A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. A political party is any organization or group that is concerned with or involved in the political process Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Parties often espouse a specific ideology and vision, but may also represent a coalition among disparate interests. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics
In political science several definitions of political parties exists. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems The first historical definitions of political parties concentrated on the institutional nature of parties (organized assembly) and on their functions (working for the national interest) and partisanship. In Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontent, published in 1770, Edmund Burke formulated the following definition of a political party: "an organized assembly of men, united for working together for the national interest, according to the particular principle they agreed upon. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and " In 1816, Benjamin Constant formulated the ideological definition of parties, which since that time remained accurate only for those parties that belonged to the grand ideological families, but not for opportunist or pragmatic parties, concerned with access to power, regardless of the political doctrine or ideology. This article concerns the European writer and politician for others see Benjamin Constant (disambiguation. Opportunism is a term used in Politics and Political science. Pragmatism generally considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Peirce, who first stated the Pragmatic maxim. For him, a political party is "a reunion of men professing the same political doctrine. " Marxists used a definition related with the central axiom of their doctrine (politics as class struggle): "a political party is the organization of the most conscious elements of a social class. "Max Weber kept the function formulated by Burke (realization of a political ideal, but also enlarged the definition, in order to include parties animated by material interests. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered According to him, a party is "an associative relation, an affiliation based on free recruitment. Its goal is to ensure the power for its leaders within an institutionalized group, having as aim the realization of an ideal or obtaining material advantages for its militants. " After World War II, political scientists and other researchers concentrated more on the technical and electoral nature of parties. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This is a list of notable political scientists See the List of political theorists for those who study politics without using the Scientific method. For Anthony Downs, a political party is "a team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining offices in a duly constituted election". Anthony Downs is a noted scholar in Public policy and Public administration, and since 1977 is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington 
Traditionally, political scientists have focused on the role of political parties as instruments of promoting candidacies in elections to public office. Crotty defines political parties as:
"A political party is a formally organized group that performs the functions of educating the public to acceptance of the system as well as the more immediate implications of policy concerns, that recruits and promotes individuals for public office, and that provides a comprehensive linkage function between the public and governmental decisionmakers. "
Similarly, according to Coleman, a political party is:
"an association that competes with other similar associations in periodic elections in order to participate in formal government institutions and thereby influence and control the personnel and policy of government. "
 However, not all political scientists agree that participation is the defining criteria of political parties. Neuman utilizes a broader definition, that political parties are
"the articulate organization of society's active political agents, those who are concerned with the control of governmental power and who compete for popular support with another group or groups holding divergent views. "
Moreover, in many countries political parties predates elections and universal suffrage. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to Suryadinata notes that in non-Western societies, standard Western definitions of political parties have limited usage. He urges that the functions of an organization should be the essential aspect and that an organization might have the functions of a political party without formally identifying itself as a political party. 
In a nonpartisan system, no official political parties exist, sometimes reflecting legal restrictions on political parties. Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic Elections Restrictions on political parties have existed in many countries at various times In nonpartisan elections, each candidate is eligible for office on her or his own merits. In nonpartisan legislatures, there are no typically formal party alignments within the legislature. The administration of George Washington and the first few sessions of the US Congress were nonpartisan. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Washington also warned against political parties during his Farewell Address. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the  The unicameral legislature of Nebraska is the only state government body that is nonpartisan in the United States today. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber The Nebraska Legislature is the supreme legislative body of the State of Nebraska, in the Great Plains region of the United States. Nebraska ( is a state located on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States and Many city and county governments are nonpartisan. In Canada, the territorial legislatures of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are nonpartisan. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Northwest Territories (ˌnɔrθˌwɛstˈtɛrɨtɔriz ( NWT or NT; French, les Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a territory Nunavut (ˈnuːnəvʊt ( Inuktitut syllabics: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ is the largest and newest territory of Canada; it was separated officially from the Nonpartisan elections and modes of governance are common outside of state institutions. Unless there are legal prohibitions against political parties, factions within nonpartisan systems often evolve into political parties. Tokelau also has a nonpartisan parliament. Tokelau (ˈtoʊkəlaʊ is a territory of New Zealand that consists of three tropical coral Atolls in the South Pacific Ocean.
In single-party systems, one political party is legally allowed to hold effective power. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party Although minor parties may sometimes be allowed, they are legally required to accept the leadership of the dominant party. This party may not always be identical to the government, although sometimes positions within the party may in fact be more important than positions within the government. Communist states such as China are some of the examples; others can be found in Fascist states such as Nazi Germany was between 1933 and 1945. Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The single-party system is thus usually equated with dictatorships and tyranny. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator.
In dominant-party systems, opposition parties are allowed, and there may be even a deeply established democratic tradition, but other parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a Party system where only one Political party can realistically become the Government Sometimes, political, social and economic circumstances, and public opinion are the reason for others parties' failure. Sometimes, typically in countries with less of an established democratic tradition, it is possible the dominant party will remain in power by using patronage and sometimes by voting fraud. Patronage is the support encouragement privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. In the latter case, the definition between Dominant and single-party system becomes rather blurred. Examples of dominant party systems include the People's Action Party in Singapore and the African National Congress in South Africa. The People's Action Party ( abbrev: PAP; Chinese: 人民行动党 Pinyin: Rénmín Xíngdòngdǎng Malay: Parti Tindakan Rakyat Singapore The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa One party dominant systems also existed in Mexico with the Institutional Revolutionary Party until the 1990s, in the southern United States with the Democratic Party from the late 19th century until the 1970s, and in Indonesia with the Golongan Karya (Party of the Functional Groups) from early 1970s until 1998. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Institutional Revolutionary Party ( Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican Political party that wielded The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya is a Political party in Indonesia.
Two-party systems are states such as the United States and Jamaica in which there are two political parties dominant to such an extent that electoral success under the banner of any other party is extremely difficult. A two-party system is a form of Party system where two major Political parties dominate voting in nearly all Elections at every The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. One right wing coalition party and one left wing coalition party is the most common ideological breakdown in such a system but in two-party states political parties are traditionally catch all parties which are ideologically broad and inclusive. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities In Politics, a big tent party or catch-all party is a Political party seeking to attract people with diverse viewpoints
The United Kingdom is widely considered a two-party state, though the Liberal Democratic Party holds seats in the British Parliament. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories
A plurality voting system (such as that in the United States) usually leads to a two-party system, a relationship described by Maurice Duverger and known as Duverger's Law. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member Maurice Duverger (born June 5 in Angoulême, France, 1917 is a French Jurist, Sociologist and Politician. In Political science, Duverger's law is a principle which asserts that a plurality rule election system tends to favor a Two-party system. 
Multi-party systems are systems in which more than two parties are serious contenders to participate in ruling. A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition
Canada, India, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom are examples where there are two strong parties, with a third party that is electorally successful. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This "third" party may frequently rank second in elections, and pose a threat to the other two parties, but has still never led the government. Such a party is particularly influential when its support or opposition sustains or ends a minority government. A minority government or a minority cabinet is a Cabinet of a Parliamentary system formed when the governing Political party or
Finland is a rare case of a nation where three parties routinely hold top office. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. It is very rare for a country to have more than three parties who all have a roughly equal chance of independently forming government.
Colombia traditionally had a rather rigid two-party system country but after 2002 elections, the system has gone through significant changes. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America.
More commonly, in cases where there are three or more parties, no one party is likely to gain power alone, and parties work with each other to form coalition governments. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate This has been an emerging trend in the politics of the Republic of Ireland and is almost always the case in Germany on national and state level, and in some constituencies at the communal level. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The major drawback of any coalition government is that it is potentially vulnerable to rapid changes and tends to lack stability. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate
Political parties are funded by contributions from their membership and by individuals and organizations which share their political ideas or who stand to benefit from their activities. Political parties and factions, especially those in government, are lobbied vigorously by organizations, businesses and special interest groups such as trades unions. WikipediaManual of Style#National varieties of English.-->A political faction Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups An interest group (also advocacy group, lobby group, pressure group or special interest group) is an organized collection of people who seek A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Money and gifts to a party, or its members, may be offered as incentives. In the United Kingdom, it has been alleged that peerages have been awarded to contributors to party funds, the benefactors becoming members of the Upper House of Parliament and thus being in a position to participate in the legislative process. The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Famously, Lloyd George was found to have been selling peerages and to prevent such corruption in future, Parliament passed the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925 into law. David Lloyd George 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor OM, PC (17 January 1863 &ndash 26 March 1945 was a British Statesman and the only The Honours (Prevention of Abuses Act 1925 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1925 (15 & 16 Geo Thus the outright sale of peerages and similar honours became a criminal act, however some benefactors are alleged to have attempted to circumvent this by cloaking their contributions as loans, giving rise to the 'Cash for Peerages' scandal. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Cash for Honours (also Cash for Peerages, Loans for Honours or Loans for Peerages) is the name given by some in the media to a political Such activities have given rise to demands that the scale of donations should be capped. As the costs of electioneering escalate, so the demands made on party funds increases. In the UK some politicians are advocating that parties should be funded by the State; a proposition that promises to give rise to interesting debate. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Along with the increased scrutiny of donations there has been a long term contraction in party memberships in a number of western democracies which itself places more strains on funding. For example in the United Kingdom and Australia membership of the two main parties in 2006 is less than an 1/8 of what it was in 1950, despite significant increases in population over that period. In Ireland, elected representatives of the Sinn Féin party take only the average industrial wage from their salary as a representative, while the rest goes into the party budget. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Other incomes they may have are not taken into account. Elected representatives of the Socialist Party (Ireland) take only the average industrial wage out of their entire earnings. The Socialist Party (in Irish Páirtí Sóisialach) is a Political party active in Ireland
Some nations, such as Australia, give political parties public funding for advertising purposes during election periods. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
Generally speaking, over the world, political parties associate themselves with colors, primarily for identification, especially for voter recognition during elections. Certain political parties or positions have become associated with different colours at different times Colours For more in depth information on this see Political colour An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Red usually signifies leftist, communist or socialist parties. Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Conservative parties generally use blue or black. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by Black is the Color of objects that do not emit or Reflect Light in any part of the Visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of
Pink sometimes signifies moderate socialist. Pink is a pale Red Color that was first recorded in the 17th century to describe the pale red Flowers of pinks, Flowering plants Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Yellow is often used for libertarianism or classical liberalism. Yellow is the Color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength Cone cells of the Retina about equally Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Green is the color for green parties, Islamist parties and Irish nationalist and republican parties in Northern Ireland. Green is a Color, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a Wavelength of roughly 520–570- nm. A Green party' or ecologist party is a formally organized Political party based on the principles of Green politics. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic Orange is sometimes a color of nationalism, such as in The Netherlands, in Israel with the Orange Camp or with Ulster Loyalists in Northern Ireland; it is also a color of reform such as in Ukraine. The colour orange occurs The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. In the past, Purple was considered the color of royalty (like white), but today it is sometimes used for feminist parties. Purple is a general term for the range of shades of Color occurring between Red and Blue. A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. Generally the head of a royal family is a king or queen regnant White also is associated with nationalism. "Purple Party" is also used as an academic hypothetical of an undefined party, as a centralist party in the United States (because purple is created from mixing the main parties' colours of red and blue) and as a highly idealistic "peace and love" party-- in a similar vein to a Green Party, perhaps. Black is generally associated with fascist parties, going back to Mussolini's blackshirts, but also with Anarchism and Christian democracy. Black is the Color of objects that do not emit or Reflect Light in any part of the Visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Similarly, brown is often associated with Nazism, going back to the Nazi Party's brown-uniformed storm troopers. Black, when used as a general term is a color that is a Very dark Black, black, or Black, of low Luminance relative to Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 The, abbreviated SA, ( German for "Assault detachment" or "Assault section" usually translated as " stormtroop(ers The Stormtroopers (in German Stoßtruppen, shock troops) were specialist military troops which were formed in the last years of World War I as the German
Color associations are useful for mnemonics when voter illiteracy is significant. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Another case where they are used is when it is not desirable to make rigorous links to parties, particularly when coalitions and alliances are formed between political parties and other organizations, for example: Red Tory, "Purple" (Red-Blue) alliances, Red-green alliances, Blue-green alliances, Pan-green coalitions, and Pan-blue coalitions. A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy tradition and disposition in Canada. In Politics, a red-green alliance is an alliance of "red" socialist or social democratic parties with "green" environmentalist A Blue-green alliance describes an alliance between political parties and other organizations The Pan-Green Coalition ( or Pan-Green Camp, is currently an informal Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the The Pan-Blue Coalition ( or Pan-Blue Force ( is a Political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan consisting of the Kuomintang
Political color schemes in the United States diverge from international norms. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Since 2000, red has become associated with the center-right Republican Party and blue with the center-left Democratic Party. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. However, unlike political color schemes of other countries, the parties did not choose those colors; they were used in news coverage of 2000 election results and ensuing legal battle and caught on in popular usage.
The emblem of socialist parties is often a red rose held in a fist. An emblem is a pictorial Image, abstract or representational that epitomizes a Concept — e A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species Communist parties often use a hammer to represent the worker, a sickle to represent the farmer, or both a hammer and a sickle to refer to both at the same time. A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object The most common uses are for driving nails fitting parts and breaking up objects A sickle is a hand-held Agricultural Tool with a curved Blade typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for Hay. The hammer and sickle is a part of Communist symbolism and its usage indicates an association with Communism, Communist Party, or Communist state
The emblem of Nazism, the swastika or "hakenkreuz," has been adopted as a near-universal symbol for almost any organized hate group, even though it dates from more ancient times. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is
Symbols can be very important when the overall electorate is illiterate. The musical instrument is spelled Cymbal. A symbol is something --- such as an object, Picture, written word a sound a piece A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty In the Kenyan constitutional referendum, 2005, supporters of the constitution used the banana as their symbol, while the "no" used an orange. The 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum was held on 21 November 2005. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn
During the 19th and 20th century, many national political parties organized themselves into international organizations along similar policy lines. Notable examples are the International Workingmen's Association (also called the First International), the Socialist International (also called the Second International), the Communist International (also called the Third International), and the Fourth International, as organizations of working class parties, or the Liberal International (yellow), Christian Democratic International and the International Democrat Union (blue). The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types Liberal International is a Political international for liberal parties. The Centrist Democrat International was until 2001 the Christian Democrat International (CDI and before that the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative Worldwide green parties have recently established the Global Greens. A Green party' or ecologist party is a formally organized Political party based on the principles of Green politics. The Global Greens is a global network of Green parties and political movements The Socialist International, the Liberal International, and the International Democrat Union are all based in London. The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
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