|Birth name||Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici|
|Papacy began||November 19, 1523|
|Papacy ended||September 25, 1534|
|Born||May 26, 1478|
|Died||September 25, 1534 (aged 56)|
|Other popes named Clement|
Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
He was born in Florence one month after his father, Giuliano de' Medici, was assassinated in the Pazzi Conspiracy. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Giuliano de' Medici (1453&ndash April 26, 1478) was the second son of Piero de' Medici (the Gouty The Pazzi family were Tuscan nobles who were Bankers in Florence in the 14th century Although his parents had not had a formal marriage, a canon law loophole allowing for the parents to have been betrothed per sponsalia de presenti meant that Giulio was considered legitimate. He was thus the nephew of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who educated him in his youth. Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance
Giulio was made a Knight of Rhodes and Grand Prior of Capua, and, upon the election of his cousin Giovanni de' Medici to the pontificate as Pope Leo X (1513–21), he soon became a powerful figure in Rome. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death A cardinal-nephew (cardinalis nepos cardinale nipote valido de su tío prince de fortune is a cardinal elevated by a Pope who is that cardinal's uncle Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Upon his cousin's accession to the papacy, Giulio became his principal minister and confidant, especially in the maintenance of the Medici interest at Florence as archbishop of that city. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany On 23 September 1513, he was made cardinal and he was consecrated on 29 September. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. He had the credit of being the main director of papal policy during the whole of Leo X's pontificate.
At Leo X's death in 1521, Cardinal Medici was considered especially papabile in the protracted conclave. Papabile /pa'pabile/ ( pl papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally Although unable to gain the Papacy for himself or his ally Alessandro Farnese (both preferred candidates of Emperor Charles V (1519–58)), he took a leading part in determining the unexpected election of the short-lived Pope Adrian VI (1522–23), with whom he also wielded formidable influence. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Following Adrian VI's death on 14 September 1523, Medici finally succeeded in being elected Pope Clement VII in the next conclave (November 19, 1523). Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land
He brought to the Papal throne a high reputation for political ability, and possessed in fact all the accomplishments of a wily diplomat. However, he was considered worldly and indifferent to what went on around him, including the ongoing Protestant reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
At his accession, Clement VII sent the Archbishop of Capua, Nikolaus Cardinal von Schönberg, to the Kings of France, Spain and England, in order to bring the war then raging in Europe to a peace. Nikolaus von Schönberg ( 11 August 1472 &ndash 7 September 1537) was a German Archbishop of Capua. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland But his attempt failed.
Francis I of France's conquest of Milan in 1524 prompted the Pope to quit the Imperial-Spanish side and to ally himself with other Italian princes, including the Republic of Venice, and France in the January of 1525. Ippolito de' Medici (1511 &ndash August 10, 1535) was the A cardinal-nephew (cardinalis nepos cardinale nipote valido de su tío prince de fortune is a cardinal elevated by a Pope who is that cardinal's uncle Giuliano de' Medici ( March 12, 1479 – March 17, 1516) was one of three sons Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica This treaty granted the definitive acquisition of Parma and Piacenza for the Papal States, the rule of Medici over Florence and the free passage of the French troops to Naples. Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it Piacenza ( Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa This policy in itself was sound and patriotic, but Clement VII's zeal soon cooled; by his want of foresight and unseasonable economy he laid himself open to an attack from the turbulent Roman barons, which obliged him to invoke the mediation of the Emperor. One month later, however, Francis I was crushed and imprisoned in the Battle of Pavia, and Clement VII veered back to his former engagements with Charles V, signing an alliance with the viceroy of Naples.
But he was to change sides again when Francis I was freed after the Peace of Madrid (January 1526): the Pope entered in the League of Cognac together with France, Venice and Francesco Sforza of Milan. The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30 was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V —primarily Spain and the Holy Roman Empire Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Francesco I Sforza ( July 23, 1401 - March 8, 1466) was an Italian Condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Clement VII issued an invective against Charles V, who in reply defined him a "wolf" instead of a "shepherd", menacing the summoning of a council about the Lutheran question. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther
The Pope's wavering politics also caused the rise of the Imperial party inside the Curia: Pompeo Cardinal Colonna's soldiers pillaged the Vatican City and gained control of the whole of Rome in his name. Pompeo Colonna ( May 12, 1479 - June 28, 1532) was an Italian Cardinal, Politician and Condottiero Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The humiliated Pope promised therefore to bring the Papal States to the Imperial side again. But soon after, Colonna left the siege and went to Naples, not keeping his promises and dismissing the Cardinal from his charge. From this point on, Clement VII could do nothing but follow the fate of the French party to end.
Soon he found himself alone in Italy too, as the duke of Ferrara had sided with the Imperial army, permitting to the horde of Landsknechts led by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, and Georg von Frundsberg, to reach Rome without harm. Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. Landsknechts (singular Landsknecht, German plural Landsknechte, sometimes also in English publications were European most often German, Mercenary Charles III of Bourbon-Montpensier Eighth Duke of Bourbon ( February 17 1490 &ndash May 6, 1527 in Rome) was Count of Montpensier Georg von Frundsberg ( September 24, 1473 &ndash August 20 1528) was a South German knight and Landsknecht leader Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
Charles of Bourbon died during the long siege, and his troops, unpaid and left without a guide, felt free to ravage Rome from May 6, 1527. The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. The innumerable series of murders, rapes and vandalism that followed ended forever the splendours of the Renaissance Rome. Clement VII, who had displayed no more resolution in his military than in his political conduct, was shortly afterwards (June 6) obliged to surrender himself together with the castle of Sant'Angelo, where he had taken refuge. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year For the town with the same name see Castel Sant'Angelo (RI The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering He agreed to pay a ransom of 400,000 ducati in exchange for his life; conditions included the cession of Parma, Piacenza, Civitavecchia and Modena to the Holy Roman Empire. The ducat (ˈdʌkət is a Gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it Piacenza ( Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a Civitavecchia is a town and Comune of the Province of Rome in the central Italian region of Latium. Modena (ˈmɔːdena Mòdna in Modenese dialect is a city and a Comune ( Municipality) on the south side of the Po valley, in the (Only the last could be occupied in fact. ) At the same time, Venice took advantage of his situation to capture Cervia and Ravenna while Sigismondo Malatesta returned in Rimini. Cervia is a town and Comune ( Municipality) in the Province of Ravenna ( Emilia-Romagna) in Italy. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Sigismondo Malatesta (November 1498 - December 1553 was an Italian Condottiero. Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.
Clement was kept as a prisoner in Castel Sant'Angelo for six months. After having bought some Imperial officers, he escaped disguised as a peddler, and took shelter in Orvieto, and then in Viterbo. Orvieto is a city in southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of Viterbo is an ancient city and Comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the Province of Viterbo. He came back to a depopulated and devastated Rome only in October 1528.
Meanwhile, in Florence, Republican enemies of the Medici took advantage of the chaos to again expel the Pope's family from the city. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
In June of the following year the warring parts signed the Peace of Barcelona. The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30 was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V —primarily Spain and the Holy Roman Empire The Papal States regained some cities and Charles V agreed to restore the Medici to power in Florence. In 1530, after an eleven-month siege, the Tuscan city capitulated, and Clement VII installed his illegitimate son Alessandro as Duke. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 This article is on the first Duke of Florence. For the Alessandro de' Medici who was Pope, see Pope Leo XI. Subsequently the Pope followed a policy of subservience to the Emperor, endeavouring on the one hand to induce him to act with severity against the Lutherans in Germany, and on the other to elude his demands for a general council. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
One momentous consequence of this dependence on Charles V was the break with the Kingdom of England occasioned by Clement VII's refusal in 1533 to sanction the annulment of Henry VIII of England's (1509–47) marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536 also known as Catharine, Katherine or Katharine ( Castilian Infanta Catalina Clement VII used various stalling tactics and delays. He paid spies to steal Henry VIII's love letters to his fiancée, Anne Boleyn, to prove that they were lovers. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. However, no evidence could be uncovered and even Clement VII had to grudgingly admit that all impartial evidence from England suggested that Anne Boleyn was strong-willed but morally upright. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. Clement VII's procrastination on the issue ultimately resulted in the English Parliament passing the Act of Supremacy (1534) that established the independent Church of England. The first Act of Supremacy granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy which is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican
During his half-year imprisonment in 1527, Clement VII grew a full beard as a sign of mourning for the sack of Rome. The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in This was a violation of Catholic canon law, which required priests to be clean-shaven; however, it had the precedent of the beard which Pope Julius II had worn for nine months in 1511-1512 as a similar sign of mourning for the loss of the Papal city of Bologna. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513
Unlike Julius II, however, Clement VII kept his beard until his death in 1534. His example in wearing a beard was followed by his successor, Pope Paul III, and indeed by twenty-four popes who followed him, down to Pope Innocent XII, who died in 1700. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Pope Innocent XII ( March 13, 1615 &ndash September 27, 1700) born Antonio Pignatelli was Pope from 1691 to 1700 Clement VII was thus the unintentional originator of a fashion that lasted well over a century.
Towards the end of his life Clement VII once more gave indications of a leaning towards a French alliance, which was prevented by his death in September 1534. He was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Santa Maria sopra Minerva is a Basilica church in Rome. The church located in the Campus Martius region is considered the only Gothic
As for the arts, Pope Clement VII is remembered for having ordered, just a few days before his death, Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all The Last Judgment is a Mural by Michelangelo on the Altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City. Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527, carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman