|Birth name||Joseph Alois Ratzinger|
|Papacy began||19 April 2005|
|Predecessor||John Paul II|
|Born||16 April 1927 |
Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany
|Other popes named Benedict|
Pope Benedict XVI
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the His Holiness is the official style or manner of address in reference to the leaders of certain religious groups Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on 16 April 1927) is the 265th and reigning Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the spiritual head of the Roman Catholic Church, and as such, Sovereign of the Vatican City State. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory  He was elected on 19 April 2005 in a papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on 24 April 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Basilica of St. John Lateran, on 7 May 2005. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Papal election process for 2005 See also Papal election Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger The Papal Inauguration Mass is a liturgical service of the Catholic Church (celebrated in the Roman Rite but with elements The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Basilica of St John Lateran ( Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the Cathedral of the church of Rome and the official Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope Benedict XVI has both German and Vatican citizenship. He succeeded Pope John Paul II. Pope
Benedict XVI is a respected Roman Catholic theologian and a prolific bestselling author , a defender of traditional Catholic doctrine and values. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the He served as a professor at various German universities and was a theological consultant at the Second Vatican Council before becoming Archbishop of Munich and Freising and later a Cardinal. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. At the time of his election as Pope, Benedict had been Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (curial heads lose their positions upon the death of a pope) and was Dean of the College of Cardinals. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals is the President of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, and as such always holds the rank
During his papacy, Benedict XVI has emphasized what he sees as a need for Europe to return to fundamental Christian values in response to increasing de-Christianisation and secularisation in many developed countries. The term Christian values historically refers to the values found in the teachings of Christ. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors For this reason, he proclaims relativism's denial of objective truth—and more particularly, the denial of moral truths—as the central problem of the 21st century. Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism, Cultural relativism, and Cognitive relativism. Objectivity is both an important and very difficult concept to pin down in philosophy He teaches the importance for the Catholic Church and for humanity of contemplating God's salvific love and has reaffirmed the "importance of prayer in the face of the activism and the growing secularism of many Christians engaged in charitable work. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. "
Pope Benedict was also the founder and patron of the Ratzinger Foundation, a charitable organisation which makes money from the sale of books and essays written by the Pope, in order to fund scholarships and bursaries for students across the world. The Ratzinger Foundation also known as The Pope Benedict XVI Foundation is a charitable organization which will be formally launched on November 12 2008 A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education 
Benedict XVI was elected Pope at the age of 78. A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor He is the oldest person to have been elected Pope since Pope Clement XII (1730–40). While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e See Corsini for other uses of that name Pope Clement XII ( April 7, 1652 &ndash February 6, He had served longer as a cardinal than any Pope since Benedict XIII (1724–30). A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Pope Benedict XIII ( February 2, 1649 &ndash February 21, 1730) born Pietro Francesco Orsini, later Vincenzo Maria Orsini He is the ninth German Pope, the eighth having been the Dutch-German Pope Adrian VI (1522–23) from Utrecht. Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Utrecht ( city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. The last Pope named Benedict was Benedict XV, an Italian who reigned from 1914 to 1922, during World War I (1914–18). Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Born in 1927 in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany, Ratzinger had a distinguished career as a university theologian before being appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising by Pope Paul VI (1963–78). Marktl, or often called Marktl am Inn ("Little Market on the Inn River " is a village and historic market municipality in the state of Bavaria Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Pope Shortly afterwards, he was made a cardinal in the consistory of June 27, 1977. Antiquity Originally the Latin word consistorium meant simply 'sitting together' just as the Greek syn(hedrion (of which the Biblical Sanhedrin Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by Pope John Paul II in 1981 and was also assigned the honorific title of the cardinal bishop of Velletri-Segni on April 5, 1993. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) In 1998, he was elected sub-dean of the College of Cardinals. The College of Cardinals (verbose Sacred College of the Holy Roman Church, Sancta Romana Ecclesia, S And on November 30, 2002, he was elected dean, taking, as is customary, the title of Cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Bishop of Ostia is the ecclesiastical head of the Catholic Diocese of Ostia, one of the seven Suburbicarian sees of Rome He was the first Dean of the College elected Pope since Paul IV (1555–59) and the first cardinal bishop elected Pope since Pius VIII (1829–30). Pope Paul IV ( June 28, 1476 &ndash August 18, 1559) né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23 A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Pope Pius VIII ( November 20, 1761 &ndash December 1, 1830) born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, was Pope in 1829 and 1830
Even before becoming Pope, Ratzinger was one of the most influential men in the Roman Curia, and was a close associate of John Paul II. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope As Dean of the College of Cardinals, he presided over the funeral of John Paul II and over the Mass immediately preceding the 2005 conclave in which he was elected. The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on April 8 2005, six days after his death on April 2. During the service, he called on the assembled cardinals to hold fast to the doctrine of the faith. He was the public face of the church in the sede vacante period, although, technically, he ranked below the camerlengo in administrative authority during that time. Sede vacante is the vacancy of the Episcopal see of a Particular church in the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. Like his predecessor, Benedict XVI maintains the traditional Catholic doctrines on artificial birth control, abortion and homosexuality. Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent An Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.
As well as his native German, Benedict XVI fluently speaks Italian, French, English, Spanish and Latin, and has a knowledge of Portuguese. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. He can read Ancient Greek and biblical Hebrew. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c  He has stated that his first foreign language is French. He is a member of a large number of academies, such as the French Académie des sciences morales et politiques. The Académie des sciences morales et politiques ( Academy of Moral and Political Sciences) is a French Learned society. He plays the piano and has a preference for Mozart and Bach. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" 
Joseph Alois Ratzinger was born on 16 April, Holy Saturday, 1927 at Schulstraße 11, at 8:30 in the morning in his parents' home in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany. The early life Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Holy Saturday ( Latin: Sabbatum Sanctum) is the day after Good Friday. Marktl, or often called Marktl am Inn ("Little Market on the Inn River " is a village and historic market municipality in the state of Bavaria Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. He was baptized the same day. He was the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr., a police officer, and Maria Ratzinger (née Peintner). Joseph Ratzinger Sr ( March 6, 1877 &ndash August 25, 1959) was a German civil servant policeman and the father of Pope His mother's family was originally from Bolzano-Bozen (Italy). The Province of Bolzano-Bozen (Provincia autonoma di Bolzano Autonome Provinz Bozen Ladin: Provinzia Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Pope Benedict XVI's brother, Georg Ratzinger, a priest and former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, is still alive. Monsignor Georg Ratzinger, PA (born January 15, 1924) is a German Catholic priest and Musician, known The Regensburger Domspatzen ( Regensburg Cathedral Choir) is the official Choir for the Liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral in Regensburg His sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in 1991. Their great-uncle was the German politician Georg Ratzinger. Georg Ratzinger (April 3 1844 in Rickering at Deggendorf – December 3 1899 in Munich) was a German Catholic priest political economist
The pope's relatives agree that his priestly vocation was apparent from boyhood. At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich with flowers. Struck by the Cardinal's distinctive garb, he later announced the very same day that he wanted to be a cardinal.
Following his fourteenth birthday in 1941, Ratzinger was enrolled in the Hitler Youth — as membership was required for all 14-year old German boys after December 1939 — but was an unenthusiastic member and refused to attend meetings. For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth ( German:,  His father was a bitter enemy of Nazism, believing it conflicted with the Catholic faith, according to biographer John L. Allen, Jr. In 1941, one of Ratzinger's cousins, a 14-year-old boy with Down syndrome, was killed by the Nazi regime in its campaign of eugenics. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German John L Allen Jr (born 1965 is a Journalist who specializes in News about the Roman Catholic Church. Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, or trisomy 21 is a Chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. Eugenics is a social Philosophy which advocates the improvement of Human Hereditary traits through various forms of intervention  In 1943 while still in seminary, he was drafted at age 16 into the German anti-aircraft corps. Ratzinger then trained in the German infantry, but a subsequent illness precluded him from the usual rigours of military duty. As the Allied front drew closer to his post in 1945, he deserted back to his family's home in Traunstein after his unit had ceased to exist, just as American troops established their headquarters in the Ratzinger household. As a German soldier, he was put in a POW camp but was released a few months later at the end of the War in summer 1945. He reentered the seminary, along with his brother Georg, in November of that year.
Following repatriation in 1945, the two brothers entered Saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein, later studying at the Ducal Georgianum (Herzogliches Georgianum) of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich. The Ducal Georgianum (Herzogliches Georgianum is a theological seminary of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. The Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München also known as LMU, is a University in Munich and with more They were both ordained in Freising on June 29, 1951 by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich. Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 3, 1869 in Klosterheidenfeld Unterfranken, died June 12, 1952 in Munich Joseph Ratzinger's dissertation (1953) was on St. Augustine and was entitled "The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church". His Habilitation (which qualified him for a professorship) was on Bonaventure. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (San Bonaventura (1221 &ndash July 15, 1274) born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza was the eighth Minister It was completed in 1957 and he became a professor of Freising College in 1958. Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising.
Ratzinger became a professor at the University of Bonn in 1959; his inaugural lecture was on "The God of Faith and the God of Philosophy. The University of Bonn ( German: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany " In 1963, he moved to the University of Münster, where his inaugural lecture was given in a packed lecture hall, as he was already well known as a theologian. The University of Münster ( German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU is a public University located in the city of Münster
During this period, Ratzinger participated in the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Ratzinger served as a peritus (theological consultant) to Josef Cardinal Frings of Cologne. Peritus ( Latin for "expert" is the title given to Roman Catholic theologians who are present to give advice at an Ecumenical council. Josef Richard Cardinal Frings ( February 6, 1887 &mdash December 17, 1978) was a German Prelate of the He was viewed during the time of the Council as a reformer, cooperating with radical Modernist theologians like Hans Küng and Edward Schillebeeckx. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Hans Küng (born March 19, 1928 in Sursee, Canton of Lucerne) is a Catholic Priest, a Swiss theologian and Edward Cornelis Florentius Alfonsus Schillebeeckx ( Antwerp, November 12, 1914 - is a Belgian Roman Catholic Theologian Ratzinger became an admirer of Karl Rahner, a well-known academic theologian of the Nouvelle Théologie and a proponent of church reform. Karl Rahner, SJ ( March 5, 1904 &mdash March 30, 1984) was a German theologian one of the most influential Roman Nouvelle Théologie (French "New Theology" is the name commonly used to refer to a school of thought in Catholic theology that arose in the mid-20th century most notably
In 1966, Joseph Ratzinger was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen ( German: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the "Eberhardina Carolina" is a public university Hans Küng (born March 19, 1928 in Sursee, Canton of Lucerne) is a Catholic Priest, a Swiss theologian and In his 1968 book Introduction to Christianity, he wrote that the pope has a duty to hear differing voices within the Church before making a decision, and he downplayed the centrality of the papacy. He also wrote that the Church of the time was too centralized, rule-bound and overly controlled from Rome. During this time, he distanced himself from the atmosphere of Tübingen and the Marxist leanings of the student movement of the 1960s that quickly radicalized, in the years 1967 and 1968, culminating in a series of disturbances and riots in April and May 1968. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Ratzinger came increasingly to see these and associated developments (such as decreasing respect for authority among his students) as connected to a departure from traditional Catholic teachings.  Despite his reformist bent, his views increasingly came to contrast with the liberal ideas gaining currency in theological circles. 
Some voices, among them Hans Küng, deem this a turn towards Conservatism, while Ratzinger himself said in a 1993 interview, "I see no break in my views as a theologian [over the years]". Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined  Ratzinger has continued to defend the Council against criticism, including Nostra Aetate, the document on respect of other religions, ecumenism and the declaration of the right to freedom of religion. Nostra Aetate is the Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions of the Second Vatican Council. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance (Later, as the Prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Ratzinger most clearly spelled out the Catholic Church's position on other religions in the 2000 document Dominus Iesus which also talks about the Roman Catholic way to engage in ecumenical dialogue. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, Dominus Iesus ( Latin for "The Lord Jesus" is a declaration by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Roman Catholic Church has been heavily involved in the ecumenical movement since the Second Vatican Council (1961-1965 )
During his years at Tübingen University, Ratzinger publicized articles in the reformist theological journal Concilium, though he increasingly chose less reformist themes than other contributors to the magazine such as Hans Küng and Edward Schillebeeckx. Concilium is a world-wide journal of Catholic Theology. It was begun in 1965 and is published five times a year Hans Küng (born March 19, 1928 in Sursee, Canton of Lucerne) is a Catholic Priest, a Swiss theologian and Edward Cornelis Florentius Alfonsus Schillebeeckx ( Antwerp, November 12, 1914 - is a Belgian Roman Catholic Theologian
In 1969, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 The University of Regensburg, situated in Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany, was founded on July 18 1962 by the Bavarian parliament He founded the theological journal Communio, with Hans Urs von Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper and others, in 1972. Communio is a federation of theological journals founded in 1972 by Joseph Ratzinger (later elected Pope Benedict XVI) Hans Urs von Balthasar Hans Urs von Balthasar ( August 12, 1905 &mdash June 26, 1988) was a Swiss Theologian and Priest who was nominated Henri-Marie Cardinal de Lubac, SJ ( February 20, 1896 &mdash September 4, 1991) was a French Jesuit priest Walter Cardinal Kasper (born 5 March 1933 in Heidenheim an der Brenz) is a German Prelate of the Roman Catholic Communio, now published in seventeen languages, including German, English and Spanish, has become a prominent journal of contemporary Catholic theological thought. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A journal (through French from late Latin diurnalis, daily has several related meanings a daily record of events or business a private Until his election as Pope, he remained one of the journal's most prolific contributors.
On March 24, 1977, Ratzinger was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising. The Palais Holnstein in Munich has been the residence of the Archbishop of Munich and Freising since 1818. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays He took as his episcopal motto Cooperatores Veritatis (Co-workers of the Truth) from 3 John 8, a choice he comments upon in his autobiographical work, Milestones. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) written in the form of an Epistle, is the 64th book of the Bible. In the consistory of the following June 27, he was named Cardinal Priest of Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino by Pope Paul VI. Antiquity Originally the Latin word consistorium meant simply 'sitting together' just as the Greek syn(hedrion (of which the Biblical Sanhedrin Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Pope By the time of the 2005 Conclave, he was one of only fourteen remaining cardinals appointed by Paul VI, and one of only three of those under the age of 80. Of these, only he and William Wakefield Baum took part in the conclave. William Wakefield Baum (born November 21, 1926 in Dallas Texas) is an American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. 
On November 25, 1981, Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, formerly known as the Holy Office, the historical Inquisition. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and Consequently, he resigned his post at Munich in early 1982. He was promoted within the College of Cardinals to become Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni in 1993, was made the College's vice-dean in 1998 and dean in 2002. The College of Cardinals (verbose Sacred College of the Holy Roman Church, Sancta Romana Ecclesia, S
In office, Ratzinger fulfilled his institutional role, defending and reaffirming Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality, and inter-religious dialogue. Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. During his period in office, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith took disciplinary measures against some outspoken liberation theologians in Latin America, condemning liberation theology twice (in 1984 and 1986), accusing it of Marxist tendencies and of inciting hate and violence. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, Liberation theology is a school of Theology within Christianity, particularly in the Roman Catholic Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leonardo Boff, for example, was suspended, while others were censured. Leonardo Boff was born 14 December 1938 in Concórdia, Santa Catarina state Brazil. Other issues also prompted condemnations or revocations of rights to teach: for instance, some posthumous writings of Jesuit priest Anthony de Mello were the subject of a notification. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Anthony de Mello (4 September 1931 Bombay, India - 2 June 1987 New York) was a Jesuit priest and Psychotherapist Ratzinger and the Congregation viewed many of them, particularly the later works, as having an element of religious indifferentism (i. e. , Christ was "one master alongside others").
The Congregation is best known for its authority over the teaching of Church doctrine, but it also has jurisdiction over other matters, including cases involving the seal of the confessional, clerical sexual misconduct and other matters, in its function as what amounts to a court. In his capacity as Prefect, Ratzinger's 2001 letter “Crimen Sollicitationis” which clarified the confidentiality of internal Church investigations into accusations made against priests of certain crimes, including sexual abuse, became a target of controversy during the sex abuse scandal. Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another Allegations of sexual abuse of children have been made against a variety of religious groups including but not exclusively Roman Catholic priests monks and nuns  While bishops hold the secrecy pertained only internally, and did not preclude investigation by civil law enforcement, the letter was often seen as promoting a coverup. 
On March 12, 1983 Ratzinger as prefect and cardinal notified the lay faithful and the clergy that archbishop Pierre Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc had incurred the excommunication latae sententiae for illicit episcopal consecrations without the apostolic mandate. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (approximately pronounced " Ngoh Din Took ") (ŋo ɗìɲ tʰûk ( October 6 Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Latae sententiae is a Latin term used in the canon law of the Catholic Church meaning literally "given (laid down sentence" Valid but illicit, also known as valid but illegal, is a term used within Roman Catholicism to describe the unauthorized but valid practice of In general religious use ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is set apart as Clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies
Because of age-related health problems, and in order to have free time to write, he had hoped to retire, and submitted his resignation three times, but had continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II. In September 1991, Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain This was known to the Conclave that elected him Pope. In August 1992, on a vacation in the Alps, he fell and struck his head against a radiator. In May 2005, the Vatican revealed that he had subsequently suffered another mild stroke; it did not reveal when, other than that it had occurred between 2003 and 2005. France's Philippe Cardinal Barbarin further revealed that since the first stroke, Ratzinger had been suffering from a heart condition as a result of his age, and is currently on medication. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Philippe Xavier Christian Ignace Marie Barbarin (born October 17, 1950) is a French Prelate It is also notable that he appears to be in far better health than his predecessor was at the age of 79.  In late November 2006, an unconfirmed rumor emerged that Pope Benedict had undergone an operation in preparation for an eventual bypass operation, and that the bronchitis suffered by the Pope has put undue pressure on the Pope's heart. Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the Bronchi. More specifically it may refer to Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting 
On January 2, 2005, Time magazine quoted unnamed Vatican sources as saying that Ratzinger was a front runner to succeed John Paul II should the pope die or become too ill to continue as pope. Papal election process for 2005 See also Papal election Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Pope On the death of John Paul II, the Financial Times gave the odds of Ratzinger becoming pope as 7–1, the lead position, but close to his rivals on the liberal wing of the church. Pope The Financial Times ( FT) is a British international business Newspaper. In April 2005, before his election as pope, he was identified as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. While Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Ratzinger repeatedly stated he would like to retire to his house in the Bavarian village of Pentling near Regensburg and dedicate himself to writing books. Regensburg ( also Ratisbon, Ratisbona Řezno originally Castra Regina) is a City (population 131000 in 2007 in Bavaria, Germany
|“||There can be little doubt that his courageous promotion of orthodox Catholic teaching has earned him the respect of his fellow cardinals throughout the world. For other uses see Spectator. The Spectator is a weekly British Magazine first published on 6 July Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He is patently holy, highly intelligent and sees clearly what is at stake. Indeed, for those who blame the decline of Catholic practice in the developed world precisely on the propensity of many European bishops to hide their heads in the sand, a pope who confronts it may be just what is required. Ratzinger is no longer young—he is 78 years old: but Angelo Roncalli, who revolutionized Catholicism by calling the Second Vatican Council was almost the same age (76) when he became pope as John XXIII. Pope John (numberingBlessed As Jeff Israely, the correspondent of Time, was told by a Vatican insider last month, "The Ratzinger solution is definitely on. "||”|
Though Ratzinger was increasingly considered the front runner by much of the international media, others maintained that his election was far from certain since very few papal predictions in modern history had come true. The elections of both John Paul II and his predecessor, John Paul I had been rather unexpected. Pope Pope John Paul I ( Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP I, Italian: Giovanni Paolo I) born Albino Luciani, ( October 17 1912 Despite being the favorite (or perhaps because he was the favorite), it was a surprise to many that he was actually elected, as traditionally the frontrunners are passed over by the conclave for someone else.
On April 19, 2005, Cardinal Ratzinger was elected as the successor to Pope John Paul II on the second day of the papal conclave after four ballots. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Papal election process for 2005 See also Papal election Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger Cardinal Ratzinger had hoped to retire peacefully and said that "At a certain point, I prayed to God 'please don't do this to me'. . . Evidently, this time He didn't listen to me. " Coincidentally, April 19 is the feast of St. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Leo IX, the most important German pope of the Middle Ages, known for instituting major reforms during his pontificate. Pope
Before his first appearance at the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica after becoming pope, he was announced by Jorge Medina Estévez, protodeacon of the College of Cardinals. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St Jorge Arturo Agustín Medina Estévez (born December 23, 1926, in Santiago Chile) is a Chilean Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Cardinal Medina Estévez first addressed the massive crowd as "dear(est) brothers and sisters" in Italian, Spanish, French, German and English, with each language receiving cheers from the international crowd, before continuing with the traditional Habemus Papam announcement in Latin. Habemus Papam is the announcement given in Latin by the senior Cardinal Deacon upon the election of a new Pope.
At the balcony, Benedict's first words to the crowd, given in Italian before he gave the traditional Urbi et Orbi blessing in Latin, were:
|“||Dear brothers and sisters, after the great Pope John Paul II, the Cardinals have elected me, a simple, humble labourer in the vineyard of the Lord. Urbi et Orbi, literally "to the City Rome and to the World," was a standard opening of The fact that the Lord knows how to work and to act even with insufficient instruments comforts me, and above all I entrust myself to your prayers. In the joy of the Risen Lord, confident of his unfailing help, let us move forward. The Lord will help us, and Mary, His Most Holy Mother, will be on our side. Thank you. ||”|
On April 24, he celebrated the Papal Inauguration Mass in St. Peter's Square, during which he was invested with the Pallium and the Ring of the Fisherman. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to The Papal Inauguration Mass is a liturgical service of the Catholic Church (celebrated in the Roman Rite but with elements Saint Peter's Square, or Saint Peter's Piazza ( Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St This article refers to the religious garment called a "pallium" Ring of the Fisherman, also known as the Piscatory Ring and the Pescatorio (in Italian) is an official part of the regalia worn by the Then, on May 7, he took possession of his Cathedral church, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses The Basilica of St John Lateran ( Italian: Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano) is the Cathedral of the church of Rome and the official
Ratzinger chose the pontifical name Benedict, which in Latin means "the blessed", in honor of both Pope Benedict XV and Saint Benedict of Nursia. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some Popes and Monarchs during their Reigns Since Medieval times monarchs Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa "Saint Benedict" redirects here This article is about the founder of Western monasticism for other saints named Benedict see Benedict. Pope Benedict XV was Pope during the first World War, during which time he passionately pursued peace between the warring nations. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All St. Benedict of Nursia was the founder of the Benedictine monasteries (most monasteries of the Middle Ages were of the Benedictine Order) and the author of the Rule of Saint Benedict, which is still the most influential writing regarding the monastic life of Western Christianity. This article concerns Roman Catholic Order of Saint Benedict see also Benedictine Confederation and Benedictine.
Benedict XVI explained his choice of name during his first General Audience in St. Peter's Square, on April 27, 2005:
|“||Filled with sentiments of awe and thanksgiving, I wish to speak of why I chose the name Benedict. Firstly, I remember Pope Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war. Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa In his footsteps I place my ministry in the service of reconciliation and harmony between peoples. Additionally, I recall Saint Benedict of Nursia, co-patron of Europe, whose life evokes the Christian roots of Europe. "Saint Benedict" redirects here This article is about the founder of Western monasticism for other saints named Benedict see Benedict. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members I ask him to help us all to hold firm to the centrality of Christ in our Christian life: May Christ always take first place in our thoughts and actions!||”|
During his inaugural Mass, the previous custom of every cardinal submitting to the Pope was replaced by having twelve people, including cardinals, clergy, religious, a married couple and their child, and newly confirmed people, greet him. The Popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed Motor vehicles used by the Pope during outdoor public appearances Confirmation is a Rite of initiation in many Christian Churches normally in the form of Laying on of hands and/or Anointing for (The cardinals had formally sworn their obedience upon his election. ) He has begun using an open-topped papal car, saying that he wanted to be closer to the people. The Popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed Motor vehicles used by the Pope during outdoor public appearances Pope Benedict has continued the tradition of his predecessor John Paul II and baptizes several infants in the Sistine Chapel at the beginning of every year, in his pastoral role as Bishop of Rome.
Benedict's coat of arms has omitted the papal tiara, which traditionally appears in the background to designate the Pope's position as a worldly ruler like a king, replacing it with a simple mitre, emphasizing his spiritual authority. The coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI was designed by then Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (who later was created a Cardinal soon after the The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the ' Triregnum', and in Italian as the ' Triregno', is the three-tiered The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of  Although some papal documents since his inauguration appear to include the papal tiara, this is because the arms of the Holy See itself (as opposed to his personal arms) continue to use the tiara and crossed keys, as can be observed, for example, on the website of the Holy See and other official publications. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Because it is the shield alone (regardless of its background elements) which is unique to the individual Pope, varying backgrounds are possible for a single shield, though this is rarely done. Pope Benedict XVI also included a traditional pallium beneath his shield as a background element for his arms, emphasizing his pastoral powers. This article refers to the religious garment called a "pallium"
On May 9, 2005, Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Normally, five years must pass after a person's death before the beatification process can begin. However, in an audience with Pope Benedict, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome and the official responsible for promoting the cause for canonization of any person who dies within that diocese, cited "exceptional circumstances" which suggested that the waiting period could be waived. Camillo Cardinal Ruini (born February 19, 1931) is an Italian Prelate of the Catholic Church. A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints The "exceptional circumstances" apparently refer to the cries of "Santo subito!" ("Saint now!") during pontiff's funeral (saints can be declared by popular acclaim, although this is rare). Therefore, the Pope waived the five year rule "so that the cause of Beatification and Canonization of the same Servant of God can begin immediately. " The decision was announced on May 13, 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Fatima and the 24th anniversary of the attempt on John Paul II's life. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Our Lady of Fátima (ˈfatimɐ is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary by those who believe that she appeared to three shepherd children at Fátima  John Paul II often credited Our Lady of Fatima for preserving him on that day. Cardinal Ruini inaugurated the diocesan phase of the cause for beatification in the Lateran Basilica on June 28, 2005. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The first beatification under the new Pope was celebrated on May 14, 2005, by José Cardinal Saraiva Martins. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. José Cardinal Saraiva Martins, CMF, GCC (born January 6, 1932) is a Portuguese Prelate and a Cardinal The new Blesseds were Mother Marianne Cope and Mother Ascensión Nicol Goñi. Mother Marianne Cope ( January 23 1838 &ndash August 9 1918) was a Franciscan Nun of the Sisters of the Third Order of Mother Ascensión Nicol Goñi ( 14 March 1868 &ndash 24 February 1940) was a Nun of the Roman Catholic Church who co-founded Mariano de la Mata was beatified in November 2006 and Rosa Eluvathingal was beatified December 3 of that year, and Fr. Mariano de la Mata Aparicio ( December 31, 1905 - April 5, 1983) was an Augustinian priest and missionary to Brazil. Blessed Eufrasia of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was born on October 7, 1877 in Edathuruthy, a locale in the city of Thrissur, Kerala Basil Moreau is scheduled to be beatified by next year. The Blessed Father Basil Anthony Marie Patrice Moreau CSC ( February 11, 1799 &ndash January 20, 1873) was the French In October 2008 the following beatifications will take place: Celestine of the Mother of God, Giuseppina Nicoli, Hendrina Stenmanns, Maria Rosa Flesch, Marta Anna Wiecka, Michal Sopocko, Petrus Kibe Kasui and 187 Companions, Susana Paz-Castillo Ramirez.
Unlike his predecessor, Benedict XVI delegated the beatification liturgical service to a Cardinal. On September 29, 2005, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued a communiqué announcing that henceforth beatifications would be celebrated by a representative of the Pope, usually the Prefect of that Congregation. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints ( Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process 
Pope Benedict XVI celebrated his first canonizations on October 23, 2005 in St. Peter's Square when he canonized Josef Bilczewski, Alberto Hurtado SJ, Zygmunt Gorazdowski, Gaetano Catanoso, and Felice da Nicosia. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Saint Peter's Square, or Saint Peter's Piazza ( Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St Jozef Bilczewski (1860&ndash1923 was a Catholic Archbishop of the city of Lviv, Ukraine, a professor of theology at the Lviv University and Saint Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga (born Luis Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga on January 22, 1901 Viña del Mar, Chile - August 18 Zygmunt Gorazdowski is a Roman Catholic Saint. Father Gorazdowski was a priest of the Lviv archdiocese, Monsignor and Camerlingo Saint Gaetano Catanoso ( February 14, 1879 - April 4, 1963) was an Italian Parish Priest Canonized Saint Felice da Nicosia, or Felix of Nicosia ( November 5, 1715 – May 31, 1787) was a Capuchin Friar The canonizations were part of a Mass that marked the conclusion of the Synod of Bishops and the Year of the Eucharist. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application The Year of the Eucharist is the name of the Liturgical year from October 2004 to October 2005, as celebrated by Catholics worldwide  Pope Benedict XVI canonized Bishop Rafael Guizar y Valencia, Mother Theodore Guerin, Filippo Smaldone, and Rosa Venerini on October 15, 2006. Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia ( April 26, 1878 &ndash June 6, 1938) was a Catholic Bishop who cared for the wounded Saint Mother Théodore Guérin (designated by the Vatican as Saint Theodora) was born October 2 1798 in the village of Étables-sur-Mer in Brittany Saint Filippo Smaldone ( July 27, 1848 - June 4, 1923) is a Saint in the Roman Catholic Church. Saint Rosa Venerini, born in Viterbo, Italy on February 9 1656 was the founder of a Roman Catholic religious congregation of women often called the Venerini Sisters Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
During his visit to Brazil in 2007, Pope Benedict XVI presided over the canonization of Frei Galvão on May 11, while George Preca, founder of the Malta based MUSEUM, Szymon of Lipnica, Charles of Mount Argus, and Marie-Eugénie de Jésus were canonized in a ceremony held at the Vatican on June 3 2007. Saint Anthony de Saint Anne Galvão ( Portuguese: Santo Antônio de Sant'Anna Galvão) OFM, popularly known as Frei Galvão (Friar Galvão (1739 &mdash Saint George Preca (in Maltese: San Ġorġ Preca) ( 12 February 1880 - 26 July 1962) was a Maltese StSimon (Szymon of Lipnica (c 1437 – 18 July 1482) was born to a pious family in Lipnica Murowana, in the south of Poland Saint Charles of Mount Argus was a well known Passionist priest in 19th century Ireland. Saint Marie-Eugénie de Jésus, born Anne-Eugénie Milleret de Brou ( August 25 1817, Metz - March 10 1898) was a Catholic Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering  Preca is the first Maltese saint since the country's conversion to Christianity in A.D. 60 when St. Paul converted the inhabitants. In October 2008 the following canonizations will take place: Saint Alphonsa of India, Gaetano Errico, Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran, María Bernarda Bütler
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Pope Benedict began downsizing the Roman Curia when he merged four existing pontifical councils into two in March 2006. Gaetano Errico was born on October 19 1791 in Secondigliano, a small village of Naples, Italy. Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran ( 29 October 1832 – 8 December 1869) was born in Nobol Ecuador The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Politics of Vatican City takes place in a framework of an absolute theocratic monarchy, in which the head of the Catholic Church, the Pope History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope The Secretariat of State is the oldest Dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. A congregation is a type of Dicastery (department with a jurisdiction of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. Cardinal Vicar ( Cardinale Vicario) is a title commonly given to the Vicar general of the Diocese of Rome for the portion of the Diocese within Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State (Italian Pontificia Commissione per lo Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the Legislative body of The President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State is the leader of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, the Legislative body of Vatican A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor Papal election process for 2005 See also Papal election Presiding over the conclave was the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope The Pontifical Council for Migrants was merged with the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace headed by Cardinal Martino. The Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants ( Pontificium Consilium de Spirituali Migrantium atque Itinerantium Cura) is a Dicastery of The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace ( Justitia et Pax) is a part of the Roman Curia dedicated to "action-oriented studies" for the international Renato Raffaele Martino (born 23 November 1932) is an Italian Cardinal Deacon, and President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace Likewise, Cardinal Poupard, who headed the Pontifical Council for Culture, now also oversees the operations of what had been the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, though both Councils maintained separate officials and staffs while their status and competencies continued unchanged. Paul Joseph Jean Cardinal Poupard (born August 30, 1930) is a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pontifical Council for Culture (Pontificium Consilium de Cultura dates back to the Second Vatican Council. The Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue is a Dicastery of the Roman Curia. In May 2007 it was decided that Interreligious Dialogue would again become a separate body under a different President.
As Pope, Benedict XVI's main role is to teach about the Catholic faith and the solutions to the problems of discerning and living the faith, a role that he can play well as a former head of the Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The Theology of Pope Benedict XVI, due to the short pontificate so far consists mainly of two Encyclical letters on love (2005 and hope (2007 Apostolic documents The main points of emphasis of his teachings are stated in more detail in Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. The Theology of Pope Benedict XVI, due to the short pontificate so far consists mainly of two Encyclical letters on love (2005 and hope (2007 Apostolic documents
According to commentators, during the Inaugural Mass, the core of the Pope's message, the most moving and famous part, is found in the last paragraph of his homily where he referred to both Jesus Christ and John Paul II. See also Catholic theology of the body Deus Caritas Est ( Latin for "God is Love" is the first Encyclical written by Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " After referring to John Paul II's well-known words, "Do not be afraid! Open wide the doors for Christ!", Benedict XVI said:
|“||Are we not perhaps all afraid in some way? If we let Christ enter fully into our lives, if we open ourselves totally to Him, are we not afraid that He might take something away from us?. . . And once again the Pope said: No! If we let Christ into our lives, we lose nothing, nothing, absolutely nothing of what makes life free, beautiful and great. No! Only in this friendship do we experience beauty and liberation. . . . When we give ourselves to Him, we receive a hundredfold in return. Yes, open, open wide the doors to Christ – and you will find true life. ||”|
"Friendship with Jesus Christ" is a frequent theme of his preaching.  He stressed that on this intimate friendship, "everything depends. " He has also said: "We are all called to open ourselves to this friendship with God. . . speaking to him as to a friend, the only One who can make the world both good and happy. . . That is all we have to do is put ourselves at his disposal. . . is an extremely important message. It is a message that helps to overcome what can be considered the great temptation of our time: the claim, that after the Big Bang, God withdrew from history. " Thus, in his book Jesus of Nazareth, his main purpose was "to help foster [in the reader] the growth of a living relationship" with Jesus Christ. 
He took up this theme in his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est. See also Catholic theology of the body Deus Caritas Est ( Latin for "God is Love" is the first Encyclical written by In his personal explanation and summary of the encyclical, he stated: "If friendship with God becomes for us something ever more important and decisive, then we will begin to love those whom God loves and who are in need of us. God wants us to be friends of his friends and we can be so, if we are interiorly close to them. " Thus, he said that prayer is "urgently needed. Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit . . It is time to reaffirm the importance of prayer in the face of the activism and the growing secularism of many Christians engaged in charitable work. "
|“||Today, a particularly insidious obstacle to the task of education is the massive presence in our society and culture of that relativism which, recognizing nothing as definitive, leaves as the ultimate criterion only the self with its desires. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism, Cultural relativism, and Cognitive relativism. And under the semblance of freedom it becomes a prison for each one, for it separates people from one another, locking each person into his or her own ego. ||”|
He said that "a dictatorship of relativism" was the core challenge facing the church and humanity. Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism, Social constructionism, Cultural relativism, and Cognitive relativism. At the root of this problem, he said, is Kant's "self-limitation of reason". Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg This, he said, is contradictory to the modern acclamation of science, whose excellence is based on the power of reason to know the truth. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality He said that this self-amputation of reason leads to pathologies of religion such as terrorism and pathologies of science such as ecological disasters. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion This page is a list of environmental disaster environmental disaster Industrial and agricultural disasters Extinction of American megafauna  Benedict traced the failed revolutions and violent ideologies of the twentieth century to a conversion of partial points of view into absolute guides. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics He said "Absolutizing what is not absolute but relative is called totalitarianism. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private "
In the discussion with secularism and rationalism, one of Benedict's basic ideas can be found in his address on the "Crisis of Culture" in the West, a day before Pope John Paul II died, when he referred to Christianity as the Religion of the Word (the original Greek, Logos, meaning reason, meaning, or intelligence). Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 A word is a unit of Language that carries meaning and consists of one or more Morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together and has a Phonetic grc-Latn Logos (ˈloʊːgɒs ( Greek, logos) is an important term in Philosophy, Analytical psychology, Rhetoric and Religion He said:
|“||From the beginning, Christianity has understood itself as the religion of the Logos, as the religion according to reason. . . It has always defined men, all men without distinction, as creatures and images of God, proclaiming for them. . . the same dignity. In this connection, the Enlightenment is of Christian origin and it is no accident that it was born precisely and exclusively in the realm of the Christian faith. . . . It was and is the merit of the Enlightenment to have again proposed these original values of Christianity and of having given back to reason its own voice. . . Today, this should be precisely [Christianity's] philosophical strength, in so far as the problem is whether the world comes from the irrational, and reason is not other than a 'sub-product,' on occasion even harmful of its development—or whether the world comes from reason, and is, as a consequence, its criterion and goal. . . In the so necessary dialogue between secularists and Catholics, we Christians must be very careful to remain faithful to this fundamental line: to live a faith that comes from the Logos, from creative reason, and that, because of this, is also open to all that is truly rational. ||”|
Benedict thus endorses creative reason, manifested in the crucified God as love, which contrasts with the strict rationality of the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
Pope Benedict has to date written two encyclicals, Deus Caritas Est (Latin for "God is Love"), and Spe Salvi ("Saved by Hope"). An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church See also Catholic theology of the body Deus Caritas Est ( Latin for "God is Love" is the first Encyclical written by Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Spe Salvi ( Latin "SPE SALVI facti sumus”—in hope we were saved is from Rom 824
In his first encyclical, "God is love", he said that a human being, created in the image of God who is love, is able to practice love: to give himself to God and others (agape), by receiving and experiencing God's love in contemplation (eros). Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. Agapē (ˈægəpiː ( Gk αγάπη) is one of several Greek words translated into English as love. Eros (Ἔρως in Greek mythology, was the primordial god of lust, Love, and Intercourse; he was also worshipped as a fertility This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them in Jesus Christ. Mother Teresa, Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, (born August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was an Albanian ref>Spink This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) 
The encyclical contains almost 16,000 words in 42 paragraphs. The first half is said to have been written by Benedict in German, his mother tongue, in the summer of 2005; the second half is derived from uncompleted writings left by his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth Pope  The document was signed by Pope Benedict on Christmas Day, 25 December 2005. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The encyclical was promulgated a month later in Latin and was translated into English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish. Promulgation or enactment is the act of formally proclaiming or declaring new statutory or Administrative law when it receives final approval English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. It is the first encyclical to be published since the Vatican decided to assert copyright in the official writings of the Pope. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and 
Pope Benedict's second encyclical titled Spe Salvi ("Saved by Hope"), about the virtue of hope, was released on November 30, 2007. Spe Salvi ( Latin "SPE SALVI facti sumus”—in hope we were saved is from Rom 824 Hope is a Belief in a positive outcome related to events and Circumstances in one's life Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  His third encyclical will be social in nature, and reportedly an extension of Pope Paul VI's encyclical Populorum Progressio, and will be title Caritas in Veritate (charity in truth). Pope Populorum progressio is the Encyclical written by Pope Paul VI on the topic of "the development of peoples" and that the economy of the world 
Sacramentum Caritatis (The Sacrament of Charity) signed 22 February 2007, released in Latin, Italian, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish, and Polish. Sacramentum Caritatis ("The Sacrament of Charity" is the first post-synodal (i e after the Synod held in Rome, October 2 - 23 Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. It was made available in various languages March 13, 2007 in Rome. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The English edition from Libera Editrice Vaticana is 158 pages. This exhortation "seeks to take up the richness and variety of the reflections and proposals which emerged from the recent Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops. . . " which was held in 2006. 
On 7 July 2007, Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, declaring that upon "the request of the faithful", celebration of Mass according to the Missal of 1962 (commonly known as the Tridentine Mass), was to be more easily permitted. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death A motu proprio ( Latin "on his own impulse" is a document issued by the Pope on his own initiative and personally signed by him Summorum Pontificum (Of the Supreme Pontiffs is an Apostolic Letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued " Motu proprio " (i The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published Stable groups who previously had to petition their bishop to have a Tridentine Mass may now merely request permission from their local priest.  While Summorum Pontificum directs that pastors should provide the Tridentine Mass upon the requests of the faithful, it also allows for any qualified priest to offer private celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, to which the faithful may be admitted if they wish. The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published  For regularly scheduled public celebrations of the Tridentine Mass, the permission of the priest in charge of the church is required. 
In an accompanying letter, the Pope outlined his position concerning questions about the new guidelines, emphasizing that the Tridentine Mass would not detract from the Second Vatican Council, and that the Mass of Paul VI would still be the norm and priests were not permitted to refuse to say the Mass in that form. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. This article is about the post-Vatican-II changes to the Mass for an explanation of the current structure of the Mass see Mass (Catholic Church. He pointed out that use of Tridentine Mass "was never juridically abrogated and, consequently, in principle, was always permitted. " The letter also decried "deformations of the liturgy . . . because in many places celebrations were not faithful to the prescriptions of the new Missal" as the Second Vatican Council was wrongly seen "as authorizing or even requiring creativity", mentioning his own experience. 
The Pope also considered that allowing the Tridentine Mass to those who request it was a means to prevent schism, stating that, on occasions in past history, "not enough was done by the Church’s leaders to maintain or regain reconciliation and unity" and that this "imposes an obligation on us today: to make every effort to enable for all those who truly desire unity to remain in that unity or to attain it anew.  Many feel the decree aimed at ending the schism between the Holy See and traditionalist groups such as the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX). The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Darío Castrillón Cardinal Hoyos, the president of the Pontifical Commission that oversees the Tridentine Mass stated that the decree "opened the door for their return," and said "I wouldn't understand if they don't come back. Darío Castrillón Hoyos (born July 4 1929) is a Colombian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei is a commission of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope John Paul II's Motu proprio " Bishop Bernard Fellay, superior general of the SSPX, expressed "deep gratitude to the Sovereign Pontiff for this great spiritual benefit. ", but also said that the group "had to iron out doctrinal differences with the Vatican before a reconciliation could take place. "
Some Jewish groups criticized the move because of petitions for the conversion of the Jews included in the Tridentine Good Friday liturgy, which had been reworded by the liturgical reforms. The Good Friday Prayer for the Jews is a controversial prayer in the Christian particularly Roman Catholic, Liturgy.  Some Catholic voices feared that the move would entail a reversal of the Second Vatican Council. 
Near the end of June 2007, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document approved by Benedict XVI "because some contemporary theological interpretations of Vatican II's ecumenical intent had been 'erroneous or ambiguous' and had prompted confusion and doubt. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. " The document has been seen as restating "key sections of a 2000 text the pope wrote when he was prefect of the congregation, Dominus Iesus. "
The document issued on June 29, 2007 stated in part that "oriental Churches [i. e. Eastern Christianity] . Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about . . [merit the title sister Churches] Because these Churches, although separated, have true sacraments and above all – because of the apostolic succession – the priesthood and the Eucharist, by means of which they remain linked to us [Roman Catholicism] by very close bonds. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those . . . However, since communion with the Catholic Church, the visible head of which is the Bishop of Rome and the Successor of Peter, is not some external complement to a particular Church but rather one of its internal constitutive principles, these venerable Christian communities lack something in their condition as particular churches. The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and "
|"These ecclesial Communities which, specifically because of the absence of the sacramental priesthood, have not preserved the genuine and integral substance of the Eucharistic Mystery cannot, according to Catholic doctrine, be called "Churches" in the proper sense. "|
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
The document went on to say "Christian Communities born out of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. . . do not enjoy apostolic succession in the sacrament of Orders, and are, therefore, deprived of a constitutive element of the Church. These ecclesial Communities which, specifically because of the absence of the sacramental priesthood, have not preserved the genuine and integral substance of the Eucharistic Mystery cannot, according to Catholic doctrine, be called "Churches" in the proper sense. "
The document stated that "the full identity of the Church of Christ" is the Roman Catholic Church.  It said that the Catholic Church notes "that there are 'numerous elements of sanctification and of truth' which are found outside her structure, but which 'as gifts properly belonging to the Church of Christ, impel towards Catholic Unity'. It follows that these separated churches and Communities, though we believe they suffer from defects, are deprived neither of significance nor importance in the mystery of salvation. In fact the Spirit of Christ has not refrained from using them as instruments of salvation, whose value derives from that fullness of grace and of truth which has been entrusted to the Catholic Church. "
The approval of the document drew some criticism, such as the statement by the World Alliance of Reformed Churches which said "It makes us question whether we are indeed praying together for Christian unity. The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC is a fellowship of more than 200 churches with roots in the 16th-century Reformation, and particularly in the theology of " The statement continued that the document "makes us question the seriousness with which the Roman Catholic Church takes its dialogues with the Reformed family and other families of the church". The leading Lutheran cleric in Germany Bishop Wolfgang Huber wondered why no attempt was made to use more diplomatic language saying, "it would also be completely sufficient if it were to be said that the reforming churches are 'not churches in the sense required here' or that they are 'churches of another type' — but none of these bridges is used" in the Vatican document. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther " Others, such as Rev. Sara MacVane, of the Anglican Centre in Rome, saw it as in line with the previous position of the Church but questioned the timing of its release, saying "I don't know what motivated it at this time. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs " The Russian Orthodox Church, however, called the document "honest", noting that it contains nothing new and was conducive to "an honest theological dialogue. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure " The issuing of this document and the recent allowance made by Benedict XVI for more widespread use of the traditional Tridentine Mass was seen by some of his critics as a move towards conservatism, some even "raised questions about Benedict’s commitment to the changes made during the Second Vatican Council. The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published "
Benedict XVI has condemned excessive consumerism, especially among youth. Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. He stated in December 2007 that "[A]dolescents, youths and even children are easy victims of the corruption of love, deceived by unscrupulous adults who, lying to themselves and to them, draw them into the dead-end streets of consumerism. December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year It began on a Saturday and 31 days later ended on a Monday "
Speaking at his weekly audience in St Peter's Square on 7 June 2006, Pope Benedict asserted that Jesus himself had entrusted the leadership of the Church to his apostle Peter. Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. "Peter's responsibility thus consists of guaranteeing the communion with Christ," said Pope Benedict. "Let us pray so that the primacy of Peter, entrusted to poor human beings, may always be exercised in this original sense desired by the Lord, so that it will be increasingly recognised in its true meaning by brothers who are still not in communion with us. " The Catholic Church teaches that the Pope has a leading role among Christians because as Bishop of Rome he is successor to the apostle Peter who first held the office. The role of the papacy remains a source of controversy, not only for Protestant denominations but also for Eastern Orthodox churches, who likewise do not accept Petrine primacy as defined at the First Vatican Council. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. 
On August 29, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI met with Bishop Bernard Fellay of the traditionalist Society of St. Pius X, an international society of traditionalist Roman Catholic priests, which since 1975 has existed in a state of dispute with the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Bernard Fellay, SSPX (born 12 April 1958) is bishop of the Traditionalist Roman Catholic Society of St The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Bishop Fellay had previously issued a statement welcoming the election of Cardinal Ratzinger as Pope. 
The bishops of the Ecumenical Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople have expressed concern over Pope Benedict XVI's decision to strike out "patriarch of the West" from his official titles in the Vatican yearbook. History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor In a June 8, 2006 statement, the chief secretary of the Orthodox bishops' synod said dropping "patriarch of the West" while retaining the titles "vicar of Jesus Christ" and "supreme pontiff of the universal church" is "perceived as implying a universal jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome over the entire church, a claim that the Orthodox have never accepted. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. " The statement was issued after synod members discussed the change during their early June meeting. Cardinal Walter Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, said in a March statement that dropping the title of patriarch in reference to the pope does not minimize the importance of the patriarchal office, particularly in relation to the ancient Eastern churches. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Walter Cardinal Kasper (born 5 March 1933 in Heidenheim an der Brenz) is a German Prelate of the Roman Catholic The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity origins are associated with the Second Vatican Council which met intermittently from 1962-1965 "Even less can this suppression be seen as implying new claims" of power or authority on the part of the Vatican, he said. However, members of the Orthodox synod disagreed. From their point of view, "the geographical limits of each ecclesiastical jurisdiction" have been a key part of the structure of the church from the earliest days of Christianity. The church as a whole is "a unity of full local churches" and not a monolith divided into local units simply for the sake of easier governance. The Orthodox synod's statement said that, with the international Catholic-Orthodox theological dialogue set to begin again in September with plans to deal with the "thorny problem" of papal primacy, it would have been better not to have removed the title without consultation. 
A leading Muscovite Orthodox spokesman has said that a visit to Ukraine by Pope Benedict XVI would be "untimely", according to the country's RISU news service. Name For the purpose of distinguishing the two Orthodox Churches the Ukrainian Orthodox Church is often referred to in public as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. "If Pope Benedict is a moral and a spiritual person and wants only good for Ukraine and its people, he will never take such an unreasonable step," said Valentyn Lukianyk, the head of the Union of Orthodox Brotherhoods of Ukraine. He was responding to the news that Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko has invited the Pope to visit the country. Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( Ukrainian: Viktor Andrijovyč Juščenko) (born February 23 1954) is the third and current President of After the collapse of the Soviet Union there have been numerous clashes between Orthodox and Catholic believers over the ownership of parish properties that were confiscated by the Communists and handed over to the Russian Orthodox Church. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based At the same time, Orthodox leaders have complained that Catholics are engaged in "proselytism", seeking converts among Orthodox believers. In his statement opposing a papal visit, Lukianyk said that relations between Catholics and Orthodox in Ukraine are now "warming. " A visit by Pope Benedict, he said, would place an undue burden on those sensitive ties. 
Archbishop Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, visited Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican on December 13, 2006. Christodoulos ( 17 January 1939 – 28 January 2008) ( Greek: Χριστόδουλος, born Christos Paraskevaidis Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It was the first official visit by a Church of Greece leader to the Vatican. Archbishop Christodoulos was present for the funeral of Pope John Paul II. Pope The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Bartholomew I, with other Orthodox prelates also were present for the funeral Mass, but did not participate liturgically. "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I
In 2005, Pope Benedict sent a message to the national synod of the Reformed Church of France, the country’s main Protestant community, who thanked the Pontiff for this “gesture of consideration. The Reformed Church of France (L’Eglise Réformée de France ÉRF is a denomination in France (originally ”
In more general terms, Pope Benedict addressed Protestant churches in a speech during his trip to Cologne, Germany in 2005, discussing a "renewed sense of our brotherhood" and "a more open and trusting climate between Christians belonging to the various Churches and Ecclesial Communities. "
According to John L. Allen, Jr.'s Cardinal Ratzinger, the Pope, a German himself, feels a bond towards Lutherans and has Lutheran friends. John L Allen Jr (born 1965 is a Journalist who specializes in News about the Roman Catholic Church. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Allen, in fact, compares the then Cardinal Ratzinger's feelings towards Lutherans to the feelings John Paul had for Orthodox Christians in that both men wanted a divided Christendom to be reunited. The Pope is said to be rather ambivalent towards Martin Luther. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer
In Autumn 2006 Pope Benedict met with Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury and spiritual head of the Anglican Communion. Rowan Douglas Williams, PC, DD, DCL, FBA, (born 14 June 1950 in Swansea, Wales) is an Anglican The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches They issued a Common Declaration, highlighting the previous 40 years of dialogue between Catholics and Anglicans while also acknowledging "serious obstacles to our ecumenical progress. " In January 2008, he also met with John Sentamu, Archbishop of York. John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu FRSA (born 10 June 1949 in Kampala, Uganda) is the 97th Archbishop of York, Metropolitan The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The June 2007 clarification of Dominus Iesus, approved by the Pope, restated the Catholic Church's position that because of their perceived lack of bishops in the historic episcopate, Protestant faith communities "are not true Churches," as contrasted with Orthodox communities, which have bishops in the apostolic line and are therefore are considered true, if deficient, Churches. Dominus Iesus ( Latin for "The Lord Jesus" is a declaration by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. . In this context, Pope Benedict has reiterated his church's view about the supposed invalidity of Anglican orders.
Regarding the pope's comment, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark issued the statement: "It has a destructive effect on ecumenical relations if one church deprives another church of the right to be called a church. It is just as destructive as if one Christian denies another Christian the right to be called a Christian. "
The Pope's claim that Protestant faith communities "are not true Churches", was described by Adventists as "nothing more than tradition". The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance 
During Pope Benedict's trip to the United States in 2008, representatives of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were invited to attend an ecumenical prayer service with the pope for the first time. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known A representative for the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops commented that there are a variety of ways the two faiths can work together while acknowledging the theological differences that exist between the two faiths. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops ( USCCB) is the official leadership body of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. 
Pope Benedict is open to dialogue with other religious groups, and has sought to improve relations with them throughout his pontificate. He has, however, generated certain controversies in doing so.
However, Pope Benedict XVI's meeting with a Polish priest who has been accused of making anti-Jewish comments has shocked Jewish groups. The European Jewish Congress said that it was "shocked" in a letter to the Vatican.  Benedict XVI has made two visits to synagogues to meet with their congregants, however.  This is notable because there had only been one known Papal visit to a synagogue before Benedict XVI's administration, and that was by his predecessor, John Paul II. Pope 
Pope Benedict's relations with Islam have been at times strained. See also Pope Benedict XVI Terrorism When Benedict was elected critics described him as tougher on Terrorism and more wary of Radical Islam On 12 September 2006 Pope Benedict XVI delivered a lecture which touched on Islam at the University of Regensburg in Germany. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The University of Regensburg, situated in Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany, was founded on July 18 1962 by the Bavarian parliament Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The pope had previously served as professor of theology at the university, and his lecture was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University—Memories and Reflections". Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The lecture received much attention from political and religious authorities. Many Islamic politicians and religious leaders registered their protest against what they said was an insulting mischaracterization of Islam, although his focus was aimed towards the rationality of religious violence, and its effect on the religion. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings  the following passage from the Pope's speech:
|“||Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached. ||”|
The passage originally appeared in the “Dialogue Held With A Certain Persian, the Worthy Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia”, written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus, one of the last Christian rulers before the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire, on such issues as forced conversion, holy war, and the relationship between faith and reason. Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος Manouēl II Palaiologos) ( June 27, 1350 The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A forced conversion is the conversion to a Religion or philosophy under duress with the threatened consequence of earthly penalties or harm A religious war is a War caused by religious differences It can involve one state with an established religion against another state with a different religion or a different Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in Reason involves the ability to think understand and draw Conclusions in an Abstract way as in Human thinking According to the German text, the Pope's original comment was that the emperor "addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh — to us surprisingly harsh — way" (wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, uns überraschend schroffer Form).  Pope Benedict apologised for any offence he had caused and made a point of visiting Turkey, a predominantly Muslim country, and praying in its Blue Mosque.
Pope Benedict XVI planned on March 5, 2008 to meet with Muslim scholars and religious leaders autumn 2008 at a Catholic-Muslim seminar in Rome. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 
The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election, and visited him in October 2006 in the Vatican City. The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (born Lhamo Döndrub ( 6 July 1935 in Qinghai) He is the head of the Tibetan government-in-exile Benedict declined to see him in 2007. It has been suggested that this was for political reasons involving the position of Chinese Catholics. Chinese Catholicism called Tianzhu jiao (天主教 Lord of Heaven Religion has a long and complicated history 
While visiting Brazil in May 2007, "the pope sparked controversy by saying that native populations had been 'silently longing' for the Christian faith brought to South America by colonizers. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a " The Pope continued, stating that "the proclamation of Jesus and of his Gospel did not at any point involve an alienation of the pre-Columbus cultures, nor was it the imposition of a foreign culture. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer " President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela demanded an apology, and an indigenous organization in Ecuador issued a response which stated that "representatives of the Catholic Church of those times, with honorable exceptions, were accomplices, deceivers and beneficiaries of one of the most horrific genocides of all humanity. ||-||} Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The President of Venezuela (Presidente Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group " Later, the pope, speaking Italian, said at a weekly audience that it was "not possible to forget the suffering and the injustices inflicted by colonizers against the indigenous population, whose fundamental human rights were often trampled. "
Benedict has traveled extensively during the three years of his papacy. Pope Benedict XVI has not been as active in visiting other countries as his predecessor John Paul II, but has made several trips to foreign countries Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld In addition to his travels within Italy, Pope Benedict XVI has made two visits to his homeland, Germany, one for World Youth Day and another to visit the towns of his childhood. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. World Youth Day is a youth-oriented Roman Catholic Church event He has also visited Poland and Spain, where he was enthusiastically received. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. His visit to Turkey, an overwhelmingly Muslim nation, was initially overshadowed by the controversy about a lecture he had given at Regensburg. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg His visit was met by nationalist and Islamic protesters and was placed under unprecedented security measures.  However, the trip went ahead and Benedict made a joint declaration with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I in an attempt to begin to heal the rift between the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I
In 2007, Pope Benedict visited Brazil in order to address the Bishops' Conference there and canonise Friar Antônio Galvão, an 18th century Franciscan. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Saint Anthony de Saint Anne Galvão ( Portuguese: Santo Antônio de Sant'Anna Galvão) OFM, popularly known as Frei Galvão (Friar Galvão (1739 &mdash The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic In June of 2007, Benedict made a personal pilgrimage and pastoral visit to Assisi, the birthplace of St. Francis. Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. In September, Benedict undertook a three day visit to Austria, during which he joined Vienna's chief rabbi in a memorial to the 65,000 Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master A memorial is an object which serves as a memory of something usually a person (who has died or an event PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become  During his stay in Austria, he also celebrated Mass at the Marian shrine Mariazell. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Mariazell is a small city in Austria, in Styria, well known for Winter sports, 143 km N
In April 2008 Pope Benedict XVI made his first visit to the United States since becoming pope. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  He arrived in Washington, DC where he was formally received at the White House and met privately with U. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence S. President George W. Bush. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.  While in Washington, the pope addressed representatives of US Catholic universities, met with leaders of other world religions, and celebrated Mass at the Washington Nationals baseball stadium with 47,000 people. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The Washington Nationals is an American professional baseball team based in Washington D Nationals Park is the current ballpark for the Washington Nationals of Major League Baseball. The Pope also met privately with victims of sexual abuse by priests. The pope traveled to New York where he addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations. The City of New York The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Also while in New York, the pope celebrated Mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral, met with disabled children and their families, and attended an event for Catholic youth, where he addressed some 25,000 young people in attendance. St Patrick's Cathedral is a decorated Neo-Gothic -style Catholic Cathedral in North America  On the final day of the pope's visit, he visited the World Trade Center site and later celebrated Mass at Yankee Stadium. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan The original Yankee Stadium is a Stadium located in The Bronx in New York City. 
Pope Benedict XVI has re-introduced several papal garments which had previously fallen into disuse. Papal Regalia and Insignia are the official items of attire and decoration proper to the Pope in his capacity as the head of the Roman Catholic Pope Benedict XVI resumed the use of the traditional red papal shoes, which had not been used since early in the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. The Papal shoes are the red leather outdoor shoes worn by the Pope. Contrary to the initial speculation of the press that the shoes had been made by the Italian fashion house Prada, the Vatican announced that the shoes were provided by the pope's personal cobbler. Prada SpA is an Italian high-fashion company (also referred to as fashion House or Label) specializing in Luxury goods for men and women The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic 
On December 21, 2005, the pope began wearing the camauro, the traditional red papal hat usually worn in the winter. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A camauro (from the Latin camelaucum, from Greek kamelauchion, meaning " Camel skin hat" is a cap traditionally worn by It had not been seen since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963). Pope John (numberingBlessed On September 6, 2006 the pope began wearing the red cappello romano (also called a saturno), a wide-brimmed hat for outdoor use. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A cappello romano (literally Roman hat) or saturno (because it is reminiscent of the ringed planet Saturn) is a hat with a wide circular brim and a rounded Rarely used by John Paul II, it was more widely worn by his predecessors. Pope
Pope Benedict XVI has also restored the use of all three forms of the papal mozzetta. The mozzetta is a short elbow-length cape that covers the shoulders and is buttoned over the breast While only the red satin summer mozzetta was used by John Paul II, Benedict XVI has also made use of the winter papal mozzetta and the paschal mozzetta, both of which were last worn by Pope Paul VI The winter papal mozzetta is of red velvet trimmed with white ermine, and the paschal mozzetta, worn only during the Eastertide, is of white damask silk trimmed with white ermine. Pope Eastertide, or the Easter Season, or Paschal Time, is the period of fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday
During his installment address, Pope Benedict XVI spoke at length about the significance of the pallium, and he has returned to an ancient version of the vestment, an Eastern design, used by the popes of the first millennium. This article refers to the religious garment called a "pallium" Benedict XVI has also returned to wearing traditional forms of other liturgical vestments to emphasize the continuity of the papacy and the church. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics 
One item that Benedict has not worn to date is the papal tiara. The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the ' Triregnum', and in Italian as the ' Triregno', is the three-tiered Like his two immediate predecessors, Benedict chose not to be crowned with the tiara during his Inauguration Mass, nor has he worn it since that time. Unlike them, however, he has emphasized this decision by breaking with prior tradition in using a mitre instead of the tiara in his coat of arms. The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of Other traditional pontifical vestments remain unused as well, including the fanon, the pontifical gloves, and the papal slippers. The pontifical vestments, also referred to as episcopal vestments or pontificals, are the liturgical Vestments worn by Bishops (and by concession The Episcopal gloves or Pontifical gloves ( chirothecœ, called also at an earlier date manicœ wanti) The Papal Slippers are a historical Vestment traditionally worn by the Pope.
Franco Zeffirelli, the famed Italian film director of numerous lavish productions, criticized the Pontiff's vestments as being too "showy. Franco Zeffirelli, KBE (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923) is an Italian Film director. " He said that, "These are not times of high-tailored church wear. " Zeffirelli believes that Pope Benedict's garments are "too sumptuous" and make the pontiff appear cold and removed from his surroundings.  The Vatican explained Benedict's use of traditional vestments such as older, much taller miters during his "Urbi et Orbi" Christmas greeting by pointing to the need "to underline the continuity of today's liturgical celebration with that which characterized the life of the church in the past. Urbi et Orbi, literally "to the City Rome and to the World," was a standard opening of " The Pope's liturgist likened the use of vestments worn by previous popes to annotations in papal documents, where "a pope cites the pontiffs who preceded him in order to indicate the continuity of the church's magisterium. "
The official title of the Pope is His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI; in Latin, Benedictus XVI, Episcopus Romae. However, his rarely-used full title is "His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God. The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Primate (from the Latin Primus, "first" is a title or rank bestowed on some Bishops in certain Christian churches In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or Servus Servorum Dei is a Latin phrase meaning Servant of the Servants of God. "
Before 1 March 2006, the list of titles also used to contain that of a "Patriarch of the West", which traditionally appeared in that list of titles before "Primate of Italy. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family " The title of "Patriarch of the West" was first adopted in the year 642 by Pope Theodore I, but was rarely used since the East-West Schism of 1054. Pope Theodore I (d May 14, 649) who was Pope November 24, 642 - May 14 649, is considered a Greek The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the From the Orthodox perspective, authority in the Church could be traced to the five patriarchates of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the However, some Catholic theologians have argued that the term "Patriarch of the West" has no clear historical or theological basis and was introduced into papal court in 1870, at the time of the First Vatican Council. The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. Pope Benedict chose to remove the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the issue of papal primacy. It has also been suggested that "the West" is a misnomer as the modern Latin Church is today global in its extent. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. Pope John Paul II reportedly considered dropping the title during his own pontificate. Pope
In an 2004 Le Figaro, Ratzinger said that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim but governmentally secular by virtue of its state constitution (see Secularism in Turkey), should seek its future in an association of Muslim nations rather than the European Union, which Ratzinger has stated has Christian roots. Turkey's application to acceede to the European Union (previously the European Communities) was made on 14 April 1987 Le Figaro is one of the leading French morning daily Newspapers Its editorial line is conservative and has generally been supportive of Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Secularism in Turkey was introduced with the Turkish Constitution of 1924 and later the Atatürk's Reforms set the administrative and political requirements to create The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe" and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake. 
Later visiting the country to "reiterate the solidarity between the cultures," it was reported that he made a counter-statement backing Turkey's bid to join the EU. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, after meeting the pope upon his arrival in Ankara, the pope's first visit to a majority Muslim country, said that the pope told him that while the Vatican seeks to stay out of politics it desires Turkey's membership in the EU. This is a chronological list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence. "Erdoğan" redirects here For the Turkish Helicopter Erdoğan see Kamov Ka-50. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul.  However, the Common Declaration of Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople implied that support for Turkey's membership in the European Union would be contingent on the establishment of religious freedom in Turkey: "In every step towards unification, minorities must be protected, with their cultural traditions and the distinguishing features of their religion. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance " The Declaration also reiterates Pope Benedict XVI's call for Europe to preserve its Christian roots.
It was widely reported in April 2006 that the Vatican had launched a commission to investigate and prepare a document regarding the question of whether there are any cases when a married person may use condoms to protect against infection from their spouse. Though no conclusions have yet been reached, the investigation has surprised many Catholics in the wake of John Paul II's consistent refusal to consider condom use in response to AIDS and the widespread belief that his successor shared this view. Pope  In November 2005 the Pope had listed several ways to combat the spread of HIV, including chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts with no mention of condoms. However, Time Magazine reported in its April 30, 2006 edition that the Vatican's position remains what it always has been with Vatican officials "flatly dismiss[ing] reports that the Vatican is about to release a document that will condone any condom use. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. "
On November 13, 2006, Benedict said the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program should be resolved through negotiations, in his first public comment on the security issue, a news report said. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. North Korea claims to possess Nuclear weapons and the CIA asserts that it has a substantial arsenal of Chemical weapons. "The Holy See encourages bilateral or multilateral negotiations, convinced that the solution must be sought through peaceful means and in respect for agreements taken by all sides to obtain the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. Physical geography See also Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea Mountains cover 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula and arable plains are " Benedict said in a speech to the new Japanese ambassador to Vatican. 
In a message released November 14, 2006, during a Vatican press conference for the 2007 annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees, the pope urged the ratification of international conventions and policies that defend all migrants, including refugees, exiles, evacuees, and internally displaced persons. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Emergency evacuation is the movement of people from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event Internally displaced persons (IDPs are people forced to flee their homes but who unlike refugees remain within their country's borders "The church encourages the ratification of the international legal instruments that aim to defend the rights of migrants, refugees and their families," the pope said. "Much is already being done for the integration of the families of immigrants, although much still remains to be done. "
Pope Benedict has also promoted various UN events, such as World Refugee Day, on which he offered up special prayers for refugees and called for the international community to do more to secure refugees' human rights. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security In 2000 the United Nations General Assembly decided that as from 2001, 20 June will be celebrated as World Refugee Day to mark the 50th He also called on Catholic communities and organizations to offer them concrete help. 
On June 28, 2006, for the first time in more than five years, an official Vatican delegation visited China and met with government officials, signaling a warming between the two nations that had previously been locked in conflict. Chinese Catholicism called Tianzhu jiao (天主教 Lord of Heaven Religion has a long and complicated history Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National "This is a real gesture by the Vatican and its diplomats," said the Reverend Bernardo Cervellera, director of AsiaNews, a Catholic missionary news service with close links to the Vatican. In sending diplomats to Beijing, the Vatican, under Pope Benedict XVI, is publicly expressing interest in improving relations with China despite the recent conflicts. 
In 2007 Benedict sent a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that could have wide-ranging implications for the church's relationship with China's leadership. The letter provides long-requested guidance to Chinese bishops on how to respond to illicitly ordained bishops, as well as how to strengthen ties with the Patriotic Association and the Communist government. 
|Consecrated by:||Josef Stangl|
|Date of consecration:||May 28, 1977|
|Bishop||Date of consecration|
|Alberto Cardinal Bovone||May 12, 1984|
|Zygmunt Zimowski||May 25, 2002|
|Josef Clemens||January 6, 2004|
|Bruno Forte||September 8, 2004|
|Roman Catholic Church titles|
Julius Cardinal Döpfner
|Archbishop of Munich and Freising|
1977 – 1982
Friedrich Cardinal Wetter
Franjo Cardinal Šeper
|Prefect of the Congregation|
for the Doctrine of the Faith
1981 – 2005
William Joseph Cardinal Levada
Bernardin Cardinal Gantin
|Dean of the College of Cardinals|
2002 – 2005
Angelo Cardinal Sodano
John Paul II
2005 – present
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Benedict XVI|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||head of Catholic Church|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 16, 1927|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Germany|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|
The episcopate is the collective body of all Bishops of a church Josef Stangl ( March 12, 1907 - April 8, 1979) was a Roman Catholic Bishop of Würzburg, Germany. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Alberto Cardinal Bovone (June 11 1922&mdashApril 17 1998 was an Italian Prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Josef Clemens (born June 20, 1947 in Siegen) is a German bishop and Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Bruno Forte (born August 1, 1949) is an Italian theologian and ecclesiastic currently Archbishop of Chieti-Vasto. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Julius August Cardinal Döpfner ( August 26, 1913 &mdash July 24, 1976) was a German Prelate of the Roman Friedrich Wetter (born 20 February 1928) is a German cardinal of the Catholic Church, the Archbishop Emeritus of Munich, Germany Franjo Cardinal Šeper ( October 2, 1905 &mdash December 30, 1981) was a Croatian Prelate of the Roman Catholic The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, William Joseph Cardinal Levada (born June 15, 1936) is an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Bernardin Cardinal Gantin ( 8 May 1922 &ndash 13 May 2008) was a Beninese cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals is the President of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, and as such always holds the rank Angelo Sodano (born 23 November 1927 is the Dean of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. Pope History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and