Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the elites". Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political system changes and/or a rhetorical style, deployed by members of political or social movements competing for advantage within the existing party system.
Academic and scholarly definitions of populism vary widely. "To each his own definition of populism, according to the academic axe he grinds," wrote Peter Wiles in Populism: Its Meanings and National Characteristics (1969), the first major comparative study of populism by Ernest Gellner and Ghita Ionescu. In fact, among both journalists and scholars, the term is often employed in loose, inconsistent and undefined ways to denote appeals to ‘the people’, ‘demagogy’ and ‘catch-all’ politics or as a receptacle for new types of parties whose classification observers are unsure of. Another factor held to diminish the value of ‘populism’ in some societies is that, as Margaret Canovan notes in her 1981 study, unlike labels such as ‘conservative’ or ‘socialist’, the meanings of which have been ‘chiefly dictated by their adherents’, contemporary populists rarely call themselves ‘populists’ and usually reject the term when it is applied to them by others . Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Exceptions to this pattern of pejorative usage exist (for example in the United States), but it is debated whether this is due to the memories and traditions of earlier democratic movements (e. g. farmers' movements, New Deal reform movements, and the civil rights movement) that were often called and called themselves populist or whether this is because of linguistic confusions of populism with terms such as "popular" .
In recent years, scholars have made advances in defining the term in ways which can be profitably employed in research and that can also help clarify the origins of such differences. One of the latest of these is the definition by Daniele Albertazzi and Duncan McDonnell who, in their volume Twenty-First Century Populism, define populism as pitting "a virtuous and homogeneous people against a set of elites and dangerous ‘others’ who are together depicted as depriving (or attempting to deprive) the sovereign people of their rights, values, prosperity, identity and voice" . The 21st century is the current century of the Christian Era or Common Era in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Recent scholarship has also discussed populism as a rhetorical style; as such, the term "populist" may be applied to proponents of widely varying political philosophies. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights Leaders of populist movements in recent decades have claimed to be on both the left and the right of the political spectrum, while some populists claim to be neither "left wing," "centrist" nor "right wing. A political spectrum (plural Spectra) is a way of modeling different political positions by placing them upon one or more geometric axes In Politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting Moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes "
A third group of recent scholars beginning with Lawrence Goodwyn’s Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America argues that populism is a “movement politics” of organizing for popular empowerment or civic agency -- the capacities of ordinary people to be architects and agents of their lives, shapers of their communities and the larger world, and collaborators with others from diverse backgrounds on common challenges . This organizing for civic agency necessarily includes many elements beyond formal political parties such as cooperatives, community organizations, trade unions, and popular adult educational and cultural activity. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Scholars writing about European populist movements in this vein have described connections between populism and Scandinavian folk schools or folkbildning. Harry Boyte and other scholars in this tradition have traced connections between the populist farmers’ movement of the late nineteenth century, the “popular front” movement of the New Deal, the Southern civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and recent examples of community organizing descended from the self-declared populist Saul Alinsky. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D Saul David Alinsky ( January 30, 1909, Chicago Illinois - June 12, 1972, Carmel       Such scholars also argue that intellectual and scholarly criticism of populism is often rooted in "Enlightenment rationalism" and a growing separation of professional and intellectual classes from the culture and lives of common people. 
Leaders of populist movements have variously tried to stand up to corporate power, remove "corrupt" elites, fight for the "poor people of the country", "put people first," and "build a cooperative commonwealth. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The English noun commonwealth dates from the fifteenth century. " By its very nature, Populism incorporates anti-regime politics at a time when it asserts it is due. Because populism motivates people to oppose a ruling class, it has sometimes been maligned and used as a tool by some regimes in combination with nationalism, jingoism, racism or religious fundamentalism, Populist movements, as with many political movements, can be maligned, if definitions of "the people" are used that are different than prevailing ones. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Jingoism is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "extreme Patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy" List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Fundamentalism refers to a "deep and totalistic commitment" to a belief in and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often Religious in nature a reaction 
Often populist movements employ dichotomous rhetoric, and claim to represent the majority of the people. A dichotomy is any splitting of a whole into exactly two non-overlapping parts Many populists appeal to a specific region of a country or to a specific social class, such as the working class, middle class, or farmers or simply "the poor". Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Populism is characterized by a sometimes radical critique of the status quo, but on the whole does not have a strong ideological identity as either a left-wing or right-wing movement. Political radicalism or simply radicalism is adherence to radical views and principles in Politics. Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs or "the state in which" Some scholars argue that populist politics as organizing for empowerment represents the return of older "Aristotelean" politics of horizontal interactions among equals who are different, for the sake of public problem solving . Populism has taken left-wing, right-wing, and even centrist forms, as well as forms of politics that bring together groups and individuals of diverse partisan views.  In recent years, conservative United States politicians have begun adopting populist rhetoric; for example, telling people to stand up to "the powerful trial lawyer lobby," "the liberal elite," or "the Hollywood elite. Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties In the United States the term liberal elite is used to describe affluent politically left-leaning people " Also in recent years, "left-wing" United States politicians have increasingly begun adopting populist rhetoric; the use of the term "two Americas" in the 2004 Presidential Democratic Party campaign of John Edwards is an example of an attempt to employ Populist themes to persuade voters. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10 1953 In some contrast to both, Barack Obama, whose references to popular empowerment may reflect his experiences as a community organizer in one of the schools of organizing (the Gamaliel Foundation) descended from the late Saul Alinsky, also articulates populist themes. 
Populists are seen by some politicians as a largely democratic and positive force in society, even while a wing of scholarship in political science contends that populist mass movements are irrational and introduce instability into the political process. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Margaret Canovan argues that both these polar views are faulty, and has defined two main branches of modern populism worldwide — agrarian and political — and mapped out seven disparate sub-categories:
Right-wing populist movements can be a precursor for, and building blocks of fascist movements. Right-wing populism (also radical right-wing populism, RRP is a Political ideology and rhetorical style found around the world Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology  Conspiracist scapegoating employed by various populist movements can create “a seedbed for fascism. A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times ”
National socialist populism interacted with and facilitated fascism in interwar Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. . In this case, distressed middle–class populists during the pre-Nazi Weimar period mobilized their anger at government and big business. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The Nazis "parasitized the forms and themes of the populists and moved their constituencies far to the right through ideological appeals involving demagoguery, scapegoating, and conspiracism". Demagogy (also demagoguery) ( Ancient Greek δημαγωγία from dēmos "people" and agein "to lead" refers to a political  According to Fritzsche:
The Nazis expressed the populist yearnings of middle–class constituents and at the same time advocated a strong and resolutely anti-Marxist mobilization. . . . Against “unnaturally” divisive parties and querulous organized interest groups, National Socialists cast themselves as representatives of the commonwealth, of an allegedly betrayed and neglected German public. . . . [b]reaking social barriers of status and caste, and celebrating at least rhetorically the populist ideal of the people’s community. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. . . 
The word populism is derived from the Latin word populus, which means people in English (in the sense of "nation," as in: "The Roman People" (populus Romanus), not in the sense of "multiple individual persons" as in: "There are people visiting us today"). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Therefore, populism espouses government by the people as a whole (that is to say, the masses). This is in contrast to elitism, aristocracy, or plutocracy, each of which is an ideology that espouse government by a small, privileged group above the masses. Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth
Populism has been a common political phenomenon throughout history. Spartacus could be considered a famous example of a populist leader of ancient times through his slave rebellion against the rulers of Ancient Rome. Spartacus (c 109 BC-71 BC according to Roman historians was a Slave who became the leader (or possibly one of several leaders in the unsuccessful slave Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC In fact, such leaders of the Roman Republic as Gaius Marius, Julius Caesar, and Caesar Augustus were called populares, as all used referendums to go over the Roman Senate's head and establish the laws that they saw fit. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This article is about the Roman statesman who reorganized the army and was seven times Consul Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Populares ("favoring the people" singular popularis) were Aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome.
The same conditions which contributed to the outbreak of the English Revolution of 1642-1651, also known as the English Civil War, also led to a proliferation of ideologies and political movements among peasants, self-employed artisans, and working class people in England. The term " English Revolution " refers to the period of the English Civil Wars and Commonwealth period 1640-1660 in which Parliament challenged King Charles The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing Many, possibly most, of these groups had a dogmatic Protestant religious bent. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. They included Puritans and the Levellers. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement
Romanticism, the anxiety against rationalism, broadened after the beginnings of the European and Industrial Revolutions because of cultural, social, and political insecurity. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Romanticism led directly into a strong popular desire to bring about religious revival, nationalism and populism. The ensuing religious revival eventually blended into political populism and nationalism, becoming at times a single entity, and a powerful force of public will for change. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The paradigm shift brought about was marked by people looking for security and community because of a strong emotional need to escape from anxiety and to believe in something larger than themselves. Paradigm shift, sometimes known as extraordinary science or revolutionary science, is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his influential
The revival of religiosity all over Europe played an important role in bringing people to populism and nationalism.
Chateaubriand's beginning brought about two Catholic Revivals in France: first, a conservative revival led by Joseph de Maistre, which defended ultramontanism, also known as the supremacy of the Pope in the church, and a second populist revival led by Felicite de Lamennais, an excommunicated priest. The Oxford Movement or Tractarianism was an affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of whom were members of the University of Oxford, who sought This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Joseph-Marie Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753- 26 February 1821 was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer diplomat writer and philosopher Ultramontanism is a religious philosophy within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Hughes Felicité Robert de Lamennais, also known as Frédéric de La Mennais ( June 19, 1782 - February 27, 1854) was This religious populism opposed ultramontanism and emphasized a church community dependent upon all of the people, not just the elite. Furthermore, it stressed that church authority should come from the bottom-up and that the church should alleviate suffering, not merely accept it, both principles that gave the masses strength.
Populism has been an important force in Latin American political history (see José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia). Dr José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco ( January 6, 1766 &ndash September 20, 1840) was the first leader of Paraguay In Latin America, many charismatic leaders have emerged since the 20th century, such as Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, Getúlio Vargas, Lázaro Cárdenas, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Domingo Perón, Abdala Bucaram and recently Alan Garcia, Daniel Ortega, Hugo Chávez, Rafael Correa, Evo Morales, Joaquin Balaguer, Fernando Lugo and Néstor Kirchner. The Sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity heroism or exemplary character of an individual person General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo ( November 3 1877 &ndash April 28 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and Political figure Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (ʒeˈtulju doɾˈnɛlis vaɾgɐs April 19, 1882 – August 24, 1954) served as president of This article is about Gen Lázaro Cárdenas del Río For his grandson see Lázaro Cárdenas Batel. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed Juan Domingo Perón (October 8 1895 &ndash July 1 1974 was an Argentine Colonel and Politician, elected three times as President of Argentina Abdalá Jaime Bucaram Ortiz (born February 20, 1952 in Guayaquil) is an Ecuadorian Politician and Lawyer who briefly Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born May 23 1949 in Lima) is the current President of Peru, having won the 2006 elections on June 4 2006 in a run-off José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963 in Guayaquil) is the President of the Republic of Ecuador. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since Joaquín Amparo Balaguer Ricardo ( September 1, 1906 &ndash July 14, 2002) was the President of the Dominican Republic from Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez (born May 30, 1951) is the current President of Paraguay and the former Roman Catholic Bishop of the Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born February 25, 1950) was the President of Argentina from May 25, 2003 until December
Populism in Latin America has been traced by some to concepts taken from Perón's Third Position.  Populist practitioners in Latin America usually adapt politically to the prevailing mood of the nation, moving within the ideological spectrum from left to right many times during their political lives. Latin American countries have not always had a clear and consistent political ideology under populism. Most of these countries cannot be as clearly and easily divided between liberals and conservatives, as in the U. S. A. , or between social-democrats and Christian-democrats as in European countries. Nevertheless, the more recent pattern that has emerged in Latin American populists has been decidedly socialist populism that appeals to masses of poor by promising redistributive policies and state control of the nation's energy companies.
Populism has been fiscally supported in Latin America during periods of growth such as the 1950s and 1960's and during commodity price booms such as in oil and precious metals. Precious Metal is the eighteenth episode in the of the popular American Crime drama, which is set in Las Vegas, Nevada. Political leaders could gather followers among the popular classes with broad redistributative programs during these boom times. Populism in Latin America has been sometimes criticized for the fiscal policies of many of its leaders, but has also been defended for having allowed historically weak states to buy off disorder and achieve a tolerable degree of stability while initiating large-scale industrialization. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one Thus though specific populist fiscal and monetary policies may be criticized by economic historians, populism has also allowed leaders and parties to co-opt the radical ideas of the masses so as to redirect them in a non revolutionary direction.
Often adapting a nationalist vocabulary and rhetorically convincing, populism was used to appeal to broad masses while remaining ideologically ambivalent. Notwithstanding, there have been notable exceptions. 21st Century Latin-American populist leaders have had a decidedly socialist bent.
When populists do take strong positions on economic philosophies such as capitalism versus socialism, the position sparks strong emotional responses regarding how best to manage the nation's current and future social and economic position. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Mexico's 2006 Presidential election was hotly debated within Mexicans who supported and opposed populist candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador.
Thus populism in Latin American countries has both an economic and an ideological edge. The situation is similar in many countries with the legacies of poor and low-growth economies: highly unequal societies in which people are divided between a relative few wealthy families and masses of poor (with some exceptions such as Argentina, where strong and educated middle classes are a significant segment of the population). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
Other perspectives trace inequality to the formation of Latin America's governments and institutions, which were shaped by the Spanish crown upon the conquest of the Americas by the Spaniards. Latin America was not meant to be a colony for the settlers to live in and develop, like the United States, but a source of resources for the Spanish crown. After the nations obtained their independence, many colonial legacies survived.
Populists can be very successful political candidates in such countries. In appealing to the masses of poor people prior to gaining power, populists may promise widely-demanded food, housing, employment, basic social services, and income-redistribution. Once in political power, they may not always be financially or politically able to fulfill all these broad promises. However, they are very often successful in stretching to provide many broad and basic services.
In Mexico, Brazil and Argentina in a relatively short period of time, populist leaders were perceived to have delivered more to their lower class constituents than previous governments. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Critics of populist policies point to the infamous consequences of spending and lack of reform on these countries' respective finances involving growing debt, pressured currencies, and hyperinflation, which in turn led to high interest rates, low growth, and debt crisis. The 1980s in Latin America became referred to as a lost decade during which the region experienced low economic growth and few if any reductions in poverty while the Asian Tigers have been consistently developing through high rates of savings, investments, and educational achievements. Supporters of past economic policies would point to the uncontrollable economic consequences of high oil prices to much of the world economy during the 1970s and the unanticipated fall in commodity prices that would later complicate financing past spending.
Reacting to the legacy of the debt-crisis and slow growth during the 1980s, many Latin American governments privatized state-owned enterprises, such as electricity and telecommunications during the wave of privatizations that occurred in those countries in the 1990s, and opened to trade. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business This has also been done outside Latin American from Britain and the U. S. (during the Margaret Thatcher/Ronald Reagan years) to Russia and China's (accelerating economic liberalization during the 1990s) to speed economic growth and employment. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Populists with socialist bents maintain clear support in many cases.
In the Argentinian Corralito crisis, the government was forced to withdraw after three days of popular riots. Corralito (koraˈlito was the informal name for the economic measures taken in Argentina at the end of 2001 by Minister of Economy Domingo Cavallo in order In Mexico, tortilla price increases have sparked protests demanding price-controls which the leadership instead handled with a gentleman's agreement with major manufacturers capping prices for a fixed time period.
The economic debate continues as reforms to weak and closed Latin American economies opened up to external shocks and competition such as through privatizations and NAFTA in Mexico and other trade agreements and privatizations throughout Latin America. While orthodox economics point to longer term gains for quickly modernizing countries like Chile, slower moving countries have considered retracting from the initial shocks. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Some blame a "neo-liberal" economic model favored by an unpopular US government. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism The "neo-liberal" name, along with the "Washington consensus" have been used to criticize harsh economic policies on the one hand, and on the other hand some have used to demonize modern economic science and policies by tying them directly to the unpopular U. S. government which faces widespread distrust in Latin America. Indeed throughout the world, orthodox economists generally agree that the older socialist policies favored by many populists have hindered Latin American economies and that today further neo-liberal economic reforms would be needed to compete in the international arena for more jobs and faster growth. Support for socialism continues within economic circles that rely on pro-socialist works such as "Whither Socialism" by Stiglitz. Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American Economist and a professor at Columbia University.
US international policies have intervened in Latin American governments in many occasions where populism has threatened its interests: the interventions in Guatemala, when the populist Arbenz government was overthrown by a coup backed by the American company United Fruit and the American ambassador in 1954, and Augusto Pinochet's Chilean coup in 1973 are just two cases of American intervention. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán ( September 14, 1913 &ndash January 27, 1971) was the President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954 when Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November Daniel Ortega's Sandinista government in Nicaragua was also viewed as a threat to US foreign policy during the Cold War, leading the United States to place an embargo on trade with the Sandinista's Soviet-sponsored regime as well as support anti-Sandinista rebels. José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
Populism has nevertheless remained a significant force in Latin America. Populism has recently been re-appearing on the far left with promises of far-reaching socialist changes as seen in Venezuela under Hugo Chavez. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. These socialist changes have included policies nationalizing energy companies such as oil, and consolidation of power into the hands of the President so as to enable a socialist "transformation. " The Venezuelan government often spars verbally with the United States and accuses it of attempting to overthrow its president Hugo Chavez after supporting a failed coup against him. Chavez himself has been one of the most outspoken and blunt critics of U. S. foreign policy. Nevertheless, the Venezuelan and U. S. governments continue to rely on each other for oil sales from Venezuela to the United States.
In the 21st century, the large numbers of voters in extreme poverty in Latin America have remained a bastion of support for new populist candidates. Populist candidates have been defeated in middle-income countries such as Peru and Mexico, in part by comparing them to Venezuela's controversial Hugo Chavez, whose socialist policies have been used to scare the growing middle classes and who verbally criticized and belittled the popular Mexican president Vicente Fox. Nevertheless, populist candidates have been more successful in poorer Latin American countries such as Bolivia (under Morales), Ecuador (under Correa), and Nicaragua (under Ortega).
Wherever governments in Latin America maintain high rates of poverty and yet support unpopular privatizations and more orthodox economic policies without quickly delivering gains to enough people, they will continue to come under pressure from populist politicians who accuse them of focusing on securing more benefits for the upper and upper-middle classes rather than the people as represented by those in poverty and extreme poverty, and for being allied to foreign and business interests.
In Mexico, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador's candidacy sparked very emotional debates throughout the country regarding policies that affect ideology, class, equality, wealth, and society. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador's most controversial economic policies included his promise to expand monthly stipends to the poor and elderly from Mexico City to the rest of the country and to re-negotiate NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) to protect the Mexican poor. The ruling party in Mexico, known as the PAN (Spanish acronym for the National Action Party) portrayed him as a danger to Mexico's hard-earned economic stability. In criticizing his redistributive promises that would create new entitlement programs somewhat similar to social security in the US (though not as broad in scope) and his trade policies that would not fully uphold prior agreements (such as NAFTA), the economic debate between capitalists and socialists became a major part of the debate. The PAN candidate portrayed himself as not just a standard-bearer for recent economic policy, but rather more fully as a more pro-active candidate so as to distance himself from the main criticisms of his predecessor Vicente Fox regarding inaction. He labeled himself the "jobs president" and promised greater national wealth for all through steady future growth, fiscal prudence, international trade, and balanced government spending. During the immediate aftermath of the tight elections in which the country's electoral court was hearing challenges to the vote tally that had Calderon winning, Obrador showed the considerable influence over the masses that are a trademark of populist politicians. He effectively led huge demonstrations filling the central plaza with masses of sympathizers who supported his challenge. The demonstrations lasted for several months and eventually dissipated after the electoral court did not find sufficient cause from the challenges presented to overturn the results.
The Narodnichestvo movement in Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century could be described as a populist movement. Narodniks (Народничество was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s
Like Latin America populism in Africa has been an important force in African political, and many charismatic leaders have emerged, such as Gamal Abdel Nasser, Kwame Nkrumah, Abd el-Krim, Patrice Lumumba, John Langalibalele Dube, Pixley ka Isaka Seme, Nelson Mandela, Sol Plaatje, Walter Sisulu, Desmond Tutu,Oliver Tambo, Steve Biko, Govan Mbeki, Robert Mugabe, and John Garang. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Kwame Nkrumah ( September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972) was an influential 20th century advocate of Pan-Africanism, and the leader of Abd el-Krim (c1882 Ajdir &ndash February 6, 1963, Cairo) ( Mulay Abdelkrim, full name Muhammad Ibn 'Abd El-Karim El-Khattabi Patrice Émery Lumumba ( 2 July, 1925 – 17 January, 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime John Langalibalele Dube` ( 1871 - 1946) was a South African essayist philosopher educator politician publisher editor novelist and poet Pixley ka Isaka Seme (1881?-June 1951 was a founder and President of the African National Congress. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (9 October 1876 – 19 June 1932 was a South African intellectual journalist linguist politician translator and writer Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Cleric and activist who rose to Worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure Stephen Bantu Biko December 1946 &ndash 12 September 1977 was a noted anti-[[apartheid] activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki ( 9 July 1910 - 30 August 2001) was a South African Politician, and father of the former Dr John Garang de Mabior ( June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was First Vice President Sudan and former leader of the
Populism played a big role in Middle East in 20th century, and many populist leaders emerged such as : Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Abd el-Krim, Mohammad Mossadegh and Gamal Abdel Nasser. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Abd el-Krim (c1882 Ajdir &ndash February 6, 1963, Cairo) ( Mulay Abdelkrim, full name Muhammad Ibn 'Abd El-Karim El-Khattabi Mohammad Mosaddeq ( (, pronounced mosæddeq}} also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) ( May 19 1882 – 5 March 1967) was a major Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President
The United States saw the formation of populist political parties during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of
In the late 1880s and early 1890s, a populist movement began which called for, among other things, a graduated income tax (there was no income tax at the time). They also wanted the government to own railroad and communications systems, such as telegraphs and telephones. At the founding convention of the Populist Party, many of the Ocala Demands were adopted. The Populist Party (also known as the People's Party) was a relatively short-lived Political party in the United States in the late 18th century The platform demanded that senators be elected directly, a secret ballot, the abolishment of the Pinkerton System, Presidential term limits and abolishment of government subsidies to corporations and businesses. They were also against immigration, saying that immigrants were a burden on taxpayers such as themselves.
Later there was the Greenback Party, the Single Tax movement of Henry George, the Progressive Party of 1912 led by Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party of 1924 led by Robert M. La Follette, Sr., and the Share Our Wealth movement of Huey Long in 1933-35. The Greenback Party (also known as the Independent Party, the National Party, and the Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party "Georgist" redirects here For the Romanian political group see National Liberal Party-Brătianu. Henry George ( September 2, 1839 &ndash October 29, 1897) was an American Political economist and the most influential proponent of The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1912. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T The United States Progressive Party of 1924 was a continuation of the 1912 Progressive party with few changes in leadership at the state or local levels and keeping many of the same officers Robert Marion La Follette Sr nicknamed "Fighting Bob" La Follette ( June 14, 1855 June 20, 1925) was an American Share Our Wealth was a movement begun during the Great Depression by Huey Long, a governor and later United States Senator from Louisiana Huey Pierce Long Jr ( August 30, 1893 September 10, 1935) nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American Politician Some left-wing populist parties advocated socialism, while other populists rejected both socialism and capitalism, notably Huey Long and Father Charles Coughlin. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Huey Pierce Long Jr ( August 30, 1893 September 10, 1935) nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American Politician Father Charles Edward Coughlin ( October 25, 1891 &ndash October 27, 1979) was a Canadian -born Roman Catholic priest at
George Wallace of Alabama led a populist movement that carried five states and won 13. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for 5% of the popular vote in the 1968 presidential election. Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Campaigning against intellectuals and liberal reformers, Wallace gained a large share of the white working class vote in Democratic primaries in 1972.
Populism continues to be a force in modern U. S. politics, especially in the 1992 and 1996 third-party presidential campaigns of billionaire Ross Perot. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice Henry Ross Perot (born June 27 1930 is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in The 1996, 2000 and the 2004 presidential campaigns of Ralph Nader had a strong populist cast. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. Ralph Nader (born February 27 1934 is an American Attorney, Author, Lecturer, political activist, and independent candidate for President The 2004 campaigns of Dennis Kucinich and Al Sharpton also had populist elements. Dennis John Kucinich (kuˈsɪnɪtʃ (born October 8[[ 946]] is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and was a candidate for Alfred Charles "Al" Sharpton Jr (born October 3 1954 is an American Baptist minister political and civil rights / Social justice The 2004 and 2008 Democratic presidential candidate John Edwards has been described by many (and by himself) as a populist. Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10 1953
Comparison between earlier surges of Populism and those of today are complicated by shifts in what are thought to be the interests of the common people. Jonah Goldberg and others argue that in modern society, fractured as it is into myriad interest groups and microgroups, any attempt to define the interests of the "average person" will be so general as to be useless. Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969) is an American syndicated columnist and author
Over time, there have been several versions of a Populist Party in the United States, inspired by the People's Party of the 1890s. The Populist Party (also known as the People's Party) was a relatively short-lived Political party in the United States in the late 18th century This was the party of the early U. S. populist movement in which millions of farmers and other working people successfully enacted their anti-trust agenda.
In 1984, the Populist Party name was revived by Willis Carto, and was used in 1988 as a vehicle for the presidential campaign of former Ku Klux Klan leader, and later member of both the Republican Party and the Democratic Party, David Duke. The Populist Party (also known as the People's Party) was a relatively short-lived Political party in the United States in the late 18th century Willis Allison Carto ( July 17, 1926) is a longtime figure on the far right wing of American politics -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former Louisiana State Representative, a Candidate in Presidential primaries for the Right-wing Patriot movement organizer Bo Gritz was briefly Duke's running mate. James Gordon "Bo" Gritz (born May 18, 1939 in Enid Oklahoma) was a United States Army Special Forces officer during the This maligned incarnation of Populism was widely regarded as a vehicle for white supremacist recruitment. In this instance, populism was maligned using a definition of "the people" which was not the prevailing definition.
Another populist mechanism was the initiative and referendum driven term-limits movement of the early 1990s. In every state where the people were able to bypass the established power structure and put term-limits on the ballot, the measure to limit incumbency in Congress passed. The average margin of victory was 67%, giving this populist insurgency a landslide by American electoral standards. It was fitting, perhaps, that the unelected, irremovable, life-tenured U. S. Supreme Court would be the agent of resistance, in 1995 striking down all the congressional term limits enacted by the people. U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton. US Term Limits, Inc v Thornton, 514 US 779 ( 1995) was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled
In 1995, the Reform Party (RPUSA) was organized after the populist presidential campaign of Ross Perot in 1992. The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA, generally known simply as the Reform Party) is a Political In the year 2000, an intense fight for the presidential nomination made Patrick J. Buchanan the RPUSA standbearer. Patrick Joseph "Pat" Buchanan (born November 2 1938 is an American Political commentator, Author, syndicated Columnist Since then the party's fortunes have markedly declined.
In the 2000s, new populist parties were formed in America, including the Populist Party of Maryland, which ran candidates for governor, lieutenant governor, U. The Populist Party of Maryland (PPMD originated as a vehicle for Ballot access for the 2004 Ralph Nader presidential campaign. S. Senate and state delegate in the 2006 elections, Populist Party of America in 2002, and the American Populist Renaissance in 2005. See also Populist Party (United States The Populist Party of America, founded in 2000, is an " Anti-statist " Libertarian The American Moderation Party, also formed in 2005, adopted several populist ideals, chief among them working against multinational neo-corporatism. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic
Senator Jim Webb (D-Va. James Henry "Jim" Webb Jr (born February 9 1946 is the Junior Senator from Virginia. ) was elected in 2006 over incumbent George Allen. Webb held prominent offices in the Republican party during the 1980s, but became a Democrat in part because in his opinion, as he stated in a January 2007 NPR interview, the Democratic party seemed more aligned to his populist beliefs. This illustrates that populism can and does span the American political spectrum.
In France, the populist and nationalist picture was more mystical and metaphysical in nature. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science