|Birth name||Lotario de' Conti di Segni|
|Papacy began||January 8, 1198|
|Papacy ended||July 16, 1216|
|Born||February 22, 1161|
|Died||July 16, 1216|
|Other popes named Innocent|
Pope Innocent III (February 22, 1161 – June 16, 1216), born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was pope from January 8, 1198 until his death. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Pope Celestine III ( Rome, c 1106 &ndash January 8, 1198) born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Pope on March 30, Pope Honorius III (1148 &ndash March 18 1227) born Cencio, was Pope from 1216 to 1227 Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Gavignano is a town of 1758 inhabitants in the Province of Rome, Lazio, central Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army
Lotario de' Conti di Segni was born in Gavignano, near Anagni. Gavignano is a town of 1758 inhabitants in the Province of Rome, Lazio, central Italy. Anagni, (Latin Anagnia) is an ancient town in Latium, Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome famous for its connections with the papacy and for the His father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house that produced nine popes, including Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241), Pope Alexander IV (1254–1261) and Pope Innocent XIII (1721–1724). Segni (in Latin Signia) is an Italian town and comune located in Lazio. Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca 1185 &ndash May 25 1261) was Pope from 1254 until his death Pope Innocent XIII ( May 13, 1655 &ndash March 7, 1724) was pope from 1721 until his death His uncle was Pope Clement III (1187–1191), and his mother, Claricia, belonged to the noble Roman family of Scotti. } See also 11th century Antipope Clement III. Pope Clement III (1130 – March 27 or April 10, 1191) born
Lotario studied in Rome, Paris (theology, under Peter of Corbeil), and Bologna (canon law, under Huguccio though this is contested). Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Peter of Corbeil (died June 3, 1222) born at Corbeil, was a preacher and canon of Nôtre Dame de Paris, a scholastic philosopher Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Huguccio ( Hugh of Pisa) was an Italian Canon lawyer (b at Pisa, date unknown d The latter's moderate doctrine on the relationship between spiritual and lay authorities was a constant influence in the future work of Innocent. He was considered an intellectual and one of the greatest canon lawyers of his time.
After the death of Pope Alexander III (1159–81), Lotario returned to Rome and held office during the short reigns of Lucius III (1181–1185), Urban III (1185–1187), Gregory VIII (1187), and Clement III (1187–1191, possibly a relative of the Segni), reaching the rank of Cardinal Deacon through his uncle Pope Clement III. Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 Pope Lucius III (1097– November 25, 1185) born Ubaldo Allucingoli, was Pope from September 1, 1181 to his death Not to be confused with the earlier Antipope Gregory VIII Pope Gregory VIII (c } See also 11th century Antipope Clement III. Pope Clement III (1130 – March 27 or April 10, 1191) born A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. During the reign of Pope Celestine III (1191–1198), a member of the House of Orsini, who were enemies of his family, Lotario left Rome to live in Anagni. Pope Celestine III ( Rome, c 1106 &ndash January 8, 1198) born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Pope on March 30, The Orsini family was one of the most celebrated princely families in medieval Italy and Renaissance Rome, and which in former times had large possessions During this period he wrote a series of theological works, including On the Miserable Condition of Man and On the Mysteries of the Mass, both showing the ascetic-liturgical inspiration animating him.
On January 8, 1198, the day Celestine III was buried, Lotario was unanimously elected pope after only two ballots. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army His election was held in the ruins of the ancient Septizodium, near the Circus Maximus in Rome and is considered by some scholars as the first conclave. The Septizodium (also called Septizonium or Septicodium) was a building in ancient Rome. The Circus Maximus ( Latin for greatest circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Hippodrome and mass entertainment A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor He took the name of Innocent III. He was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He was ordained a priest on February 21 and consecrated bishop of Rome the following day.
Innocent III sought to assert and extend the prestige and plenitudo potestatis (absolute power) of the papacy throughout his entire career. He took advantage of the chaos that followed Henry VI's untimely death to undermine the link between Germany and Sicily. Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Germany was thrust into civil war when the leading Hohenstaufen candidate for the imperial throne, Philip of Swabia, Henry VI's brother, was challenged by Otto of Brunswick. Philip of Swabia (1177 &ndash June 21, 1208) was king of Germany and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV. Otto IV of Brunswick (1175 or 1176 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of the Holy Roman Empire from 1198 on sole king from 1208 on and emperor Although Innocent crowned Otto in 1198, the latter's attempt to control Sicily prompted the pope to excommunicate him. (Damerow website)
The pope also made use of the weakness of Henry's son, King Frederick II of Sicily (who was only four years old), to reassert papal power in Sicily. Frederick II of Sicily may refer to Frederick III of Sicily, who technically was Frederick II but used Frederick III Frederick II Holy Roman Taking advantage of the last will of Frederick's mother, Constance of Sicily, which had named him as tutor of the young king, Innocent acknowledged Frederick as king only after the surrender of the privileges of the Four Chapters, which William I of Sicily had previously extorted from Pope Adrian IV (1154–59). Constance of Sicily (1154 &ndash November 27, 1198) was the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily and the wife of Henry VI Holy Roman Emperor William I ( 1131 - May 7 1166) called the Bad or the Wicked, was the second King of Sicily, ruling from his father's death Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope The Pope then invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198. He also later induced Frederick II to marry the widow of King Emeric of Hungary in 1209. 
After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in 1197, two groups of electors had elected competing kings: Philip of Swabia of the Hohenstaufen family, and Otto of Brunswick of the Welf family. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl Philip of Swabia (1177 &ndash June 21, 1208) was king of Germany and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV. Otto IV of Brunswick (1175 or 1176 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of the Holy Roman Empire from 1198 on sole king from 1208 on and emperor See also Elder House of Welf The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European Dynasty that has included many German and British Since Philip had been excommunicated by Celestine III, and had not been crowned in Aachen, in 1201 the pope openly supported Otto; he threatened all those who refused to acknowledge Otto with excommunication. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Pope Celestine III ( Rome, c 1106 &ndash January 8, 1198) born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Pope on March 30, The Aachen Cathedral frequently referred to as the " Imperial Cathedral " (in German: Kaiserdom is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen By the decree Per Venerabilem in May 1202 Innocent III made clear to the German princes his view of the relationship between the Empire and the papacy (this decree was afterwards embodied in the Corpus Juris Canonici). The Corpus juris canonici ( lit 'Body of Canon Law' is the collection of significant sources of Canon law of the Catholic Church that was applicable The decree asserted the papal rights to decide whether a king is worthy of the imperial crown and to arbitrate or to pronounce in favour of one of the claimants in case of a double election, which was the current situation in the Empire. He argued in his bull that the transition of the Roman Empire from Byzantium to the Holy Roman Emperor had taken place only under papal blessing, and therefore all blessing, coronation, and investiture of the emperor was dependent upon the pope. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states
Philip, however, gained momentum at the expense of Otto, and in 1205 received a more regular coronation at Aachen from the Archbishop of Cologne, Germany's main religious authority. Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Bishops of Colonia Agrippina, 88–784 All names before Maternus ('II' are to be approached with considerable Considering Otto the losing party, in 1207 Innocent III changed his mind and declared in favour of Philip, sending cardinals to Germany to induce Otto to renounce his claims to the throne. But Philip was murdered on June 21, 1208 (probably by Otto's agents), and, at the Diet of Frankfurt of November 11, 1208, Otto was acknowledged as emperor. The pope invited him to Rome and the two met at Viterbo, with Otto swearing to renounce to any claim to Mathilda of Canossa's heritage and the former exarchate of Ravenna (Romagna). Viterbo is an ancient city and Comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the Province of Viterbo. Matilda of Canossa ( Italian: Matilde, Latin: Mathilde; 1046 &ndash 24 July 1115) called la Gran Contessa The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the He was then crowned as Emperor Otto IV, in St. Peter's Basilica, on October 4, 1209. Otto IV of Brunswick (1175 or 1176 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of the Holy Roman Empire from 1198 on sole king from 1208 on and emperor The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas
Otto IV had also promised to leave the Church in possession of Spoleto and Ancona and to grant the freedom of ecclesiastical elections, unlimited right of appeal to the Pope, and the exclusive competency of the hierarchy in spiritual matters. For the festival in South Carolina see Spoleto Festival USA. Spoleto ( Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005 He had also promised to assist in the destruction of heresy (in what is known as the stipulation of Neuss, a promise that he repeated at Speyer in 1209). Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a City in Germany ( Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx But soon after being crowned, Otto IV seized Ancona, Spoleto, and other territories claimed by the Church, giving them to his vassals. He also invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy As a result, Otto IV was excommunicated on November 18, 1210.
At the Diet of Nuremberg in September 1211, the pope convinced some imperial princes to renounce the excommunicated emperor and to elect Frederick II of Sicily. The Diet of Nuremberg is often called the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg. Frederick II made the same promises as Otto IV; he was reelected by most of the princes on December 5, 1212, and, his election being ratified by Innocent III, he was crowned at Aachen on July 12, 1215.
Innocent's personal strength and personality made him the most prominent political figure in Europe: he had King John "Lackland" of England, younger brother of Richard I (the "Lionheart"), declare himself vassal of the Church (1213); received the feudal homage of Peter II of Aragon, Ottokar I of Bohemia, Alfonso IX of Leon and Sancho I of Portugal; and forced Philip II Augustus of France (1180–1223) to be reconciled with his wife, Ingeborg of Denmark. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Peter II of Aragon ( 1174 &ndash September 12 1213) surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II and count of Ottokar I (Přemysl I Otakar c 1155 &ndash 15 December 1230) king of Bohemia (1198 &ndash 1230 was a younger son of King Vladislav II Alfonso IX of Leon and Galicia ( August 15, 1171 &ndash September 23 or 24 1230 first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile and numbered next Sancho I (ˈsɐʃu nicknamed the Populator ( Portuguese o Povoador) second monarch of Portugal, was born on November 11 1154 Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death Philip II thereby became Innocent III's ally in the struggle over Otto IV. Otto allied himself with England (he was the nephew of King John) to fight Philip II Augustus, but he was defeated in the Battle of Bouvines in what is now Belgium, on July 27, 1214. The Battle of Bouvines July 27, 1214, was a conclusive medieval battle ending the twelve year old War of Bouvines took ground exactly opposite in The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Thereafter Otto IV lost all influence and died on May 19, 1218, leaving Frederick II the undisputed emperor. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Innocent III played further roles in the politics of France, Sweden, Bulgaria, Spain, and especially England. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
In England, there was controversy over the appointment of Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, a decision that had been made in Rome (without consultation) by Innocent himself and which was opposed by King John and by the majority of the monks of Canterbury Cathedral. Stephen Cardinal Langton (c 1150 &ndash July 9, 1228) was Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228 and was a central The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a The king was eventually forced to acknowledge the pope as his feudal lord and accept Langton, after Innocent stirred up John's former enemy, the French king, to invade England. Innocent also declared the Magna Carta invalid at King John's request, on the grounds that it had been obtained by force and that as John was the pope's feudal vassal he was unable to enter into binding contracts of this nature without papal permission. Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms This papal tampering in the internal affairs of a sovereign state was to have significant consequences later in English history: at the time of the Henrician Reformation in the early sixteenth century this case was cited by the king's men of law as evidence of unwarranted papal interference in English affairs and helped to bolster the popular case for casting off Rome. The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England first broke away from the authority of the Pope
Innocent intervened regularly in the affairs of Sardinia, sometimes at the invitation of the local giudicati and sometimes as part of his own agendum. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) The giudicati (singular giudicato) were the indigenous kingdoms of Sardinia from about 900 until 1410 when the last fell to the Aragonese At the beginning of his pontificate, he recognized the suzerainty of the Archdiocese of Pisa over Sardinia. Innocent intervened in the wars between the Giudicato of Cagliari and the Giudicato of Logudoro to establish a peace and tried to sort out the accusations William I of Cagliari and Comita III of Torres levelled at one another. The Giudicato of Cagliari was one of the four Sardinian Giudicati of the Middle Ages. The Giudicato of Logudoro (also known as the Giudicato of Torres after Porto Torres) is a historical state which covered the northwest portion William I (c 1160&ndash1214 regnal name of Salusio IV) was the ''giudice'' of Cagliari from 1188 to his death Comita III (circa 1160 &ndash 1218 was the giudice of Logudoro, with its capital at Torres, from 1198 until 1218 He ordered the island prelates to investigate the legality of the marriages of the giudici (probably to gather ammunition against them if necessary) and even called William and Comita to Rome, but the Republic of Pisa, of which they were both citizens, refused to allow them to appear before a "foreign" tribunal. The Republic of Pisa was a ''de facto'' independent state centered on the Tuscany city of Pisa during the late tenth and eleventh centuries This sparked a conflict with Pisa. Innocent threatened to deprive the Pisan Archbishop Ubaldo of his legatine rights on the basis that "he who abuses his power, deserves to lose his privilege. " Innocent tried to extract an oath of homage from William to the Holy See, but the Pisan archbishop refused to absolve William from previous oaths to himself. Innocent also tried to verify the accusations made against Giusto, Archbishop of Arborea, who had been removed from his see by Ubaldo and William, but failed to have him reinstated. The Giudicato of Arborea was one of the four independent hereditary "judicatures" ( Giudicati) into which the island of Sardinia was
In 1202, when the Archdiocese of Torres became vacant, Innocent appointed a member of his own curia, Biagio, archbishop to carry out his personal orders on the island. In 1203, Barisone II of Gallura died, leaving his widow and heiress, Elena, in the care of Innocent, who charged the other giudici with her protection and gave Biagio the job of finding her a suitable marriage. Barisone II (died 1203 was the Judge of Gallura from about 1170 to his death Elena (died 1218 was the daughter and successor of Barisone II of Gallura and was named after her mother of the Lacon family. The pope tried to arrange a marriage with his relative Trasimondo, but Elena rebuffed this attempt and instead married a Pisan, Lamberto Visconti. Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio (died 1225 was the Judge of Gallura from 1206 when he married the heiress Elena, to his own death Innocent's policies in Sardinia were stiffly opposed and when he died the island was under Pisan hegemony.
Innocent III was a vigorous opponent of heresy, and undertook campaigns against it. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
At the beginning of his pontificate, he focused on the Albigenses, a sect that had been growing in southern France. Southern France (or the South of France) colloquially known as Le Midi, is a loosely defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that Two Cistercian monks were sent to Albigenses in France to teach them the faith and dispute their teachings. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. However, when the papal legate was assassinated, an act of war, Innocent called upon France to suppress the Albigenses. Under the leadership of Simon of Montfort a campaign was launched, but this was soon turned by the northern French barons into a war of conquest. Simon IV de Montfort Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury 5th Earl of Leicester (1160 &ndash June 25, 1218) also known as Simon de Montfort the elder, was
Innocent also decreed the Fourth Crusade of 1198, intended to recapture the Holy Land. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש The pope directed his call towards the knights and nobles of Europe rather than to the kings; wishing that neither Richard I of England (1189-99) nor Philip II of France, (who were still engaged in war), nor especially his German enemies, should participate in the crusade. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death Innocent III's call was generally ignored until 1200, when a crusade was finally organized in Champagne. Champagne is a historic province in the northeast of France, best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name The Venetians then redirected it into the sacking of Zara (Zadar) in 1202 and of Constantinople in 1204. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72717 (2001 Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Innocent III was horrified by the attack on the Byzantines, and excommunicated those involved. Prior to the launching of the Crusade he had insisted that no Christian cities be attacked.
On November 15, 1215 Innocent opened the convocation of the Fourth Lateran Council, considered the most important council of the Middle Ages. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Papal bull of April 19, 1213. By its conclusion it issued seventy reformatory decrees. Among other things, it encouraged creating schools and holding clergy to a higher standard than the laity. It also forbade clergymen to participate in the practice of the judicial ordeal, effectively banning its use.
The Council had set the beginning of the Fifth Crusade for 1217, under the direct leadership of the Church. The Fifth Crusade ( 1217 &ndash 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful After the Council, in the spring of 1216, Innocent moved to northern Italy in an attempt to reconcile the mariner cities of Pisa and Genoa, whose ships were necessary to new enterprise, but also to imbue them of more religious and commercial motivations. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English
Innocent III, however, died suddenly at Perugia on June 16, 1216. He was buried in the cathedral of Perugia, where his body remained until Pope Leo XIII had it transferred to the Lateran in December 1891. Although the papal power over kings that Innocent III established would be short-lived, he sincerely attempted to turn theological principles into actual powers. Two of his Latin works are still widely read: De Miseria Humanae Conditionis, a tract on asceticism that Innocent III wrote before becoming pope, and De Sacro Altaris Mysterio, which is a description and exegesis of the liturgy.
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
|NAME||de' Conti di Segni, Lotario|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Innocent III (English); Innocentius III (Latin|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Pope, r. Pope Celestine III ( Rome, c 1106 &ndash January 8, 1198) born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Pope on March 30, While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Pope Honorius III (1148 &ndash March 18 1227) born Cencio, was Pope from 1216 to 1227 1198-1216: height of mediaeval church's power|
|DATE OF BIRTH||ca. 1161|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Gavignano, near Anagni, modern Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||16 June 1216|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Perugia, modern Italy|