Affinity • Attachment • Bonding • Boyfriend • Casual • Cohabitation • Compersion • Concubinage • Courtship • Divorce • Domestic partnership • Dower, dowry, and bride price • Family • Friendship • Girlfriend • Husband • Infatuation • Intimacy • Jealousy • Limerence • Love • Marriage • Monogamy • Nonmonogamy • Passion • Pederasty • Platonic love • Polyamory • Polyfidelity • Polygamy • Psychology of monogamy • Relationship abuse • Romance • Separation • Sexuality • Serial monogamy • Sexual orientation • Significant other • Wedding • Widowhood • Wife
Polyamory (from Greek πολυ [poly, meaning many or several] and Latin amor [literally “love”]) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people Affinity in terms of Sociology, refers to " Kinship of Spirit " interest and other interpersonal commonalities. Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships Human bonding refers to the development of a close Interpersonal relationship between family members or friends NOTICE*************** Casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a Sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally- and/or physically- Intimate relationship. Compersion is a term used by practitioners of Polyamory or Swingers to describe the experience of taking pleasure that one's partner is with another person Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Not to be confused with Dowry, or with Dour. Dower or morning gift ( Latin doarium, or Latinized A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage Bride price also known as bride wealth is an amount of Money or Property or Wealth paid by the groom or his family to the Parents of Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more beings Girlfriend is a term that can refer to either a Female partner in a non- marital romantic relationship or a female non-intimate Friend A husband is a Male spouse (participant in a Marriage, Civil union or Civil partnership. Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoned passion or Love; addictive love The meaning of intimacy varies from relationship to relationship and within a given relationship Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary Cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. Nonmonogamy is a Blanket term covering several different types of Interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, Passion (from the Latin patior, meaning to suffer or to endure is an emotion of feeling very strongly about a person Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Amor Platonicus The term amor platonicus was coined as early as the 15th century by the Florentine scholar Marsilio Ficino Polyfidelity is a form of polyamorous Group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts feelings and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships Abuse refers to the use or treatment of something (a person item substance concept or vocabulary that is harmful NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Serial monogamy is characterized by a series of long- or short-term exclusive Sexual relationships entered into consecutively over the lifespan Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 A wife is a Female spouse or participant in a Marriage, or Civil union or Civil partnership. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. An intimate relationship is a particularly close Interpersonal relationship. Consent as a term of jurisprudence is a possible defence (an Excuse or justification against civil or criminal liability Polyamorous perspectives differ from monogamous perspectives, in that they reflect one or more partner's wish(es) to have further meaningful relationships and to accommodate these alongside their existing relationships. Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple.
The term polyamory is sometimes abbreviated to poly, especially as a form of self-description, and is sometimes described as consensual, ethical, or responsible non-monogamy.
Polyamory is usually taken as a description of a lifestyle, philosophy or relationship orientation (much like gender orientation), rather than of an individual's actual relationship status at a given moment. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language It is an umbrella term that covers many orientations and modes of relationship. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym. There is fluidity in its definition to accommodate the different shades of meaning which might be covered. Polyamorous relationships are themselves varied, reflecting the choices and philosophies of the individuals concerned.
Polyamory is distinct from polygamy, being closer to a personal outlook than a predefined bonding system. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and It is grounded in such concepts as choice, trust, equality of free will, and the more novel idea of compersion, rather than in cultural or religious tradition. The question of free will Compersion is a term used by practitioners of Polyamory or Swingers to describe the experience of taking pleasure that one's partner is with another person
Because of its fluid nature, polyamory is sometimes loosely defined. Nevertheless, people who identify as polyamorous typically reject the view that sexual and relational exclusivity are always necessary for long-term loving relationships. Love is any of a number of Emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong Affection. Those who are open to, or emotionally suited for a polyamorous lifestyle, may at times be single, or in monogamous relationships, but are more typically involved in multiple long term relationships. Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. An interpersonal relationship is a relatively long-term association between two or more people
Polyamorous relationships, in practice, are highly varied and individualized. Ideally they are built upon values of trust, loyalty, negotiation, and compersion, as well as rejection of jealousy, possessiveness, and restrictive cultural standards. A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated Trust is a relationship of reliance A trusted party is presumed to seek to fulfill policies, ethical codes Law and their previous promises This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause For its use in business see Loyalty business model or Loyalty Marketing. For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation. Compersion is a term used by practitioners of Polyamory or Swingers to describe the experience of taking pleasure that one's partner is with another person  Such relationships are often more fluid than the traditional "dating and marriage" model of long-term relationships, and the participants in a polyamorous relationship may not have preconceptions as to duration. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS **************
Sex is not necessarily a primary focus in polyamorous relationships. Polyamorous relationships commonly consist of groups of more than two people seeking to build a long-term future together on mutually agreeable grounds, with sex as only one aspect of their relationship.
Polyamory is a hybrid word: poly is Greek for many (or multiple) and amor is Latin for love. Terminology within Polyamory looks at the evolution and meaning of the word "polyamory" itself as well as alternate definitions and concepts which closely relate to A hybrid word is a word which etymologically has one part derived from one language and another part derived from a different language Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The word has been coined, seemingly independently, by several people, including Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, whose article "A Bouquet of Lovers" (1990) is widely cited as its source (but see below), and Jennifer Wesp who created the Usenet newsgroup alt. Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart (born Diana Moore, formerly Morning Glory Zell) is a Neopagan Poet, author lecturer and priestess Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system A newsgroup is a Repository usually within the Usenet system for messages posted from many users in different locations polyamory in 1992.  However, the term has been reported in occasional use since the 1960s, and even outside polygamous cultures such relationships existed well before the name was coined; for one example dating from the 1920s, see William Moulton Marston. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and Dr William Moulton Marston ( May 9, 1893 &ndash May 2, 1947) was an American psychologist feminist theorist inventor and There are no verifiable sources showing the word "polyamory" in common use until after alt. polyamory was created. The older term polyfidelity, a subset of polyamory, was coined decades earlier at Kerista. Polyfidelity is a form of polyamorous Group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members Kerista was a new religion that was started in New York City in 1956 by Bro Jud Presmont.
Most definitions center on the concepts of being open to, or engaging in, a lifestyle that potentially encompasses multiple loving relationships (of whatever form) where all parties are informed and consenting to the arrangement. However, no single definition of "polyamory" has universal acceptance; two common areas of difference arise regarding the degree of commitment (when does swinging become polyamory?) and whether it represents a viewpoint or a relational status quo (is a person open to the idea, but without partners at present, still "polyamorous"?). Similarly, an open relationship in which all participants are long-term friends might be considered "polyamorous" under broader usages of the word, but excluded from some of the tighter usages, since polyamorous relationships may or may not also be polyfidelitous (non-open, or faithful within the relationship). See also Open marriage. An open relationship denotes a relationship (often between two people in which the participants are free to have Sexual intercourse Polyfidelity is a form of polyamorous Group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members
In 1999, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart was asked by the editor of the Oxford English Dictionary to provide a definition of the term (which the dictionary had not previously recognized). The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English The words "polyamory/ous/ist" were formally added to the OED in 2006.  The Ravenhearts defined and expanded the term as follows:
The practice, state or ability of having more than one sexual loving relationship at the same time, with the full knowledge and consent of all partners involved. This term was meant to be inclusive, and in that context, we have never intended to particularly exclude "swinging" per se, if practitioners thereof wished to adopt the term and include themselves. Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is "non-monogamous sexual activity treated much like any other social activity that can be experienced as a . . The two essential ingredients of the concept of polyamory are more than one; and loving. That is, it is expected that the people in such relationships have a loving emotional bond, are involved in each other's lives multi-dimensionally, and care for each other. This term is not intended to apply to merely casual recreational sex, anonymous orgies, one-night stands, pick-ups, prostitution, "cheating," serial monogamy, or the popular definition of swinging as "mate-swapping" parties. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money.
– Ravenhearts FAQ on Polyamory
The terms primary (or primary relationship(s)) and secondary (or secondary relationship(s)) are often used to indicate a hierarchy of different relationships or the place of each relationship in the speaker's life. Thus, a woman with a husband and another partner might refer to the husband as her "primary". (Of course, this is in addition to any other term of endearment). A term of endearment is a word or phrase used to address and/or describe a person or animal for which the speaker feels Love or Affection. Some polyamorous people use this as an explicit hierarchy of relationships, while others consider it insulting to the people involved, believing that a person's partners should be considered equally important. Another model, sometimes referred to as intimate network, includes relationships that are of varying significance to the people involved, but are not explicitly labeled as "primary" or "secondary. " Within this model, any hierarchy may be fluid and vague, or nonexistent.
Although people who are polyamorous have adopted a number of symbols, none has universal recognition. The most common symbol is the red and white heart (♥) combined with the blue infinity sign (∞). The heart (♥ has long been used as a Symbol to refer to the spiritual, Emotional moral, and in the past also intellectual core Infinity (symbolically represented with ∞) comes from the Latin infinitas or "unboundedness 
The poly pride flag consists of three equal horizontal colored stripes with a symbol in the center of the flag. The colors of the stripes, from top to bottom, are as follows: blue, representing the openness and honesty among all partners with which people who are polyamorous conduct their multiple relationships; red, representing love and passion; and black, representing solidarity with those who, though they are open and honest with all participants of their relationships, must hide those relationships from the outside world due to societal pressures. The symbol in the center of the flag is a gold Greek lowercase letter “pi” (π), as the first letter of "polyamory" . Pi (uppercase &Pi, lower case &pi) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. The letter's gold color represents the value that people who are polyamerous place on the emotional attachment to others, be the relationship friendly or romantic in nature, as opposed to merely primarily physical relationships. 
Another is the image of a parrot, since "Polly" is a common name for these birds. Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions  Author Mystic Life describes this symbol an ironic reference to Parrot monogamy. 
Forms of polyamory include:
The expression open relationship denotes a relationship (most often between two people, although there are also open group marriages) in which participants may have sexual connections with others, within the context of the existing relationship's negotiated agreements. Terminology within Polyamory looks at the evolution and meaning of the word "polyamory" itself as well as alternate definitions and concepts which closely relate to See also Open marriage. An open relationship denotes a relationship (often between two people in which the participants are free to have Sexual intercourse When a married couple makes such an agreement, it may be termed an open marriage. Open marriage typically refers to a Marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as "Open relationship" and "polyamorous" are not identical in meaning. Some forms of polyamorous relationship are not "open" (e. g. polyfidelity). And some self-identified open relationships may be open only sexually, while exclusive emotionally. However there is broad overlap between open relationships and polyamory.
Polyamory is not an exclusive identification; it is possible for a person with polyamorous relationships to also engage in casual sex, traditional swinging, sexually but not emotionally open relationships, or even to patronize sex workers. A sex worker is a person who works in the Sex industry. Sex workers may be employed as prostitutes strippers go-go dancers burlesque performers escorts dominatrices Sometimes polyamorous people have been known to engage in infidelities or secret affairs, although this is no better accepted in polyamorous communities than in monogamous ones.
There is some disagreement within polyamory as to whether somebody in a sexually and romantically exclusive dyadic relationship should be considered polyamorous if they have additional non-sexual but emotionally intimate friendships. Many monogamous people have close emotional ties to friends and relatives without finding that incompatible with societal monogamous values, so long as sexual and romantic elements are excluded, and thus feel no need for a non-monogamous identity. The transgressive aspect which definitively separated polyamory from monogamy and led to a the need for distinguishing terminology and subculture was the sexual or romantic element of those additional relationships. However, some people in sexually exclusive relationships but with additional close emotional friendships do self-identify as polyamorous, and as they often share many subcultural values, the community accepts such people.
There is some ambiguity about whether polyamory is a description of current practice as objectively observable, or is an underlying attitude or "orientation" similar to, for example, heterosexuality. Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation Some people identify as polyamorous because of what they seek or are open to, even if at present they are in relationship with only one other person, or have no sexual loving relationships. And some self-identified polyamorists could agree to a monogamous relationship with a partner with whom that works best, or could be open to a polyamorous relationship with a different partner. That is, they in essence define "polyamorous" in broader terms of being compatible with and open to the option of polyamory in some relationships, rather than a narrower sense of being incompatible with monogamy and requiring polyamory in all relationships.
See also forms of nonmonogamy for other types of nonmonogamous relationship. Nonmonogamy is a Blanket term covering several different types of Interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital,
"Polygamy" is more often used to refer to codified forms of multiple marriage (especially those with a traditional/religious basis), while "modern polyamory" or "egalitarian polyamory" implies a relationship defined by negotiation between its members, rather than by cultural norms. Egalitarian polyamory is culturally rooted in such concepts as choice and individuality, rather than in religious traditions.
Egalitarian polyamory is more closely associated with values, subcultures and ideologies that favor individual freedoms and equality in sexual matters — most notably, those reflected by sexual freedom advocacy groups such as Woodhull Freedom Foundation & Federation , NCSF  and ACLU . The Woodhull Freedom Foundation & Federation (WFF is a Non-profit organization based in Washington DC named in honor of early American Suffragist The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom ( NCSF) is a pro- BDSM Political lobby, advocacy and educational organization founded in 1997. The American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU) consists of two separate Non-profit organizations the ACLU Foundation a 501(c(3 organization which focuses However, polygamy advocacy groups and activists and egalitarian polyamory advocacy groups and activists can and do work together cooperatively (see LovingMorePolyactive and PolyLegal and Principle Voices). In addition, the two subcommunities have many common issues (poly parenting, dealing with jealousy, legal and social discrimination, etc. ), the discussion and resolution of which are of equal interest to both subcommunities regardless of any cultural differences that may exist. Moreover, there is considerable cultural diversity within both subcommunities. Religiously motivated polygamy has its Islamic, Mormon fundamentalist, Jewish and other varieties; similarly, many egalitarian polyamorists have cultural ties to Naturism , Neo-Pagans, BDSM, Modern Tantra, and other special interest groups. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Mormon fundamentalism (also called fundamentalist Mormonism) is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Naturism or nudism is a cultural and Political movement advocating and defending social Nudity in private and in public. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical Tantra ( Sanskrit: तन्त्र; " Weave " denoting continuity) tantricism or tantrism is any of several esoteric For example, egalitarian polyamory and BDSM often face similar challenges (e. g. negotiating the ground rules for unconventional relationships, or the question of coming out to family and friends), and cross-pollination of ideas takes place between the two. Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity Pollination in angiosperms and Gymnosperms is the process that transfers pollen grains, which contain the male Gametes (sperm to where the female 
In most countries, it is legal for three or more people to form and share a sexual relationship (subject sometimes to laws against homosexuality). Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. However, most Western countries do not permit marriage among more than two people. Nor do they give strong and equal legal protection (e. g. of rights relating to children) to non-married partners — the legal regime is not comparable to that applying to married couples. Individuals involved in polyamorous relationships are considered by the law to be no different from people who live together, or "date", under other circumstances. Usually one couple, at most, can be "married" under civil and/or religious law.
Bigamy is the act of marrying one person while already being married to another, and is legally prohibited in most countries where monogamy is the cultural norm. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and Some bigamy statutes are broad enough to potentially encompass polyamorous relationships involving cohabitation, even if none of the participants claim marriage to more than one partner. Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally- and/or physically- Intimate relationship. For instance, under Utah Code 76-7-101, "A person is guilty of bigamy when, knowing he has a husband or wife or knowing the other person has a husband or wife, the person purports to marry another person or cohabits with another person. "
Having multiple non-marital partners, even if married to one, is legal in most U. S. jurisdictions; at most it constitutes grounds for divorce if the spouse is non-consenting (or claims to be), or feels that the interest in a further partner has destabilized the marriage. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. There are exceptions to this: in North Carolina, a spouse can sue a third party for causing "loss of affection" in or "criminal conversation" (adultery) with their spouse, and more than twenty states in the US have laws against adultery although they are infrequently enforced. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is
New Jersey's 2004 Domestic Partnership Act could in theory be used to legally connect more than two persons (albeit imperfectly), perhaps using a combination of marriage and domestic partnership. A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional However, no case law in support of this theory as yet exists.
The late Rev. Jerry Falwell's Liberty Counsel organization filed the following California Supreme Court arguments on May 29, 2008: [. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr ( August 11 1933 – May 15, 2007) was an American evangelical Christian Pastor, . . The California same-sex marriage (SSM) ruling] has created a system in which a same-sex couple (or even an opposite-sex couple) could be married, in a domestic partnership, and in a separate civil union all at the same time. [. . . ] a person could have the rights, benefits and obligations of marriage with one same-sex partner in a California domestic partnership and/or a California marriage, and all the rights, benefits and obligations of a civil union with a different partner, especially since California has no residency requirement for marriage licenses. As a result, three or more people could claim community property rights in the same piece of property, parental rights over children, and the rights to alimony, child support, death benefits, insurance proceeds and employee benefits belonging to one of the other parties. [. . . ] Domestic partnerships are available to same-sex couples over the age of 18 and to opposite-sex couples if at least one person is age 62 or older. [. . . ] an unmarried person over the age of 18 and an unmarried person over the [age of] 18 who are not otherwise disqualified are capable of consenting to and consummating a marriage. [. . . ] domestic partnerships are not marriages. Therefore, a person who is part of a [. . . ] domestic partnership is "unmarried" and able to enter into marriage with another person over the age of 18. [. . . ] a person can enter into a domestic partnership if he or she is not married to someone else or is not a member of another domestic partnership with someone else that has not been terminated, dissolved, or ajudged a nullity. While this would mean that [people] could not enter into a domestic partnership after they are already married, it does not prevent them from getting married after entering into a domestic partnership. [. . . ] couples who are part of domestic partnerships or civil unions in other states would be able to get married in California. This would mean that [if] Parties A and B [. . . ] are in a Vermont civil union (or New Jersey or Connecticut civil union), and Parties C and D are also in a civil union, and Parties E and F are also in a civil union, then A and C could come to California to get married, and at the same time B and F could get married, and D and E could get married, all at the same time. [. . . ] Therefore, [the California SSM ruling] legitimizes polygamy and polyamory. [. . . ]
At present, the extension to multiple-partner relationships of laws that use a criterion similar to that adopted in the UK, i. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located e. "married or living together as married" remains largely untested. That is, it is not known whether these laws could treat some trios or larger groups as common-law marriages. Common-law marriage (or Common law marriage) sometimes called de facto marriage, informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute
If marriage is intended, most countries provide for both a religious marriage, and a civil ceremony (sometimes combined). These recognize and formalize the relationship. Few Western countries give either religious or legal recognition — or permission—to marriages with three or more partners. While a recent case in the Netherlands was commonly read as demonstrating that the Netherlands permitted multiple-partner civil unions,, this belief is mistaken. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. The relationship in question was a samenlevingscontract, or "cohabitation contract," and not a registered partnership or marriage (Dutch-language source, English-language source). The Netherlands' law concerning registered partnerships provides that:
When a relationship ends, non-consensual non-fidelity ("cheating") is often grounds for an unfavorable divorce settlement, and non-fidelity generally could easily be seized upon as a prejudicial issue by an antagonistic partner. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. Married people with partners external to their marriage need to consider carefully the laws in their jurisdiction, to ensure that they are complied with, and consider how to ensure that the mutuality of their decision within their marriage is clear.
There is an ongoing discussion among polyamory activists regarding a legal model of polyamorous marriage (i. e. , the extension of the legal concept of marriage to include polyamorous families). One debate centers around the relative merits of an all-with-all approach to marriage (whereby three or more persons are all joined together at the same time within a single marriage) and dyadic networks (whereby existing laws against bigamy are revised such that people are perfectly free to be concurrently married to multiple other persons, provided that each such new marriage is preceded by a legal notification regarding the pending new marriage to all those to whom one is already married; failure to provide that legal notification would then constitute the updated crime of bigamy).
Dyadic networks would result in what might be thought of as a "molecular" family structure — one which might be best represented by the molecular diagrams commonly used in chemistry. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties In this way, marriage would remain a dyadic relationship (i. e. , a relationship between two persons), thus minimizing any changes to the existing system of legal marriage, but the introduction of concurrency would provide access to legal marriage for polyamorous families.
Dyadic networks can correctly represent any situation associated with the "all-with-all" paradigm, as well as many situations that the "all-with-all" paradigm cannot deal with. A "complete" dyadic network would take the form of a complete graph, in which every person is (pairwise) married to every other person, thus correctly representing any situation associated with the "all-with-all" paradigm. In the mathematical field of Graph theory, a complete graph is a Simple graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by an A dyadic network may also represent situations in which some persons are (pairwise) married to some members of the dyadic network but not to all of them ("V" and "N" geometries, for example) — these are situations that the "all-with-all" marriage paradigm is unable to accurately represent.
The "all-with-all" marriage paradigm assumes that everyone is equally involved with everyone else in the group — one global marriage agreement has to fit every participant at the same time. But dyadic network marriages separately define the terms of each specific 2-person relationship, and these dyadic marriages do not typically happen at the same time (A marries B, B marries C ("V" structure), C marries D ("N" structure), etc. — thus, the shape of the dyadic network dynamically changes over time). Participants in a dyadic network need not even be aware of the specific terms of marriage agreements existing elsewhere within the same dyadic network.
Under the "all-with-all" marriage paradigm, when irreconcilable differences arise there can be no alternative to a complete separation — one person cannot divorce another without ending the entire marriage agreement for everyone involved. But dyadic networks can function in much the same way as watertight compartmentalization functions in naval vessels, i. e. , to limit and contain damage. An intense disagreement between two persons takes place within the context of their marriage, and need not greatly involve (or threaten) the relationships between other participants. Within a well-connected dyadic network, a divorce between two persons need not result in a complete separation of the network — for example, a dyadic network with triangle geometry would simply turn into a dyadic network with "V" geometry.
An "all-with-all" marriage can only exist or cease to exist. In contrast, the shape of a dyadic network can dynamically change over time. Divorces subtract connections, and marriages add connections. The dyadic network itself either changes shape, separates into two dyadic networks, or merges into another dyadic network, depending on the precise nature of the newly added or subtracted connection.
The maximum size of an "all-with-all" marriage is limited by the fact that every participant must be aware of the existence of every other participant (otherwise the global marriage contract would be invalid, because it could not satisfy the legal condition known as a "meeting of the minds"). But since a dyadic network relies only upon every participant's local knowledge of his or her own direct partners, its size is theoretically unlimited. The dyadic network paradigm is so powerful that it is theoretically capable of managing a situation in which every adult on earth is legally joined together in a single enormous dyadic network. Thus, with the dyadic network model, the idea of "many loves" is directly translated into a practical reality, and the "infinity" symbol (representing love without limits) is directly matched by a marriage model capable of handling an infinitely large number of participants.
However, the "all-with-all" or "dyadic" are not the only possible forms of polyamorous marriage. As another example, entry and exit of a marriage contract may follow the model of shareholders in a corporation or members in a limited liability corporation. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business A limited liability company (abbreviated LLC or LLC) in the law of the vast majority of the United States is a legal form of business Company
Separate from polyamory as a philosophical basis for relationship, are the practical ways in which people who live a polyamorous lifestyle arrange their lives, the issues they face, and how these compare to those living a monogamous lifestyle.
Relationships classed as polyamorous involve an emotional bond and often a longer term intent, though these distinctions are a topic open to debate and interpretation. Polyamory, the lifestyle or choice of having multiple mutually aware and consenting Loving relationships often requires a degree of Negotiation and individual Many people in the swinging and polyamory communities see both practices as part of a broader spectrum of open intimacy and sexuality. Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings
Also note that the values discussed here are ideals. As with any ideals, their adherents sometimes fall short of the mark — but major breaches of a polyamorous relationship's ideals are taken as seriously as such breaches would be in any other relationship. Common values cited within such relationships include:
Claimed benefits of a polyamorous lifestyle include the following:
The author, herself in a polyamorous relationship of three adults, comments that:
Polyamory is "a well-accepted part of gay subculture", although "often viewed by some therapists as problematic"; somewhere between 30% and 67% of men in male couples report being in a sexually non-monogamous relationship. Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade According to Coleman & Rosser (1996), "although a majority of male couples are not sexually exclusive, they are in fact emotionally monogamous. " Shernoff states that:
Many polyamorists have children, either within the relationship(s) or from a previous relationship. Like other elements of polyamory, the way in which children are integrated into the family structure varies widely. Some possibilities are:
The choice of structures is affected by timing: an adult who has been present throughout a child's life is likely to have a more parental relationship with that child than one who enters a relationship with people who already have a teenage child. (The issues involved often parallel those of step-parenting. )
The degree of logistical and emotional involvement between the members of the relationship is also important: a close-knit triad already living under one roof with shared finances is far more likely to take a collective approach to parenting than would a larger, loose-knit group with separate living arrangements:
Whether children are fully informed of the nature of their parents' relationship varies, according to the above considerations and also to whether the parents are "out" to other adults. Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity
In one possible case indicative of the law related to parenting and polyamory in the United States, the Pennsylvania State Supreme Court in 2006 voted 5-1 that a father in a custody case had the right to teach his child (age 13) about polygamy (and hence possibly by implication about other multiple partner relationships), and that this right "trumped" the anti-bigamy and other laws which might apply and was not deemed inherently harmful to the child. (Note: this decision was made in the context of religious freedom, but religious freedom would not apply if there was harm to the child. )
Parents involved in polyamorous relationships often keep it a secret because of the risk that it will be used by an ex-spouse, or other family member, as grounds to deprive them of custody of and/or access to their children. The fear is that it will be used in family disputes much as homosexuality has been used in the past. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.
In 1998, a Tennessee court granted guardianship of a child to her grandmother and step-grandfather after the child's mother April Divilbiss and partners outed themselves as polyamorous on MTV. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. In the late twentieth century outing became a common term for taking someone "out of The closet "—that is publicising that someone is Gay. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. After contesting the decision for two years, Divilbiss eventually agreed to relinquish her daughter, acknowledging that she was unable to adequately care for her child and that this, rather than her polyamory, had been the grandparents' real motivation in seeking custody.  The Tennessee case is not necessarily normative for the entirety of the United States, since family law varies significantly from state to state, and sometimes even within a state. US state law is, of course, not normative for laws of other countries.
Social views on polyamory vary by country and culture. For example, a 2003 article in The Guardian by Helena Echlin argues that "British people are if anything more tolerant than in America which is perhaps why British polys are less in need of support groups", and quotes a UK source as stating: "We have a tradition of people minding their own business here. People might disapprove, but they won't try to mess up your life. In America, they might call social services. "
As with many lifestyles, there is considerable active discussion about philosophical approaches to polyamory.
In Echlin's article in The Guardian, five reasons for choosing polyamory are identified: a drive towards female independence and equality driven by feminism; disillusionment with monogamy; a yearning for community; honesty and realism in respect of relational nature of human beings; human nature; and individual non-matching of the traditional monogamous stereotype. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Jim Fleckenstein, director of the Institute for 21st-Century Relationships, is quoted as stating that the polyamory movement has been driven not only by science fiction, but also by feminism: "Increased financial independence means that women can build relationships the way they want to. " The disillusionment with monogamy is said to be "because of widespread cheating and divorce". The longing for community is associated with a felt need for the richness of "complex and deep relationships through extended networks" in response to the replacement and fragmentation of the extended family by nuclear families. Extended family (or Joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings The term nuclear family developed in the Western world to distinguish the Family group consisting of parents most commonly a Father and Mother "For many," Echlin writes, "it is a hankering for community …we have become increasingly alienated, partly because of the 20th century's replacement of the extended family with the nuclear family. As a result, many of us are striving to create complex and deep relationships through extended networks of multiple lovers and extended families". Others speak of creating an "honest responsible and socially acceptable" version of non-monogamy — "since so many people are already non-monogamous, why not develop a non-monogamy that is honest, responsible and socially acceptable? …It seems weird that having affairs is OK but being upfront about it is rocking the boat. " "Polys agree that some people are monogamous by nature. But some of us are not, and more and more are refusing to be shoehorned into monogamy. "
A sixth reason, a couple's response to a failure of monogamy, by reaching a consensus to accept the additional relationship, is identified by other authors. 
Research into polyamory has been limited. A comprehensive government study of sexual attitudes, behaviors and relationships in Finland in 1992 (age 18-75, around 50% both genders) found that around 200 out of 2250 (8. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. 9%) respondents "agreed or strongly agreed" with the statement "I could maintain several sexual relationships at the same time" and 8. 2% indicated a "lifestyle that best suits" at the present stage of life would involve more than one steady partner. By contrast, when asked about other relationships at the same time as a steady relationship, around 17% stated they had had other partners whilst in a steady relationship (50% no, 17% yes, 33% refused to answer).  (PDF)
There is little research at present into the specific needs and requirements for handling polyamory in a clinical context. A notable paper in this regard is Working with polyamorous clients in the clinical setting (Davidson, 2002), which addresses the following areas of inquiry:
Its conclusions, summarized, were that "Sweeping changes are occurring in the sexual and relational landscape" (including 'dissatisfaction with limitations of serial monogamy, i. e. exchanging one partner for another in the hope of a better outcome') . . . that clinicians need to start by "recognizing the array of possibilities that polyamory encompasses" and "examine the culturally based assumption that only monogamy is acceptable" and how this bias impacts on the practice of therapy . . . the need for self-education about polyamory" . . . basic understandings about the "rewards of the poly lifestyle" and the common social and relationship challenges faced by those involved . . . and the "shadow side" of polyamory -- the potential existing for coercion, strong emotions in opposition, and/or jealousy.
The paper also states that the configurations a therapist would be "most likely to see in practice" are individuals involved in primary-plus arrangements, monogamous couples wishing to explore non-monogamy for the first time, and poly singles.
Morin (1999) states that a couple has a very good chance of adjusting to nonexclusivity if at least some of the following conditions exist:
Green & Mitchell (2002) state that direct discussion of the following issues can provide the basis for honest and important conversations:
According to Michael Shernoff if the matter is discussed with a third party, such as a therapist, the task of the therapist is to "engage couples in conversations that let them decide for themselves whether sexual exclusivity or nonexclusivity is functional or dysfunctional for the relationship. "
Many religions discourage sex outside marriage (or, in some cases, a committed relationship closely resembling marriage). As a consequence, those religions effectively prohibit or permit polyamory to the same degree that they prohibit or permit polygamy. Even where polygamy is permitted, it is often limited to a rigidly-defined form of plural marriage — most commonly polygyny. Polygyny (which comes from neo- Greek: πολύ poly "many" + γυνή gyny "woman" is a specific form of Polygamy,
At the beginning of the 21st century, polygyny remained common in some parts of the Islamic world but was not recognized by most branches of Christianity and Judaism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. There are many scriptural references in the Old Testament to polygyny, such as the story of King Solomon, an important figure to all three major Abrahamic religions. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. King Solomon ( Ge'ez: ስለሞን Arabic: ar سليمان, Sulayman, all from the Triliteral root S-L-M, "peace" Buddhism and Hinduism do not take a stance for or against, but are filled with many people who participate in it. For further discussion and some exceptions see Polygamy and religion. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and
While most religions offer guidance about sex and family, religious leaders have said relatively little about polyamory, possibly due to its low public profile compared to other relational/ethical issues such as homosexuality. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.
In a 2007 editorial by the Chinese newspaper the Shanghai Daily, the moralistic argument was advanced that marriage, a vehicle for true love, should engender the "obligation to give themselves totally and exclusively, to this one person" in order to have meaning, and in consequence of this, all extramarital activity was "worse than immoral. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Shanghai Daily ( Chinese:上海日报 Pinyin: Shànghǎi Rìbào is one of two main English-language Newspapers in China It's unashamed… Mutual conspiracy", and that the concept of mutual consent was "not worth refutation". Even if the partners were honest and supportive of each other, the writer stated that "marriage is considered the consecration of true love", and there was a spirit of marriage which had been betrayed.
The editorial was in response to the case of a Chinese female ex-police officer who ran a swingers website, and discussed various forms of open marriage:
"Then what about polyamory—a lifestyle of having more than one love/sex partner? If it is understood as an alternative to monogamous marriage, it is of the same ilk as swinging. Open marriage typically refers to a Marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as It could be the case that sexual fun and passion are shared by more than two people. But true love and marriage require exclusive mutual fidelity in one couple. "
In The Ethical Slut, Dossie Easton and Janet Hardy (writing as 'Catherine Liszt') described an argument against polyamory to the effect that, when one's love is divided among multiple partners, the love is lessened. The Ethical Slut A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities (ISBN 1-890159-01-8 is an English language Non-fiction narrative written by Dossie Dossie Easton (b February 26, 1944, Andover Massachusetts) is an author and Family therapist based in Janet W Hardy is a writer and sex educator and founder of Greenery Press. They referred to this as a "starvation economy" argument, because it treats love as a scarce commodity (like food or other resources) that can be given to one person only by taking it away from another. This is sometimes called a "Malthusian argument", after Malthus' writings on finite resources. Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834 was an English political economist and demographer who expressed views
Many polyamorists, including Easton and Hardy, reject the idea that dividing love among multiple partners automatically lessens it. A commonly-invoked argument uses an analogy with a parent who has two children—the parent does not love either of them any less because of the existence of the other. 
Critics counter that even if love is not a finite resource, time and energy still are. Because of this, it is considered responsible for polyamorists to not simply acquire relationships arbitrarily.
Another viewpoint is that the love from the third is just added to the total amount of the couple, and therefore, the amount of love is increased because all parties are providing it to all other parties.
Polyamorous relationships are often criticised as "not lasting", for example, Stanley Kurtz takes this as axiomatic when he says "Not only would legally recognized polyamory be unstable…"
The problem of confirmation bias makes it impossible to accurately gauge the stability of polyamorous relationships without carefully-conducted scientific investigation. In Psychology and Cognitive science, confirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions and avoids
The complex nature of polyamory presents difficulties in structuring such research. For instance, polyamorists may be reluctant to disclose their relationship status due to potential negative consequences, and researchers may be unfamiliar with the full range of polyamorous behaviours, leading to poorly-framed questions that give misleading results. (Note that the American Psychological Association has identified these same issues as potential causes of error in the context of gay/lesbian/bisexual populations. The American Psychological Association (APA is a professional organization representing psychologists in the U )
In general terms, nonexclusivity lowers the cost of entering into, and exiting, romantic relationships. More sexual relationships creates more competition for longer-term relationships. While some researchers may assume this would cause higher failure rates, the additional outlets and support may offset this to some degree. Researchers may also assume an inherently more complex structure is more prone to failure.
While predating the term polyamory, some research has been done on the stability of some forms of what might be considered polyamorous relationships in the Netherlands. Weitzman lists a study by Rubin and Adams in 1986 which found no differences in marital stability based on sexual exclusivity in married relationships.