The Porajmos (also Porrajmos), literally Devouring, is a term coined by the Romani people to describe attempts by the regime in Nazi Germany to exterminate most of the Romani peoples of Europe as part of the Holocaust. Belzec (Bełżec approximate Polish pronunciation bew-zhets) was the first of the Nazi German Extermination camps created for implementing The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
The phenomenon has been little studied and largely overshadowed by the Shoah (the Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to exterminate Jews). " The Holocaust " is the name commonly applied since the mid 1970s to the killing of six million Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II Other aspects of the Holocaust included the Nazi campaign against people with disabilities (see Action T4), and the slavery of Christian Polish people in concentration camps. Action T4 (Aktion T4 was a program in Nazi Germany spanning October 1939 until August 1941 during which physicians killed 70273 peoplespecified in Hitler's
Because the Romani communities of Eastern Europe were less organized than the Jewish communities, it is more difficult to assess the actual number of victims, though it is believed to range from 220,000 to 500,000. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Only in recent years has the Romani community begun to demand acceptance among the victims of the Nazi regime. The response so far has been mixed.
Some Russian and Balkan Romani activists protest against using the word Porajmos. In Balkan dialects this word is a synonym of a word Poravipe which have meanings "Violation" and "Rape", so the activists consider the word to be abusive. The Balkan Romani activists offer the term "Samudaripen" , and some Russian Romani activists offer the term "Kali Traš" .
The term porajmos was introduced into the literature by the Romani scholar and activist Ian Hancock, in the early 1990s, though he did not coin the term. Ian Hancock ( Romani: Yanko le Redžosko) is a renowned linguist Romani scholar and human rights advocate  There is also another term, Samudaripen (Mass killing), coined by Marcel Courthiade, but dismissed as not conforming to the Romani language. .
In the thousand years that Romani tribes lived in Europe, they were subject to antiziganist persecution and humiliation; they were stigmatized as habitual criminals, social misfits, and vagabonds. The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called " Aryan race " and Antiziganism (æntaɪˈzigənɪzm or Anti-Romanyism is hostility Prejudice or Racism directed at the Roma people, commonly called Gypsies Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or Beliefs that are against cultural norms. A vagabond is an Itinerant person Such people may be called Tramps rogues or Hobos A vagabond is characterised by almost continuous travelling Given the Nazi predilection for “racial purity,” it would seem inevitable that the Roma would be among their first victims. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Nevertheless, in the earliest days of the Third Reich, the Roma posed a problem for Hitler’s racial ideologues. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The Gypsy language (Romani) is one of the Indo-Aryan languages, originating in northern India. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Nazi anthropologists realized that Roma migrated into Europe from India and were thus descendants of the Aryan occupants of the subcontinent, thought at the time to have invaded India from Europe. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" In other words, the Roma are native speakers of an Aryan language; the Roma were as Aryan, or perhaps even more Aryan, than the Germans themselves.
Nazi racialist Hans F. K. Günther added a socioeconomic component to the theory of racial purity. Hans Friedrich Karl Günther ( February 16 1891 in Freiburg – September 25 1968 also in Freiburg While he conceded that the Roma were, in fact, descended from Aryans, they were of poorer classes that had mingled with the various “inferior” races they encountered during their wanderings. This, he explained, accounted for their extreme poverty and nomadic lifestyle. While he conceded that there were some groups that were “purely Aryan,” most Gypsies posed a threat to Aryan homogeneity because of their racial mingling.
To study the problem further, the Nazis established the Racial Hygiene and Demographic Biology Research Unit (Rassenhygienische und Bevölkerungsbiologische Forschungsstelle, Department L3 of the Reich Department of Health) in 1936. Headed by Dr. Robert Ritter and his assistant Eva Justin, the body was mandated to conduct an in-depth study of the “Gypsy question (Zigeunerfrage)” and to provide data required for formulating a new Reich Gypsy law. Robert Ritter ( 14 May 1901 — circa 1951 was a German psychologist best known for his work that led to persecution and Genocide of After extensive fieldwork in the spring of 1936, consisting of interviews and medical examinations to investigate genealogical and genetic data, it was determined that most Roma posed a danger to German racial purity and should be eliminated. Genealogy (from Greek: el γενεά el-Latn genea, "descent" and el λόγος el-Latn logos, "knowledge" is the study of Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is No decision was made regarding the remainder (about 10 percent of the total Romani population of Europe), primarily Sinti and Lalleri tribes living in Germany, though several suggestions were made. Sinti or Sinta (Singular masc=Sinto sing fem=Sintisa is the name of a European Ethnic group. At one point Heinrich Himmler even suggested the establishment of a remote reservation, where “pure Gypsies” could continue their nomadic lifestyle unhindered. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. According to him:
. . . The aim of measures taken by the State to defend the homogeneity of the German nation must be the physical separation of Gypsydom from the German nation, the prevention of miscegenation, and finally, the regulation of the way of life of pure and part-Gypsies. Miscegenation (Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind" is the mixing of different racial groups, that is marrying, cohabiting
On November 14, 1935, The Law for the "Protection of Blood and Honor" colloquially knowns as the Nuremberg laws. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. Where Marriage between non-Aryans and Aryans is forbidden. Criteria defining who is Gypsy are exactly twice as strict as those defining any other group. The second Nuremberg law, The Reich Citizenship Law, stripped citizenship from non-Aryans Blacks. The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse and Gypsies, like Jews, lost their right to vote on March 7, 1936. Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The sterilization of Gypsies was started as early as 1933, also in 1933, camps were being established by the Nazis to contain Gypsies at Dachau, Dieselstrasse, Mahrzan and Vennhausen.
The vast majority of Jews were to suffer the same indignities as the Roma. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Scholarly estimates of deaths in the Sinti and Roma genocide range from 220,000 to 500,000  although Ian Hancock challenges this figure and puts the estimates as 500,000 to 1,500,000.  They were herded into ghettos, including the Warsaw Ghetto (April–June, 1942), where they formed a distinct subclass. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by Ghetto diarist Emmanuel Ringelblum speculated that Roma were sent to the Warsaw Ghetto because the Germans wanted:
. Emanuel Ringelblum ( November 21, 1900 – March 7, 1944) was a Polish-Jewish historian politician and social worker known . . to toss into the Ghetto everything that is characteristically dirty, shabby, bizarre, of which one ought to be frightened, and which anyway has to be destroyed. 
Further east, teams of Einsatzgruppen tracked down Romani encampments and murdered the inhabitants on the spot, leaving no records of the victims. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and
Roma were also victims of the puppet regimes that cooperated with the Third Reich during the war, especially the notorious Ustaše regime in Croatia. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: In Jasenovac concentration camp, along with Serbs and Jews, tens of thousands of Roma were killed. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Serbian Roma are parties to the pending Class action suit against the Vatican Bank and others currently pending in US Federal Court seeking return of wartime loot. The class action suit against the Vatican Bank and Franciscan Order was filed by attorneys Tom Easton and Dr 
On December 16, 1942, Himmler ordered that the Romani candidates for extermination should be deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany To the Romani people of Europe, this order was equivalent to the January 20 decision of that same year, made at the Wannsee Conference, at which Nazi bureaucrats decided on the “Final Solution” to the “Jewish problem. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. The Wannsee Conference was a Meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on The Final Solution ( Die Endlösung) was Nazi Germany 's plan and execution of its systematic Genocide against European Jewry during World ” Himmler then ordered, on November 15, 1943, that Gypsies and “part-Gypsies” were to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ”
The governments of some Nazi German allies, namely Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, also contributed to the Nazi plan of Romani extermination, but this was implemented on a smaller scale and most Romani in these countries survived, unlike those in Ustashe Croatia or in areas directly ruled by Nazi Germany (such as Poland). Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The demographic effect is still noticeable today, with the populations of those countries who did not try to exterminate their Roma now between 7-10% Roma (see Romani people). The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins The Hungarian Arrow Cross government deported between 28,000 and 33,000 Roma out of a population estimated between 70,000 and 100,000. In the traditional terminology of Heraldry, this symbol was called a "cross barby" or "cross barbee"
The Croatian government sent 26,000; of the Roma killed, about half were murdered at the Jasenovac concentration camp. Similarly, the Romanian government of Ion Antonescu had its own concentration camps in Transnistria to which 25,000 Romani people were deported, of whom 11,000 died. "Antonescu" redirects here For other persons with that surname see Antonescu (surname. Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian  At least one notable Jewish Holocaust victim appears to have seen Gypsies at Auschwitz - Anne Frank .
In the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Romani internees were sent to the Lety and Hodonín concentration camps before being transferred to Auschwitz-Birkenau for gassing. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren Protektorát Čechy a Morava was the majority ethnic-Czech Protectorate which The concentration camps in Lety and Hodonín were World War II internment camps for Roma (Gypsies from the Protectorate of Bohemia "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany What makes the Lety camp unique is that it was staffed by Czech guards, who could be even more brutal than the Germans, as testified in Paul Polansky’s book Black Silence. Paul Polansky is an American author and activist working for the rights of the Roma people (also called Gypsies) The genocide was so thorough that the vast majority of Romani in the Czech Republic today are actually descended from migrants from Slovakia who moved there during the post-war years in Czechoslovakia. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
On October 23, 2007, Romanian President Traian Băsescu publicly apologized for his nation's role in the Porajmos, the first time a Romanian leader has done so. Traian Băsescu (born November 4 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer He called for the Porajmos to be taught in schools, stating that, "We must tell our children that six decades ago children like them were sent by the Romanian state to die of hunger and cold". Part of his apology was in the Romani language. Băsescu also awarded three Porajmos survivors with an Order for Faithful Services.