Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. The term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, but politics has been observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit,  and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. A policy is a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s 
Political science (also political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration, which examines the practices of governance. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy.
Samuel Gompers' maxim, often paraphrased as,"Reward your friends and punish your enemies," hints at two of the five types of power recognized by social psychologists: incentive power (the power to reward) and coercive power (the power to punish). Samuel Gompers (January 27 1850 - December 13 1924 was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Social psychology is the study of how people and groups interact Arguably the other three grow out of these two:
Legitimate power, the power of the policeman or the referee, is the power given to an individual by a recognized authority to enforce standards of behavior. Legitimate power is similar to coercive power in that unacceptable behavior is punished by fine or penalty.
Referent power is bestowed upon individuals by virtue of accomplishment or attitude. Fulfillment of the desire to feel similar to a celebrity or a hero is the reward for obedience. This is an example of incentive power as one rewards oneself.
Expert power springs from education or experience. Following the lead of an expert is often rewarded with success. Note that expert power is conditional to circumstances (for example, if leaky pipes needs to be repaired, a brain surgeon's advice probably would not carry as much weight as a plumber's).
Authority, in a political sense, is different from political power in that it implies legitimacy and acceptance; it implies that the person or state exercising power has a perceived right to do so. Max Weber distinguished three Ideal types of political leadership domination and authority Charismatic authority ( familial In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium Acceptance, in Spirituality, Mindfulness, and Human Psychology, usually refers to the experience of a situation without an intention to change  Legitimacy is an attribute of government gained through the acquisition and application of power in accordance with recognized or accepted standards or principles.
Max Weber identified three sources of legitimacy for authority, known as the tripartite classification of authority. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium Max Weber distinguished three Ideal types of political leadership domination and authority Charismatic authority ( familial  He proposed three reasons why people follow the orders of those who give them:
Traditional authorities receive loyalty because they continue and support the preservation of existing values, the status quo. Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination is a form of Leadership in which the authority of an Organization or a Ruling regime is largely Weber called this "the authority of the eternal yesterday". Patriarchal (and more rarely matriarchal) societies gave rise to hereditary monarchies where authority was given to descendants of previous leaders. Patriarchy is the structuring of Society on the basis of Family units where fathers have primary responsibility for the welfare of hence authority over Matriarchy is a term which is applied to gynocentric form of Society, in which the leading role is by the Female and especially by the Mothers Followers submit to this authority because "we've always done it that way. " Examples of traditional authoritarians include absolute monarchs. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything
Charismatic authority grows out of the personal charm or the strength of an individual personality (see cult of personality for the most extreme version). The Sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity heroism or exemplary character of an individual person A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise Charismatic regimes are often short-lived, seldom outliving the charismatic figure that leads them. For a charismatic regime to survive the rule of the individual personality, it must transform its legitimacy into a different form of authority. An example of this would be Augustus' efforts to create the position of the Roman principate and establish a ruling dynasty, which could be viewed as a shift to a traditional form of authority, in the form of the principate that would exist in Rome for more than 400 years after his death. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century,
Legal-rational authorities receive their ability to compel behavior by virtue of the office that they hold. Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic It is the authority that demands obedience to the office rather than the office holder; Weber identified "rationally-created rules" as the central feature of this form of authority. Modern democracies are examples of legal-rational regimes. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system People also abide by legal-rational authority because it makes sense to do so for their own good, as well as for the greater good of society.
Sovereignty is the ability of a government to exert control over its sphere of influence free from outside interference. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself
The Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-471 BCE) was one of the first thinkers to adopt a distinct approach to political philosophy. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher Events By Place Byzantine Empire Beirut is destroyed by an Earthquake and Tsunami. Events By Place Asia Xiao Wen Di succeeds Xian Wen Di as ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights His philosophy was "rooted in his belief that a ruler should learn self-discipline, should govern his subjects by his own example, and should treat them with love and concern. " His political beliefs were strongly linked to personal ethics and morality, believing that only a morally upright ruler who possessed "de", or virtue, should be able to exercise power, and that the behavior of an individual ought to be consistent with their rank in society. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings Virtue ( Latin virtus; Greek) is moral Excellence. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual He stated that "Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son. "
The Greek philosopher Plato(428-348 BC), in his book The Republic, argued that all conventional political systems (democracy, monarchy, oligarchy and timarchy) were inherently corrupt, and that the state ought to be governed by an elite class of educated philosopher-rulers, who would be trained from birth and selected on the basis of aptitude: "those who have the greatest skill in watching over the community. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The Republic ( Greek: / Politeía, meaning "political system" Latin: Res Publica, meaning "public business" or Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either a State where only property owners may participate in Government; or a government Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth Offspring. An aptitude is an innate acquired or learned or developed component of a competency ( being the others knowledge understanding and attitude) to do a certain kind of work " This has been characterised as authoritarian and elitist by some later scholars, notably Karl Popper in his book The Open Society and its Enemies, who described Plato's schemes as essentially totalitarian and criticised his apparent advocacy of censorship. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect Sir Karl Raimund Popper ( July 28 1902  &ndash September 17 1994) was an Austrian and British Philosopher and a professor Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor  The Republic has also been labeled as communist, due to its advocacy of abolishing private property and the family among the ruling classes; however, this view has been discounted by many scholars, as there are implications in the text that this will extend only to the ruling classes, and that ordinary citizens "will have enough private property to make the regulation of wealth and poverty a concern. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence "
In his book Politics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle(384–322BC) asserted that man is, by nature, a political animal. Aristotle's Politics ( Greek Πολιτικά is a work of Political philosophy. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He argued that ethics and politics are closely linked, and that a truly ethical life can only be lived by someone who participates in politics. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life 
Like Plato, Aristotle identified a number of different forms of government, and argued that each "correct" form of government may devolve into a "deviant" form of government, in which its institutions were corrupted. According to Aristotle, kingship, with one ruler, devolves into tyranny; aristocracy, with a small group of rulers, devolves into oligarchy; and polity, with collective rule by many citizens, devolves into democracy. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system  In this sense, Aristotle does not use the word "democracy" in its modern sense, carrying positive connotations, but in its literal sense of rule by the demos, or common people. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system  A more accurate view of Aristotle denouncing democracy was that it was described as mob rule, or ochlocracy. Ochlocracy ( Greek: οχλοκρατία or okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people
In his work The Prince, the Renaissance Italian political theorist Machiavelli put forward a political worldview which described practical methods for an absolute ruler to attain and maintain political power. Il Principe ( The Prince) is a political Treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of His work is sometimes viewed as rejecting traditional views of morality for a ruler: "for Machiavelli, there is no moral basis on which to judge the difference between legitimate and illegitimate uses of power. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings " It is from Machiavelli that the term Machiavellian is derived, referring to an amoral person who uses manipulative methods to attain power; his works have been studied and theories practiced by leaders including totalitarians such as Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler, each of whom justified the use of brutality for purposes of state security. Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  However, many scholars have questioned this view of Machiavelli's theory, arguing that "Machiavelli did not invent 'Machiavellianism' and may not even have been a 'Machiavellian' in the sense often ascribed to him. Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain " Instead, Machiavelli considered the stability of the state to be the most important goal, and argued that qualities traditionally considered morally desirable, such as generosity, were undesirable in a ruler and would lead to the loss of power. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of
In 1651, Thomas Hobbes published his most famous work, Leviathan, in which he proposed a model of early human development to justify the creation of polities, i. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation Leviathan or The Matter Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, commonly called Leviathan, is a book written by Thomas Polity ( Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece e. governed bodies. Hobbes described an ideal state of nature wherein every person had equal right to every resource in nature and was free to use any means to acquire those resources. State of nature is a term in Political philosophy used in Social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the State 's He claimed that such an arrangement created a “war of all against all” (bellum omnium contra omnes). Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning "the war of all against all" is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence The book has been interpreted by scholars as posing two "stark alternatives"; total obedience to an absolute ruler, or "a state of nature, which closely resembles civil war. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything . . where all have reason to fear a violent death".  Hobbes' view can therefore be interpreted as a defense of absolutism, arguing that human beings enter into a social contract for their protection and agree to obey the dictates of the sovereign; in Hobbes' worldview, "the sovereign is nothing more than the personal embodiment of orderly government. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler Social contract describes a broad class of republican theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form Nations and maintain a Social order A Gold Sovereign is a Gold coin first issued in 1489 for Henry VII of England and still in production as of 2008 " Hobbes himself argued "The final cause, end, or design of men (who naturally love liberty, and dominion over others) in the introduction of that restraint upon themselves, in which we see them live in Commonwealths, is the foresight of their own preservation, and of a more contented life thereby. "
In the First Treatise of Government, Locke refutes the theory of the Divine Right of Kings as put forward by Robert Filmer; he "minutely examines key Biblical passages" and concludes that absolute monarchy is not supported by Christian theology. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and Sir Robert Filmer (1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English Political theorist. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective "Locke singles out Filmer's contention that men are not 'naturally free' as the key issue, for that is the 'ground'. . . on which Filmer erects his argument for the claim that all 'legitimate' government is 'absolute monarchy'. "
In the Second Treatise of Government, Locke examines the concept of the social contract put forward by other theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, but reaches a different conclusion. Social contract describes a broad class of republican theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form Nations and maintain a Social order Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation Although he agreed with Hobbes on the concept of a state of nature before existing forms of government arose, he challenged Hobbes' view that the state of nature was equivalent to a state of war, instead arguing that there were certain natural rights belonging to all human beings, which continued even after a political authority was established. State of nature is a term in Political philosophy used in Social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the State 's War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units "The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone. . . being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, health or possessions".  According to one scholar, the basis of Locke's thought in the Second Treatise is that "contract or consent is the ground of government and fixes its limits. . . behind [this] doctrine lies the idea of the independence of the individual person. " In other words, Locke's view was different from Hobbes' in that he interpreted the idea of the "state of nature" differently, and he argued that people's natural rights were not necessarily eliminated by their consent to be governed by a political authority.
The 18th century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his book The Social Contract, put forward a system of political thought which was closely related to those of Hobbes and Locke, but different in important respects. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The Social Contract Or Principles of Political Right (1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about Social contracts In the opening sentence of the book, Rousseau argued that ". . . man was born free, but he is everywhere in chains" He defined political authority and legitimacy as stemming from the "general will", or volonté generale; for Rousseau, "true Sovereignty is directed always at the public good".  This concept of the general will implicitly "allows for individual diversity and freedom. . . [but] also encourages the well-being of the whole, and therefore can conflict with the particular interests of individuals. " As such, Rousseau also argues that the people may need a "lawgiver" to draw up a constitution and system of laws, because the general will, "while always morally sound, is sometimes mistaken". 
Rousseau's thought has been seen by some scholars as contradictory and inconsistent, and as not addressing the fundamental contradiction between individual freedom and subordination to the needs of society, "the tension that seems to exist between liberalism and communitarianism". A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions  As one Catholic scholar argues, "that it [The Social Contract] contains serious contradictions is undeniable. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". . . its fundamental principles--the origin of society, absolute freedom and absolute equality of all--are false and unnatural. " The Catholic Encyclopedia further argues that Rousseau's concept of the general will would inevitably lead to "the suppression of personality, the reign of force and caprice, the tyranny of the multitude, the despotism of the crowd", i. e. the subordination of the individual to society as a whole. 
In the 19th century, John Stuart Mill pioneered the liberal conception of politics. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential He saw democracy as the major political development of his era and, in his book On Liberty, advocated stronger protection for individual rights against government and the rule of the majority. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system On Liberty is a philosophical work by 19th century English Philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859 He argued that liberty was the most important right of human beings, and that the only just cause for interfering with the liberty of another person was self-protection. Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force  One commentator refers to On Liberty as "the strongest and most eloquent defense of liberalism that we have. On Liberty is a philosophical work by 19th century English Philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859 Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal " Mill also emphasised the importance of freedom of speech, claiming that "we can never be sure that the opinion we are attempting to stifle is a false opinion, and if we were sure, stifling it would be an evil still. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. "
Karl Marx was among the most influential political philosophers of history. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights His theories, collectively termed Marxism, were critical of capitalism and argued that in the due course of history, there would be an "inevitable breakdown of capitalism for economic reasons, to be replaced by communism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based " He defined history in terms of the class struggle between the bourgeoisie, or property-owning classes, and the proletariat, or workers, a struggle intensified by industrialisation: "The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.  Utopia for Marx was the classless society in which the state and the church would be very weak or nonexistent. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the This article is translated from and may fit related articles there better. The workers ultimately would own the means of production, state ownership would be a mere transition period, therefore the people would be free. Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 Because the state as Marx knew it would practically disappear over time, there would be no need for borders so individuals would be free to move from nation to nation without prosecution. This latter idea of internationalism is the direct opposition to the Nazi utopia of the Master race and national socialism. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The master race ( German: die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi Ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic Although Marxism is mostly associated with the Soviet Union for obvious reasons, one may also see in the European Union many but not all of Marx's ideas such as universal health care, open border and the free movement of people, and less economic inequality. Universal health care is health care coverage which is extended to all eligible residents of a governmental region
Many subsequent political movements have based themselves on Marx's thought, offering widely differing interpretations of communism; these include Marxism-Leninism, Maoism, and libertarian Marxism. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that describes itself as taking a less Authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism Possibly the most influential interpreter of Marxist theory was Lenin, founder of the Soviet Union, who created a revolutionary theory founded on Marxist thinking. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 However, libertarian Marxist thinkers have challenged Lenin's interpretation of Marx; Cornelius Castoriadis, for instance, described the Soviet Union's system as a form of "bureaucratic capitalism" rather than true communism. Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that describes itself as taking a less Authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism Cornelius Castoriadis (Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης ( March 11 1922 - December 26 1997) was a Greek - French 
The multiple notions of political power that are put forth range from conventional views that simply revolve around the actions of politicians to those who view political power as an insidious form of institutionalized social control - most notably "anarchists" and "radical capitalists". Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination The main views of political power revolve around normative, post-modern, and pragmatic perspectives. Normative has specialized meanings in several academic disciplines Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Pragmatism generally considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Peirce, who first stated the Pragmatic maxim.
The faces of power debate has coalesced into a viable conception of three dimensions of power including decision-making, agenda-setting, and preference-shaping. The decision-making dimension was first put forth by Robert Dahl, who advocated the notion that political power is based in the formal political arena and is measured through voting patterns and the decisions made by politicians. Robert Alan Dahl (born 17 December 1915) is the Sterling Professor emeritus of Political science at Yale University.  This view has been criticised by many as simplistic, notably by the sociologist G. William Domhoff, who argues that political and economic power is monopolised by the "elite classes". George William ( Bill) Domhoff (born August 6 1936 is a Research Professor in Psychology and Sociology at the University of California
A second dimension to the notion of political power was added by academics Peter Bachrach and Morton Baratz involving "agenda-setting". Bachrach and Baratz viewed power as involving both the formal political arena and behind the scenes agenda-setting by elite groups who could be either politicians and/or others (such as industrialists, campaign contributors, special interest groups and so on), often with a hidden agenda that most of the public may not be aware of. The third dimension of power was added by British academic Steven Lukes who felt that even with this second dimension, some other traits of political power needed to be addressed through the concept of 'preference-shaping'. Professor Steven Michael Lukes, DPhil (born 1941 is the author of numerous books and articles about political and social theory Lukes developed the concept of the "Three faces of power" - decision-making power, non-decision-making power, and ideological power. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics 
This third dimension is inspired by many Neo-Gramscian views such as cultural hegemony and deals with how civil society and the general public have their preferences shaped for them by those in power through the use of propaganda or the media. Neo-Gramscianism is a relatively new approach to the study of International Relations (IR and the Global Political Economy (GPE that explores the interface of ideas Cultural hegemony is a Concept coined by Marxist Philosopher Antonio Gramsci. Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed Ultimately, this third dimension holds that the general public may not be aware of what decisions are actually in their interest due to the invisible power of elites who work to distort their perceptions. Critics of this view claim that such notions are themselves elitist, which Lukes then clearly admits as one problem of this view and yet clarifies that as long as those who make claims that preferences are being shaped explain their own interests etc. , there is room for more transparency.
Some within the postmodern and post-structuralist field claim that power is something that is not in the hands of the few and is rather dispersed throughout society in various ways. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century As one academic writes, ". . . postmodernists have argued that due to a variety of inherent biases in the standards by which ”valid“ knowledge has been evaluated. . . modernist science has tended to reproduce ideological justifications for the perpetuation of long-standing forms of inequality. Thus, it is the strategy of postmodern science. . . to identify and, thereby, attack the ”deceiving“ power of universalizing scientific epistemologies. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge "
Most political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between the right and left. Left-right politics or the Left-right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions political ideologies, or political parties In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities This classification is comparatively recent (it was not used by Aristotle or Hobbes, for instance), and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the National Assembly who opposed the monarchy sat on the left, while those who supported it sat on the right. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The National Assembly is either a Legislature, or the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature in some countries A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or 
The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but broadly speaking, it can be said that the right wing is often linked to moral and social conservatism, law and order, and religion, while the left wing is often linked with redistribution of wealth and resources towards the poorer or less successful sections of society (which are generally perceived by the left as unfairly disadvantaged), and with secularism. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined In Politics, law and order refers to a political platform which supports a strict Criminal justice system especially in relation to Violent crime A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Redistribution of wealth refers to the transfer of wealth from some individuals to others Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs  The right wing is more often linked to the idea of social equity, and the left wing to the idea of social equality.
According to Norberto Bobbio, one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality, while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian. Norberto Bobbio ( Turin October 18, 1909 &ndash Turin January 9, 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and 
Some ideologies, notably Christian Democracy, claim to combine left and right wing politics; according to Geoffrey K. Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles. " Movements which claim or formerly claimed to be above the left-right divide include Gaullism in France, Peronism in Argentina, and National Action Politics in Mexico. Gaullism (Gaullisme is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. Peronism (Peronismo or Justicialism (Spanish Justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the ideas and programs associated with The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic
While left and right refer to different methods of developing an economically stable and just society, authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities", while a libertarian political system is one in which individual rights and civil liberties are paramount. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. More extreme than libertarians are anarchists, who argue for the total abolition of government, while the most extreme authoritarians are totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions
Authoritarianism and libertarianism are separate concepts from the left-right political axis. Left-right politics or the Left-right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions political ideologies, or political parties For instance, classical liberalism and contemporary American libertarianism are socially liberal, but reject extensive governmental intervention in the economy and welfare. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary. The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS is a Libertarian Non-profit organization that assists students at the undergraduate and graduate levels '"