsurgery is a general term for Surgery requiring an operating Microscope. 
The 197 foot (60 m) intermediate tower allows the tram to gain elevation quickly once leaving the lower station to provide adequate clearance over Interstate 5. The tower is 22 feet wide and 20 feet long at its base (6. 7 m by 6 m), 8 feet by 8 feet (2. 4 m by 2. 4 m) at its narrowest point—nearly two-thirds up the tower—and 32 feet by 8 feet (9,8 m by 2. 4m) at the top. It rests on a pier cap 5 feet (1. 5 m) thick supported by 35 piers.  The tower was fabricated in nearby Vancouver, Washington and barged in three pieces up the Willamette River. Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U The Willamette River (pronounced) is a Tributary of the Columbia River. 
Nearly 1,250 tons of steel and 450 tons of concrete are in the two platforms and the intermediate tower; the lateral loads on the upper platform range from 500,000 to 800,000 pounds (2. 2 million to 3. 6 million newtons) of force. The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical 
Each tram car travels on a pair of 2 inch (49 mm) steel track ropes, totaling four cables. The track ropes combined are tensioned at over one million pounds (4. 4 million newtons). A fifth cable—the haul rope—is a continuous loop which winds around the drive bullwheel at the lower station, connects to one car, winds through a counterweighted bullwheel at the upper station, then to the other car, before joining itself. For the US Navy fuel oil barge see USNS Bullwheel. A bullwheel is a large wheel on which a Rope turns such as in a A counterweight is an equivalent counterbalancing weight that balances a load For the US Navy fuel oil barge see USNS Bullwheel. A bullwheel is a large wheel on which a Rope turns such as in a  The haul rope length is over 7000 feet (2100 m). 
The tram cars each weigh approximately 12 tons, with cabin dimensions of 25 feet by 11 feet (7. 5 m by 3. 3 m). Each car has a capacity of over 13 tons and there is sufficient room in the cabin for 78 passengers and one operator. The tram cars were built by Gangloff Switzerland in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and were shaped and painted to look like the architectural firm's vision of "bubbles floating through the sky". Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The surface of the cabins reflect and refract light, minimizing their visual impact to the neighborhood underneath.  The two cars are named Jean and Walt, after Jean Richardson, the first female engineering graduate from Oregon State University, and Walt Reynolds, the first African-American to graduate from OHSU, then known as the University of Oregon Medical School. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Oregon State University ( OSU) is a Coeducational public Research[[ university]] located in Corvallis, Oregon, United African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa 
The tram is propelled by three independent drive systems. The primary drive is a 450 kilowatt (600 hp) variable-frequency electric motor. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. Two hydrostatic diesel engines are also part of the design: one is a standby drive, permitting operation during a power outage; the other is an emergency evacuation drive. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum A power outage (also known as power cut, power failure, power loss, or blackout) is the loss of the Electricity supply to an . A 40-ton counterweight offsets the weight of the cars.  The tram is capable of operating at speeds up to 22 miles per hour (35 km per hour).
In addition to the redundant drive system, the tram has numerous other design features intended to ensure the safety of passengers and persons on the ground under its route. Communications systems permit the tram car operators to communicate to the control room. Automatic supervisory and control systems monitor the condition of the ropes and the drive systems. The tram was designed to safely operate in the earthquake-prone Pacific Northwest, with a structural design exceeding U. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean S earthquake standards, and operate in sustained winds of up to 50 mph (80 km/h). An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer 
The tram operates from Monday through Friday from 6:00 AM to 10:00 PM and on Saturdays from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, Pacific Time. The Pacific Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC-8) The tram is closed on Sundays and major holidays, except afternoon summer Sunday service is available.  The fare is $4. A fare is the Fee paid by a traveler allowing him or her to make use of a Public transport system rail, Bus, taxi, etc 00 per round trip, collected when traveling from South Waterfront to Marquam Hill. The tram is free for OHSU employees, students, patients, and visitors. An annual pass is available for $100. Tri-Met, C-Tran, and Portland Streetcar passes are honored. The Clark County Public Transit Benefit Area Authority (C-TRAN is a public agency serving Clark County, Washington, United States, including the cities  A ride on the tram normally lasts three minutes. 
Transportation officials originally estimated the tram would carry over 1,500 people a day, a figure that was expected to rise to 5,500 by 2030.  Those initial estimates proved to be pessimistic: the tram actually attracted one million riders in its first 10½ months of operation, an average of 3,700 riders per day. 
In late 2001, OHSU purchased property in the South Waterfront (then known as North Macadam) area, with plans to expand there. After studying several ways, including shuttle buses, gondola lifts, tunnels, and even funiculars, to connect OHSU's primary campus on Marquam Hill with this area of planned expansion, the university sought city support of an aerial tram. A gondola lift is a type of Aerial lift, often called a cable car, which consists of a loop of Steel cable that is strung between two stations A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon A funicular, also known as a funicular railway, incline, inclined railway, inclined plane, or cliff railway, is a type of self-contained 
In early 2002, Portland Aerial Transportation, Inc. (PATI) was formed as a non-profit board. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage  One of its first public actions was to request the Portland Office of Transportation, also known as PDOT,sic to undertake an independent analysis of the connectivity options considered earlier by the university and its development supporters. Sic is a Latin word meaning "thus" "so" "as such" or "just as that" In May 2002, the city council accepted PDOT's process proposal and also accepted PATI as the project sponsor. PDOT's assessment led to the same conclusion OHSU had reached earlier: an aerial tram was the preferred approach. PDOT also recommended a second tram linking the Marquam Hill area with a nearby transit center on SW Barbur Boulevard. In July 2002, the city council accepted PDOT's recommendations and asked PDOT and PATI to proceed to the design phase, including a design competition. The Government of Portland Oregon, a city in the US state of Oregon, is based on a City commission government system  Both were also asked to work with residents of the affected neighborhoods to identify ways to mitigate the tram's impact and identify other desired neighborhood improvements which should accompany the project.
The design competition started out by identifying four firms which would participate in the contest. The competition officially began in January 2003, with firms from New York City, Amsterdam, and Los Angeles/Zurich as finalists. The City of New York Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the The winner, Los Angeles/Zurich-based Angélil / Graham / Pfenninger / Scholl, was announced on March 26, 2003. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.  In November, PATI chose Doppelmayr CTEC to design, fabricate and install the tram. Doppelmayr CTEC is an Aerial lift manufacturer based in Salt Lake City Utah and Saint-Jérôme Quebec and part of the The first public review of the project's status was November 2003.
Construction began in August 2005. The bulk of the construction occurred in 2006, with work on both platforms and the intermediate tower occurring through the summer of that year. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Installation of the engines and other equipment occurred during the spring and early summer of 2006, which was followed by installation of the cables during the late summer and early fall. 
On October 29, 2006, the tram's two cars arrived from Switzerland after a week-long delay. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  An inaugural run of the tram was conducted on November 9, 2006. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  Four tram construction workers were the first to test ride the tram while harnessed to the roof and suspending arm. Testing on the tram continued through November.  The tram opened to OHSU employees on December 1, 2006. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The tram opened to the public on January 27, 2007. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
The project suffered significant cost overruns during its construction. Construction cost was nearly four times the initial estimate, a development that nearly led to the tram's cancellation mid-construction. Operating costs are nearly twice original projections.  When the city approved the tram project, it was understood that OHSU would pay for most it.  While the taxpayer share has grown, OHSU is paying for 85% of the total cost of the tram yet it will be operated as public transit facility. 
The initial budget for the tram, published in November 2002, was $15. 5 million, excluding "soft costs" such as project management and architect's fees.  The planned sources for the $15. 5 million included a direct $4 million cash contribution from OHSU, $9. 5 from local improvement districts set up to fund tram construction, of which OHSU's share was $4. 8 million, and $2 million from the city of Portland, via the Portland Development Commission. Other property owners in the South Waterfront Local Improvement District would pay the remaining $3. 7 million.
In April 2004, the second public review was held to present project recommendations prior to a May review by the city council. The costs by then were estimated to be $28. 5 million, including soft costs. The City's share at that time was $3. 5 million.  In April 2005, the price was readjusted again to $40 million  with a construction delay of six months. Higher steel costs, weakening US dollars, and engineering modifications were blamed. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 By October, The Oregonian reported that steel costs had led to bids pushing the project's price (with contingency funds) to $45 million. The Oregonian is the major daily Newspaper in Portland Oregon, owned by Advance Publications. The increased cost was expected to be met through South Waterfront urban renewal contributions which would have otherwise been spent on streets and parks. Urban Renewal (similar to Urban Regeneration in British English) is a controversial U 
In January 2006, Portland city commissioner Sam Adams, who inherited the city's oversight of the project, undertook several actions in response to spiraling costs. January 2006: ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July Sam Adams is a city council member and mayor-elect of Portland Oregon. The executive director of PATI was ousted, and a month-long independent audit and risk assessment was undertaken; its results were published February 1, 2006. The most general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person organization system process project or product Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. By this point, construction was over one third completed. 
The audit revealed that OHSU managers knew as early as 2003 that the tram would cost well in excess of the original $15. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. 5 million figure, partially due to a change in location of the upper terminal to accommodate planned hospital construction, but had withheld that information from city leaders. This resulted in harsh public criticism of OHSU management, with city commissioner Randy Leonard accusing the university leadership of an "outrageous shell game. . . all at the expense of taxpayers".  As a result, the City of Portland threatened to withdraw funding from the tram mid-construction, which would probably have scuttled the project. OHSU protested vigorously, threatening a lawsuit should the tram be canceled, and claimed the city was responsible for making up any budget shortfall.  Negotiations between the city, OHSU, and the contractors ensued, with a revised funding plan and budget being agreed upon in April 2006, by a 3-2 vote of the city council.  This revised funding plan required concessions from all parties involved, and called for a final budget of $57 million, with contributions from the City to be $8. 5 million, or nearly 15% of the overall budget.  This final budget was met.
Operating costs are also higher than expected. Originally, it was expected to cost $915,000 annually, but is now expected to be $1,700,000. As a result, the fare, originally estimated at $1. 70, is set at $4—about the same as two one-way all-zone tickets on Tri-Met ($4. 10).  The fare is waived for OHSU employees, students, patients, and visitors, and those with transit passes on Tri-Met or the Portland Streetcar.  Operating costs are divided between the city and OHSU in proportion to the ridership (If 85 percent of passengers are OHSU-related, OHSU pays 85 percent of the operating cost). 
Even prior to the cost increases which plagued the design and construction of the tram, the project has been subject to criticism from the public. Many residents in the neighborhoods under the tram's route object to the tram's presence. The cost increases themselves, and the perceived machinations of public officials, have been controversial. Some consider the project an unworthy use of public funds at any price, either due to a lack of benefit for those not associated with OHSU, or due to opposition to such projects in general.
Many residents of the Corbett-Terwilliger and Lair Hill neighborhoods, over which the tram passes, were concerned the cars would be an invasion of privacy and lead to lower property values.  Initially, residents were promised that overhead power lines would be buried as part of the project, but as cost overruns mounted, this plan was scrapped.  Neighborhood opponents of the tram have cited other reasons for opposing the tram's construction, including the fact that the North Corbett neighborhood is a National Historic District. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of  Some residents filed a lawsuit against the city and OHSU, claiming that they own the "airspace" above their properties.  The city later offered to purchase homes directly under the tram route at fair market value. 
Even after its completion, the tram remains unpopular with some living underneath its route. In April 2007, homeowner Justin Auld, living under the tram route, placed a sign on his roof stating "FUCK THE TRAM" in large block letters. April 2007 is the fourth month of that year It began on a Sunday and 30 days later ended on a Monday. The sign is not visible from the street, only from the air. Officials had looked into whether or not the sign violated any laws.  The publicity surrounding the sign prompted city officials to quietly negotiate with the home owner, and the sign has since been moved and the expletive covered. 
Both OHSU and the city of Portland have taken much public criticism for ballooning development costs. Local television station KATU questioned the relative price of the Portland tram compared to a new tram at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort tram, which is being built by the same company, will carry twenty-eight percent more passengers three and a half times the distance and eight times the height, but will cost only $25 million. For the ABC -affiliated television station in Portland Oregon, see KATU. Just northwest of Jackson Wyoming is the Jackson Hole Mountain Resort at Teton Village Wyoming. 
The tram's supporters, however, have claimed that many of the increases are justified, or due to circumstances beyond the developers' control. The auditor's report, commissioned in 2006, complimented the tram as "a dramatic, one-of-a-kind facility that will become a Portland landmark," and noted that the design was difficult to construct, requiring the tall, thin, complex tower and the tall, heavily loaded upper terminal to be built within very tight tolerances. 
Special risks cited include:
In addition, it has been claimed that the re-planning delayed the tram's completion. One of the designers of the tram noted that "if we added up all the times we went back to try to save money, we probably lost a year. Maybe we saved $2 million, but what did we lose? If we had an extra year, that would have meant a lot. "
Some critics cite the tram as an example of corporate welfare for OHSU with limited public benefit. Corporate welfare is a term describing a government's bestowal of money grants tax breaks, or other special favorable treatment on Corporations or select corporations  A 2001 study done by OHSU prior to the tram being designed projected that the tram would have 4,700 riders per day by 2030, with less than one fifth (850) of those being non-OHSU users. 2030 ( MMXXX) will be a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.  While the lower station has easy public access, access to the upper station requires navigating through the OHSU hospital. The Cascade Policy Institute, a local libertarian research group, criticized the project for being "railroaded through the political process by small groups of private interests", and expressed doubt that tram construction would lead to new jobs. Cascade Policy Institute is a non-profit, non-partisan Libertarian public policy research organization based in Portland Oregon that focuses on state and Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the 
Others argue that while the issues of increasing public costs are real, the importance of continued growth of OHSU for the city's economy must be factored in as well. Not only is it the largest employer in the city, but OHSU is an important and effective vehicle to attract both federal funding, totaling more than 168 million dollars for 2005, and a highly skilled workforce to the area. The growth in the current campus on the Marquam Hill is limited by access roads and parking, an expansion of which would likely cause more dramatic harm to the surrounding communities. 
The tram has been praised for its visual impact. PortlandArt. net called the tram "the most significant new piece of architecture to be added to Portland since Michael Graves' Portland Building in 1980". Michael Graves (born July 9, 1934) is an American Architect. Identified as one of The New York Five, Graves has become a household name The Portland Public Service Building, popularly known as the Portland Building, is a 15-story municipal office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland  The tram has also won several architectural awards, including the American Institute of Architects' Los Angeles chapter’s 2006 NEXT Honor Award, and the 2007 Presidential Award of Excellence from the American Institute of Steel Construction. The American Institute of Architects (AIA is a professional organization for Architects in the United States. 
According to city commissioner Adams, a cheaper alternative which would have changed the tower's designs to a lattice style used in electrical transmission towers, was not considered because the result would look like an "ugly ski lift at a bad ski resort" and leave the city with what Adams called an "ugly postcard" that could last 100 years. The term ski lift can refer to many different types of uphill transport in three main classes Lift systems and networks The network lifts at a Ski A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick Paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an Envelope and  Critics of the tram have also expressed concern over the tram spoiling views from the city's West Hills, particularly from Gibbs Street, under the tram.