Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney, Australia. A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. It is known for its beauty, and in particular, as the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia } The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a Steel arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business The harbour is also used during the New Years Eve Fireworks and the start of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race. The Sydney Harbour New Year's Eve Fireworks are held every New Year's Eve over Sydney Harbour, centering at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. For the current edition of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race see 2007 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race.
The land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of European discovery and colonisation by various tribes including the Gadigal, Cammeraygal, Eora and Wanegal peoples. The Cadigal, also spelled as Gadigal, are a group of Aboriginal Australians who originally inhabited the area that they called 'Cadi' part of which later became The Cammeraygal (variously spelt Cam-mer-ray-gal Gamaraigal Kameraigal or Cameragal are an Indigenous Australian people that inhabited the Lower North Shore area The traditional owners of the inner Sydney City region of Australia are the Cadigal people one of the peoples who belong to the Eora language group The Gadigal people are said to have occupied the land stretching along the south side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head, in an arc west through to Petersham. Petersham is a Suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, The Cammeraygal lived on the northern side of the harbour. The area along the southern banks of the Parramatta River, west of Petersham to Rose Hill, was reported to belong to the Wanegal. Founded on the 2 November, 1788, Rose Hill in New South Wales was the first colonial settlement established by Governor Phillip. The Eora people lived on the southern side of the harbour, close to where the First Fleet settled.
The harbour's discovery by Europeans is credited to Lt James Cook in 1770, although he did not enter it. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and Cook named the harbour after Sir George Jackson, Judge Advocate of the Fleet at the time; he noted in his log that "there appears to be a good anchorage". Sir George Jackson (1725 &ndash 1822 British politician sat as a Member of Parliament (MP at various times for Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, and Colchester In the United Kingdom, the Judge Advocate of Her Majesty's Fleet was a civilian Judge who was responsible for the supervision and superintendence of the Court Captain Arthur Phillip established the first colony in Australia at Sydney Cove inside Port Jackson in 1788 which was to become the city of Sydney. Admiral Arthur Phillip RN (11 October 1738 &ndash 31 August 1814 was a British naval Admiraland colonial administrator Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Port Jackson (commonly but incorrectly called Sydney Harbour) on the coast of the state of New South In his first dispatch from the colony back to England, Governor Phillip noted that ". . . we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security. . . ".
In 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, an anti-submarine boom net was constructed on Green (Laings) Point, Watsons Bay. It spanned the harbour from Green Point to Georges Head on the north side of the harbour. On the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines attempted to enter the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom net's central section. In late May and early June 1942 during World War II, Submarines belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy made a series of attacks on the cities of Sydney Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges to destroy it, killing themselves in the process. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after WWII, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, which can be viewed on Green (Laings) Point Watsons Bay. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
A number of former fortifications line Sydney Harbour, some of which are now heritage listed. The Georges Head Battery is located on Georges Head in the suburb of Mosman in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Watsons Bay is a harbourside eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Dawes Battery (located under the southern end of the Sydney Harbour Bridge) was recently excavated, revealing works from the 1830s. Other forts date back to 1871 and were built following the removal of British forces from Australia (the Cardwell Reforms) in 1870, which left the colony of New South Wales to organise its own defences. The Cardwell Reforms refer to a series of reforms of the British Army undertaken by Secretary of State for War (and former soldier Edward Cardwell between The fortifications and gun emplacements were designed to defend Sydney town in the event of a seaborn attack and to beat down any convict uprisings. Sydney Harbour was protected by coastal batteries and other fixed defences from the early 1800s until the 1960s There are four historical fortifications located between Taronga Zoo and Middle Head, Mosman, they are; the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head, known as the Bradleys Head Fortification Complex. Mosman is a Suburb on the Lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Middle Head Fortification is located at the end of Old Fort Road Middle Head, Georges Heights in Sydney, Australia. The Georges Head Battery is located on Georges Head in the suburb of Mosman in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position is located in the urban locality of Georges Heights New South Wales in the suburb of Mosman on the shores of Port Jackson Bradley's Head is a headland protruding from the north shore of Sydney Harbour, within the metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia The Bradleys Head Fortification Complex is a small fort located on the northern side of Toronga Park Zoo that formed part of a total defence system for Sydney Harbour and recalls a period The forts were built from sandstone quarried on site and consist of various tunnels, underground rooms, open batteries and casemated batteries, shell rooms, gunpowder magazines, barracks and trenches. A gunpowder magazine is a magazine (building designed to store the explosive Gunpowder in wooden Barrels for safety 
Geologically, Port Jackson is a drowned river valley, or ria. The Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Australia are the largest of three major botanical gardens open to the public in Sydney along with the Mount Annan Botanic Garden A ria is a Landform, often referred to as a drowned river valley. It is 19 km long with an area of 55 km². The estuary's volume at high tide is 562,000 megalitres. The perimeter of the estuary is 317 kilometres.
According to the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales, Port Jackson is "a harbour which comprises all the waters within an imaginary line joining North Head and South Head. The Geographical Names Board of New South Wales was established in 1966 as the official body for naming and recording details of Places and Geographical Within this harbour lies North Harbour, Middle Harbour and Sydney Harbour. " These three harbours extend from the single entrance (known as Sydney Heads (North and South Heads)). Sydney Heads (also simply known as 'The Heads' is the entrance to Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. North Harbour is the shortest, and is really just a large bay extending to Manly. Manly is a Suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Middle Harbour extends to the north-west. It is bridged at The Spit and Roseville. Roseville is a Suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Its headwaters lie in Garigal National Park. Garigal National Park is a national park in New South Wales ( Australia) 20 km north of central Sydney. The longest arm, Sydney Harbour, extends west as far as Balmain, where it is fed by the estuaries of the Parramatta and Lane Cove rivers. The Parramatta River is a waterway in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Lane Cove River is a tributary of the Parramatta River and its lower reaches form an arm of Sydney Harbour, Australia. Port Jackson is bridged by the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the ANZAC Bridge (formerly known as the Glebe Island Bridge). The ANZAC Bridge or Anzac Bridge (both forms are used by the Roads and Traffic Authority) formerly known as the Glebe Island Bridge, is a large A tunnel, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel passes underneath the Harbour, to the east of the bridge, and in 2005 it was proposed that a third harbour crossing, this time a railway line, be constructed to the west of the bridge. The Sydney Harbour Tunnel is a twin tube road tunnel in Sydney, Australia. The harbour is heavily embayed. The bays on the south side tend to be wide and rounded, whereas those on the north side are generally narrow inlets. Sydney's major central business district begins at Circular Quay, a small bay on the south side that has, over time, had its semi-circle reclaimed by land to the point where it is a rectangular quay. A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city Sydneyferries4JPG|right|thumb| Ferries moored at Circular Quay]]Circular Quay1 The northern side of the harbour is mainly used for residential purposes.
The waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the New South Wales Maritime Authority.
There are several islands within the harbour, including Shark Island, Clark Island, Fort Denison, Goat Island, Cockatoo Island, Spectacle Island, Snapper Island and Rodd Island. Shark Island is an island in Sydney Harbour, Australia. It lies offshore of the Sydney suburbs of Point Piper, Rose Bay and Vaucluse Clark Island is an island in Sydney Harbour, Australia. It lies offshore of the Sydney suburb of Darling Point, in the eastern section of the Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north of the Royal Botanical Gardens in Sydney Harbour, New South Wales Goat Island is a rocky island in Sydney Harbour, in New South Wales, Australia. Cockatoo Island is the largest island in Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Spectacle Island is an island in Sydney Harbour, Australia. It lies in the main channel of the western section of the harbour upstream of the Harbour Bridge Snapper Island is a 165 hectare island in Sydney Harbour, Australia. Rodd Island is a small island on the Parramatta River in Sydney, Australia. Some other former islands, including Bennelong Island, Garden Island and Berry Island, have subsequently been linked to the shore by land reclamation. Bennelong Point is the location of the Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia ( Garden Island is an inner-city locality of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
Sydney Ferries is a state-owned corporation of the New South Wales Government providing commuter and tourist passenger ferry services in Sydney Harbour. Sydney Ferries is a state owned corporation of the New South Wales Government providing commuter Ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia