Police are agents or agencies, usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force. A water cannon is a device that shoots a high- Pressure stream of Water. The Chevrolet Impala was through 1996 a Full-sized Automobile built by General Motors for their Chevrolet division In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Police power is the capacity of a State to Regulate behaviours and enforce order within its Territory, often framed in terms of Public welfare The word comes via French from the Latin politia (“civil administration”), which itself derives from the Ancient Greek πόλις, for polis ("city"). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c 
The first police force comparable to present-day police was established in 1667 under King Louis XIV in France, although modern police usually trace their origins to the 1800 establishment of the Marine Police in London, the Glasgow Police, and the Napoleonic police of Paris. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be England's first Police force was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The City of Glasgow Police is the first professional Police force in modern history Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de Police headed by the Prefect of Police ( Préfet de Police) is an agency of the Government of France (and 
The first modern police force is also commonly said to be the London Metropolitan Police, established in 1829, which promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. "Metropolitan Police" redirects here See also Metropolitan police. Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment  Law enforcement however has only ever constituted a small portion of policing activity.  Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintenance and the provision of services.  Alternative names for police force include constabulary, gendarmerie, police department, police service, crime prevention, protective services or law enforcement agency, and members can be police officers, troopers, sheriffs, constables, rangers, or peace officers. Constabulary may have several definitions A civil non-paramilitary Police force consisting of police officers called Constables This is the usual A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce Victimization and to deter Crime and criminals A police officer (also known as a policeman or policewoman) is a warranted employee of a Police force. SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI. A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. A law enforcement officer (also called peace officer) in North America, is any public-sector person charged with upholding the peace, mainly Russian police and police of the Soviet-era Eastern Europe are (or were) called militsiya. Militia (мили́ция mʲi'lʲitsɨja мiлiцiя мiлíцыя милиция milicja miliţia milica milicija/милиција милиција was used as a short
In England and Wales, each police force or service is overseen by a police authority. A police authority in the United Kingdom, is a body charged with securing efficient and effective Policing of an area served by a Territorial police force
Law enforcement in Ancient China was carried out by "prefects. Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era " The notion of a "prefect" in China has existed for thousands of years. The prefecture system developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. Chǔ ( 楚) was a kingdom in what is now central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period ( 722 - 481 BC) and Jin ( Traditional Chinese: 晉 Simplified Chinese: 晋 Pinyin: Jìn was one of the most powerful states in the Spring and Autumn Period The Spring and Autumn Period ( was a period in Chinese history which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period.
In Ancient China, prefects were government officials appointed by local magistrates, who in turn were appointed by the head of state, usually the emperor of the dynasty. The prefects oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture," or jurisdiction. Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. Prefects usually reported to the local magistrate, just as modern police report to judges. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement of the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives.
Eventually the concept of the "prefecture system" would spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan. Some examples of ancient Chinese prefects include: Chong Fu - prefect of the Ying District in the East Han Dynasty and Ching Chow - prefect of the modern Shang-tung Province. Recent portrayals of prefects in modern popular culture include Jet Li's portrayal of the nameless prefect in the movie Hero. Li Lianjie (born April 26 1963 better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese martial artist (Kung fu Actor, Wushu champion Hero ( is a 2002 Chinese Martial arts film, directed by Zhang Yimou with music by Tan Dun.
In Ancient Greece, publicly-owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, manhandling prisoners, and making arrests. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic Crowd control is the controlling of a Crowd, to prevent the outbreak of disorder and prevention of possible rioting In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. 
Before its decline, the Roman Empire had a relatively effective law enforcement system. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial When under the reign of Augustus the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, he created 14 wards, which were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called "Vigiles," who guarded against fires and served as nightwatchmen. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani ("watchmen of the City " or Cohortes Vigilum If necessary, they might have called the Praetorian Guard for assistance. The Praetorian Guard ( Latin: PRÆTORIANI was a special force of Guards used by Roman Emperors Before being appropriated Beginning in the 5th century, policing became a function of clan chiefs and heads of state.
The Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order was a private system of tithings, since the Norman conquest led by a constable, which was based on a social obligation for the good conduct of the others; more common was that local lords and nobles were responsible to maintain order in their lands, and often appointed a constable, sometimes unpaid, to enforce the law. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south A tithe (from Old English teogoþa "tenth" is a one-tenth part of something paid as a (usually voluntary contribution or as a Tax or levy A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement.
In Western culture, the contemporary concept of a police paid by the government was developed by French legal scholars and practitioners in the 17th and early 18th centuries, notably with Nicolas Delamare's Traité de la Police ("Treatise on the Police"), first published in 1705. The German Polizeiwissenschaft (Science of Police) was also an important theoretical formulation of police. Polizeiwissenschaft ( German for "Police science" though "Polizei" may in this case be better translated as "Public Policy" or "Politics"
The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The royal edict, registered by the Parlement of Paris on March 15, 1667 created the office of lieutenant général de police ("lieutenant general of police"), who was to be the head of the new Paris police force, and defined the task of the police as "ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and of private individuals, purging the city of what may cause disturbances, procuring abundance, and having each and everyone live according to their station and their duties". This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, The Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de Police headed by the Prefect of Police ( Préfet de Police) is an agency of the Government of France (and This office was first held by Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, who had 44 commissaires de police (police commissioners) under his authority. Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie is considered to be the founder of the first modern police force. In 1709, these commissioners were assisted by inspecteurs de police (police inspectors). The city of Paris was divided into 16 districts policed by the commissaires, each assigned to a particular district and assisted by a growing bureaucracy. The scheme of the Paris police force was extended to the rest of France by a royal edict of October 1699, resulting in the creation of lieutenants general of police in all large French cities and towns.
As conceptualized by the Polizeiwissenschaft, the police had an economic and social duty ("procuring abundance"). Polizeiwissenschaft ( German for "Police science" though "Polizei" may in this case be better translated as "Public Policy" or "Politics" It was in charge of demographics concerns and of empowering the population, which, according to mercantilist theory, was to be the main strength of the state. Demographics or demographic data refers to selected population characteristics as used in government Marketing or opinion research or the Demographic profiles In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Thus, its functions largely overreached simple law enforcement activities and included public health concerns, urban planning (which was important because of the miasma theory of disease; thus, cemeteries were moved out of town, etc. Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations The miasmatic theory of disease held that Diseases such as Cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language "pollution" A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ), and surveillance of prices. Price in Economics and Business is the result of an exchange and from that trade we assign a numerical Monetary value to a good, .
Development of modern police was contemporary to the formation of the state, later defined by sociologist Max Weber as achieving a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force" and which was primarily exercised by the police and the military. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered The monopoly on the legitimate use of violence ( Gewaltmonopol des Staates, also known as monopoly on legitimate violence and monopoly on violence) is the A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Marxist theory situates the development of the modern state as part of the rise of capitalism, in which the police are one component of the bourgeoisie's repressive apparatus for subjugating the working class. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types
After the French Revolution, Napoléon I reorganized the police in Paris and other cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants on February 17, 1800 as the Prefecture of Police. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. The Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de Police headed by the Prefect of Police ( Préfet de Police) is an agency of the Government of France (and On March 12, 1829, a government decree created the first uniformed police in France, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"), which the Paris Prefecture of Police's website claims were the first uniformed policemen in the world. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display 
In the United Kingdom, the development of police forces was much slower than in the rest of Europe. Wentworth is a small border town in the far south west of the state of New South Wales, Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The word "police" was borrowed from French into the English language in the 18th century, but for a long time it applied only to French and continental European police forces. The word, and the concept of police itself, was "disliked as a symbol of foreign oppression" (according to Britannica 1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica Prior to the 19th century, the only official use of the word "police" recorded in the United Kingdom was the appointment of Commissioners of Police for Scotland in 1714 and the creation of the Marine Police in 1798 (set up to protect merchandise at the Port of London). The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be England's first Police force was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames from London, England to the North Sea. Even today, many British police forces are suffixed with "Constabulary" rather than "Police".
On June 30, 1800, the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland successfully petitioned the government to pass the Glasgow Police Act establishing the City of Glasgow Police. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The City of Glasgow Police is the first professional Police force in modern history This was the first professional police service in the country and differed from previous law enforcement in that it was a preventive police force. Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime Other Scottish towns soon followed suit and set up their own police forces through acts of parliament. 
The first organized police force in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, but the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 marked the true beginning of the Royal Irish Constabulary. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Royal Irish Constabulary ( RIC) ( Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann) was one of Ireland's two police forces in the early twentieth century Among its first duties was the forcible seizure of tithes during the "Tithe War" on behalf of the Anglican clergy from the mainly Catholic population as well as the Presbyterian minority. The Tithe War in Ireland ( 1831-36) refers to a series of periodic skirmishes and violent incidents connected to resistance to the obligation of Catholics The Act established a force in each barony with chief constables and inspectors general under the control of the civil administration at Dublin Castle. Chief Constable is the title given to the Chief police officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish governmental complex formerly the fortified By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men. The force had been rationalized and reorganized in an 1836 act and the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837. The discipline was tough and the pay poor. The police also faced unrest among the Irish rural poor, manifested in organizations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords and their property. Ribbonism, whose adherents were usually called Ribbonmen refers to the secret associations among 19th century lower class rural Irish Catholics, organised Landlord is the owner of a House, Apartment, Condominium, or Real estate which is rented or Leased to an individual or business
In London, night watchmen were the first paid law enforcement body in the country, augmenting the force of unpaid constables. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. They guarded the streets since 1663. On September 29, 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament, allowing Sir Robert Peel, the then home secretary, to found the London Metropolitan Police. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office "Metropolitan Police" redirects here See also Metropolitan police. These police are often referred to as ´Bobbies´ after Sir Robert (Bobby) Peel, who introduced the Police Act. They became a model for the police forces in most countries, such as the United States, and most of the British Empire. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Bobbies can still be found in many parts of the Commonwealth of Nations. Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and Wales (administration of Police matters The primary role of the police in Britain was keeping the Queen's Peace, which continues into the present day. The Queen's peace (or during the reign of a male monarch King's peace) is the term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe the protection the monarch in right 
In Canada, the Toronto Police was founded in 1834, making it one of the first municipal police departments in North America. The Toronto Police Service ( TPS) formerly the Metropolitan Toronto Police, is the Police force for the City of Toronto, Ontario It was followed in 1838 by police forces in Montreal and Quebec City. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province
In the United States, the first organized police service was established in Boston in 1838, New York in 1844, and Philadelphia in 1854. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The City of New York However, in the Founding Era, and even well into the 20th century in some parts of the country, law enforcement was done by private citizens acting as militia. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service
In Lebanon, modern police were established in 1861, with creation of the Gendarmerie. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian 
In Australia with the passing of the Police Regulation Act, 1862, the New South Wales Police Force was established and essentially tightly regulated and centralised all of the police forces operating throughout the Colony of New South Wales. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The New South Wales Police Force (NSW Police Force previously New South Wales Police Service & New South Wales Police is the primary Law enforcement agency in the State of
In most Western police forces, perhaps the most significant division is between preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Terminology varies from country to country. Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential
Preventive Police, also called Uniform Branch, Uniformed Police, Uniform Division, Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol, designates the police which patrol and respond to emergencies and other incidents, as opposed to detective services. As the name "uniformed" suggests, they wear uniforms and perform functions that require an immediate recognition of an officer's legal authority, such as traffic control, stopping and detaining motorists, and more active crime response and prevention. A uniform is a set of standard Clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Preventive police almost always make up the bulk of a police service's personnel. In Australia and Britain, patrol personnel are also known as "general duties" officers. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.  Atypically, Brazil's preventive police are known as Military Police. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 
Police detectives are responsible for investigations and detective work. Detectives may be called Investigations Police, Judiciary/Judicial Police, and Criminal Police. In the UK, they are often referred to by the name of their department, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Criminal Investigation Department (CID is the branch of all Territorial police forces within the British Police and many other Commonwealth police Detectives typically make up roughly 15%-25% of a police service's personnel.
Detectives, in contrast to uniform police, typically wear 'business attire' in bureaucratic and investigative functions where a uniformed presence would be either a distraction or intimidating, but a need to establish police authority still exists. "Plainclothes" officers dress in attire consistent with that worn by the general public for purposes of blending in. In some cases, police are assigned to work "undercover", where they conceal their police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are unsolvable by other means. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden causing loss In some cases this type of policing shares aspects with espionage.
Despite popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, many US police departments prefer not to maintain officers in non-patrol bureaus and divisions beyond a certain period of time, such as in the detective bureau, and instead maintain policies that limit service in such divisions to a specified period of time, after which officers must transfer out or return to patrol duties. This is done in part based upon the perception that the most important and essential police work is accomplished on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats, prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice their skills. Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after patrol officers have responded first to a situation. Investigations often take weeks or months to complete, during which time detectives spend much of their time away from the streets, in interviews and courtrooms, for example. Rotating officers also promotes cross-training in a wider variety of skills, and serves to prevent "cliques" that can contribute to corruption or other unethical behavior. Cross-training (Also known as conditioning) refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance
Police may also take on auxiliary administrative duties, such as issuing firearms licenses. Auxiliary police (also called Special police or Special constables are usually the part-time reserves of a regular Police force The extent that police have these functions varies among countries, with police in France, Germany, and other continental European countries handling such tasks to a greater extent than British counterparts. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European 
Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement organizations either for dealing with particular types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, homicide, or fraud; or for situations requiring specialized skills, such as underwater search, aviation, explosive device disposal ("bomb squad"), and computer crime. The United States Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP known as U List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Scuba diving is swimming underwater, or taking part in another activity while using a Scuba set. Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices ( Aircraft) including the people organizations and regulatory bodies involved with them Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe Computer crime, Cybercrime, e-crime, hi-tech crime or electronic crime generally refers to criminal activity where a Computer Most larger jurisdictions also employ specially-selected and trained quasi-military units armed with military-grade weapons for the purposes of dealing with particularly violent situations beyond the capability of a patrol officer response, including high-risk warrant service and barricaded suspects. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking In the United States these units go by a variety of names, but are commonly known as SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams. This is a list of Special Response units in the United States. SWAT ( Special Weapons And Tactics) is an elite special operations tactical unit in American Police departments similar to the Taiwan Thunder Squad Because their situational mandate typically focuses on removing innocent bystanders from dangerous people and dangerous situations, not violent resolution, they are often equipped with non-lethal tactical tools like chemical agents, "flashbang" and concussion grenades, and rubber bullets. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The London Metropolitan police's Specialist Firearms Command (CO19) is a group of armed police used in dangerous situations including hostage taking, armed robbery/assault and terrorism. The Specialist Firearms Command (CO19, better known by its former Specialist Operations designation SO19, is a specialised armed unit within London 's
There are several types of military police services:
In addition to conventional urban or regional police forces, there are other police forces with specialized functions or jurisdiction. In the United States, the federal government has a number of police forces with their own specialized jurisdictions. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Some example are the Federal Protective Service, which patrols and protects government buildings; the postal police, which protect postal buildings, vehicles and items; the Park Police, which protect national parks, or Amtrak Police which patrol Amtrak stations and trains. The United States Federal Protective Service (FPS is a component of U The United States Postal Inspection Service (or USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. The United States Park Police (USPP is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. The Amtrak Police is a Railroad police agency that acts as the security and law enforcement agency of Amtrak, a passenger train system in the United The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 .
There are also some government agencies which perform police functions in addition to other duties. The U.S. Coast Guard carries out many police functions for boaters.
In major cities, there may be a separate police agency for public transit systems, such as the New York City Port Authority Police or the MTA police, or for major government functions, such as sanitation, or environmental functions. The City of New York The Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police, or MTA Police, is the police agency of New York 's Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping and this looks set to grow in the years ahead, especially as the international community seeks to develop the rule of law and reform security institutions in States recovering from conflict. Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace The international community is a vague term used in International relations to refer to all the countries of the world or to a group of them The rule of law, in its most basic form is the principle that no one is above the law 
In many jurisdictions, police officers carry firearms, primarily handguns, in the normal course of their duties. A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion
Police often have specialist units for handling armed offenders, and similar dangerous situations, and can (depending on local laws), in some extreme circumstances, call on the military (since Military Aid to the Civil Power is a role of many armed forces). A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Military aid to the civil power (MACP (sometimes to the Civil Authorities) is assistance by the armed forces to the police in maintaining law and order Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in 1980 the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service. "Metropolitan Police" redirects here See also Metropolitan police. The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a Siege of the Iranian embassy in London after it had been taken over by Iranian Arab Separatists The Special Air Service ( SAS) is a Special forces regiment within the British Army which has served as a model and inspiration for the special They can also be equipped with non-lethal (more accurately known as "less than lethal" or "less-lethal") weaponry, particularly for riot control. Less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, or more recently compliance weapons are weapons intended Riot control refers to the measures used by police military or other forces to control, disperse and arrest civilians that are involved in a Riot, demonstration Non-lethal weapons include batons, riot control agents, rubber bullets and electroshock weapons. A club (also known as cudgel, baton, truncheon, night stick, and bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons Riot control agents are Less-lethal Lachrymatory agents used for Riot control. Rubber bullets are Rubber or rubber-coated Projectiles fired from Firearms They are usually non-lethal, unless fired at short range but An electroshock weapon is an Incapacitant Weapon used for subduing a person by administering Electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle The use of firearms or deadly force is typically a last resort only to be used when necessary to save human life, although some jurisdictions (such as Brazil) allow its use against fleeing felons and escaped convicts. Deadly force is defined as the force in which a person uses causing or that a person knows or should know would create a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm Police officers often carry handcuffs to restrain suspects. Handcuffs are restraint devices designed to secure an individual's Wrists close together
Modern police forces make extensive use of radio communications equipment, carried both on the person and installed in vehicles, to co-ordinate their work, share information, and get help quickly. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. In recent years, vehicle-installed computers have enhanced the ability of police communications, enabling easier dispatching of calls, criminal background checks on persons of interest to be completed in a matter of seconds, and updating the officer's daily activity log and other required reports on a real-time basis. Other common pieces of police equipment include flashlights/torches, whistles, and police notebooks and "ticketbooks" or citations. A flashlight (also called an electric torch or torch) is a portable electric spotlight which emits light from a small incandescent Lightbulb A simple whistle is a Woodwind instrument which produces Sound from a stream of forced air A police notebook, pocket notebook or PNB is a Notebook used by police officers to officially record details and incidents while on patrol A summons (also in Britain known as a claim form) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an
Police vehicles are used for detaining, patrolling and transporting. The New Zealand Police ( Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa) is the national Police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and Law enforcement in Germany is divided between the different levels of Federalism: the federal level ( Bund) the state level ( Länder) and the A police car is the description for a vehicle used by Police, to assist with their duties in patrolling and responding to incidents The common Police patrol vehicle is an improved four door sedan (saloon in British English). Police vehicles are usually marked with appropriate logos and are equipped with sirens and lightbars to aid in making others aware of police presence. Unmarked vehicles are used primarily for sting operations or apprehending criminals without alerting them to their presence. Some cities and counties have started using unmarked cars, or cars with minimal markings for traffic law enforcement, since drivers slow down at the sight of marked police vehicles and unmarked vehicles make it easier for officers to catch speeders and traffic violators.
Motorcycles are also commonly used, particularly in locations that a car may not be able to access, to control potential public order situations involving meetings of motorcyclists and often in escort duties where the motorcycle policeman can quickly clear a path for the escorted vehicle. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. Bicycle patrols are used in some areas because they allow for more open interaction with the public. The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind In addition, their quieter operation can facilitate approaching suspects unawares and can help in pursuing them attempting to escape on foot.
Police departments utilize an array of specialty vehicles such as helicopters, watercraft, command post, vans, trucks, all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, and SWAT armored vehicles.
The advent of the police car, two-way radio, and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service. The Metropolitan Nashville Police Department is the primary provider of law enforcement services for Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County. two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a Transceiver) unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content Calls for service generally refers to assignments that are typically distributed to public safety professionals that require their presence to resolve correct or assist a particular  With this transformation, police command and control became more centralized. August Vollmer introduced other reforms, including education requirements for police officers. August "Gus" Vollmer ( March 7, 1876 - November 4, 1955) was a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in  O.W. Wilson, a student of Vollmer, helped reduce corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas, and later in the Chicago Police Department. Orlando Winfield Wilson ( May 15, 1900 - October 18, 1972) also known as O Leadership and corruption is a specific form of Leaders misconduct sometimes involving Political corruption, and generally designed to gain a financial or political Wichita (ˈwɪtʃɪtaː is the most populous City in the US state of Kansas, and the county seat of Sedgwick County. The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of the City of Chicago, Illinois  Strategies employed by O. W. Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing of a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive recruiting drive with higher police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers.  During the professionalism era of policing, law enforcement agencies concentrated on dealing with felonies and other serious crime, rather than broader focus on crime prevention. In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce Victimization and to deter Crime and criminals 
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found this approach to policing to be ineffective. The Canton of Vaud ( French pronunciation) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and is located in Romandy, the southwestern part of the Lausanne ( pronounced, Losanna is a city in Romandy, the French -speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment was a landmark experiment carried out between 1972 and 1973 by the Kansas City Police Department of Kansas City Missouri Patrol officers in cars were disconnected from the community, and had insufficient contact and interaction with the community.  In the 1980s and 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing. Community policing or neighbourhood policing is a policing strategy and philosophy based on the notion that community interaction and support can help control Problem-oriented policing (POP, coined by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a Policing Strategy that involves the Broken windows policing was another, related approach introduced in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct. Fixing Broken Windows Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L James Q Wilson (born May 27, 1931) in Denver, Colorado is the Ronald Reagan Professor of Public policy at the Pepperdine George L Kelling is a Professor at Rutgers University, a Research Fellow at Harvard University, and an Adjunct Fellow at the Manhattan Institute This method was first introduced and made popular by New York City Mayor, Rudy Giuliani, in the early 1990s. KBE Per, "Postnominal letters should be included when they are issued by a country or organization the subject has been closely associated with The concept is simple, the ideology is that broken windows, graffiti, and other physical destruction or degradation of property, greatly increases the chances of more criminal activities and destruction of property. When criminals see the abandoned vehicles, trash, and deplorable property, they assume that authorities do not care and do not take active approaches to correct problems in these areas.  Building upon these earlier models, intelligence-led policing has emerged as the dominant philosophy guiding police strategy. Intelligence-led policing (ILP is a policing model that has emerged in recent years which is “built around risk assessment and risk management Intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing are complementary strategies, both which involve systematic use of information.  Although it still lacks a universally accepted definition, the crux of intelligence-led policing is an emphasis on the collection and analysis of information to guide police operations, rather than the reverse. 
In many nations, criminal procedure law has been developed to regulate officers' discretion, so that they do not arbitrarily or unjustly exercise their powers of arrest, search and seizure, and use of force. The Australian Federal Police (AFP is the Federal police agency of the Commonwealth of Australia. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated Criminal law. An arrest is the act of depriving a person of his or her liberty usually in relation to the investigation and prevention of crime Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many civil law and Common law legal systems whereby Police or other authorities and their agents who suspect The term use of force refers to the right of an individual or authority to settle Conflicts or prevent certain actions by applying measures to either a dissuade another party In the United States, Miranda v. Arizona led to the widespread use of Miranda warnings or constitutional warnings. Miranda v Arizona (consolidated with Westover v United States, Vignera v In the United States, the Miranda warning is a Warning given by Police to criminal Suspects in police custody or in a custodial situation before Police in the United States are also prohibited from holding criminal suspects for more than a reasonable amount of time (usually 72 hours) before arraignment, using torture to extract confessions, using excessive force to effect an arrest, and searching suspects' bodies or their homes without a warrant obtained upon a showing of probable cause. Arraignment is a Common law term for the formal reading of a criminal Complaint, in the presence of the Defendant, to inform him/her of the charges Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e In United States Criminal law, probable cause refers to the standard by which a Police officer has the right to make an Arrest, conduct Using deception for confessions is permitted, but not coercion. There are exceptions or exigent circumstances such as an articulated need to disarm a suspect or searching a suspect who has already been arrested (Search Incident to an Arrest). The Posse Comitatus Act severely restricts the use of the military for police activity, giving added importance to police SWAT units. The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law ( passed on June 16, 1878 after the end of Reconstruction. SWAT ( Special Weapons And Tactics) is an elite special operations tactical unit in American Police departments similar to the Taiwan Thunder Squad
British police officers are governed by similar rules, particularly those introduced under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), but generally have greater powers. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 ( PACE) (1984 c 60 is an Act of Parliament which instituted a legislative framework for the powers of police officers in They may, for example, legally search any suspect who has been arrested, or their vehicles, home or business premises, without a warrant, and may seize anything they find in a search as evidence. All police officers in the United Kingdom, whatever their actual rank, are 'constables' in terms of their legal position. This means that a newly appointed constable has the same arrest powers as a Chief Constable or Commissioner. However, certain higher ranks have additional powers to authorize certain aspects of police operations, such as a power to authorize a search of a suspect's house (section 18 PACE) by an officer of the rank of Inspector, or the power to authorize a suspect's detention beyond 24 hours by a Superintendent.
Police services commonly include units for investigating crimes committed by the police themselves. Police power is the capacity of a State to Regulate behaviours and enforce order within its Territory, often framed in terms of Public welfare MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Carabinieri (Italian for Carabiniers are the national-level Gendarmerie of Italy who also perform Military police duties These units are typically called Inspectorate-General, or in the USA, "internal affairs". The internal affairs ( United States terminology division of a Law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and In some countries separate organizations outside the police exist for such purposes, such as the British Independent Police Complaints Commission. The Independent Police Complaints Commission ( IPCC) is a Non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints Likewise, some state and local jurisdictions, for example, Springfield, Illinois have similar outside review organizations. Springfield is the capital of the US state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County with a population of 116482 (U The Police Service of Northern Ireland is investigated by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland, an external agency set up as a result of the Patten report into policing the province. The Police Service of Northern Ireland is the Police service that covers Northern Ireland. The Office of the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland is a Non-Departmental Public Body intended to provide an independent impartial police complaints system for the people
Police forces also find themselves under criticism for their use of force, particularly deadly force. Overview The Gallardo was designed as a competitor to the Ferrari 360, and now competes with its replacement the Ferrari F430. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Polizia di Stato (State Police or PdS is one of the National police forces of Italy. (called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 and Kristiania from 1878 to 1924 is the Capital and largest city of Norway. Deadly force is defined as the force in which a person uses causing or that a person knows or should know would create a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily harm Specifically, tension increases when a police officer of one race harms or kills a suspect of another race. In the United States, such events occasionally spark protests and accusations of racism against police and allegations that police departments practice racial profiling. Racial profiling is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime or
In the United States since the 1960s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government. Incidents such as the 1965 Watts Riots, the videotaped 1991 beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King, and the riot following their acquittal have been seen as evidence that U. The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale Race riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles California, in August Rodney Glen King April 9, 1965 in Fort Worth Texas) --> (born April 2, 1965 The Los Angeles riots of 1992, also known as the Rodney King uprising or the Rodney King riots, were sparked on April 29, 1992 when a jury S. police are dangerously lacking in appropriate controls. The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the US civil rights movement, the "War on Drugs," and a precipitous rise in violent crime from the 1960s to the 1990s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated. See also Protests of 1968 Historically the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980 in The War on Drugs is a prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries intended to reduce the Illegal
Police departments and the local governments that oversee them in some jurisdictions have attempted to mitigate some of these issues through community outreach programs and community policing to make the police more accessible to the concerns of local communities, by working to increase hiring diversity, by updating training of police in their responsibilities to the community and under the law, and by increased oversight within the department or by civilian commissions. Outreach is an effort by individuals in an Organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations groups specific Audiences Community policing or neighbourhood policing is a policing strategy and philosophy based on the notion that community interaction and support can help control In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil law suits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act ( VCCLEA; also known as the Biden Crime Law) was an Act of Congress dealing with Crime This has compelled local departments to make organizational changes, enter into consent decree settlements to adopt such measures, and submit to oversight by the Justice Department. A consent decree (also referred to as a consent order) is a judicial Decree expressing a voluntary agreement between parties to a suit, especially 
In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. In many countries particularly those with a federal system of government there may be several police or police-like organizations each serving different levels of government and enforcing different The United States has a highly decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement, with over 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Some countries, such as Chile, Israel, and Austria, use a centralized system of policing. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich  Other countries have multiple police forces, but for the most part their jurisdictions do not overlap. In the United States however, several different law enforcement agencies may have authority in a particular jurisdiction at the same time, each with their own command. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Other countries where jurisdiction of multiple police agencies overlap, include Guardia Civil and the Policía Nacional in Spain and the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri in Italy. The Civil Guard ( Guardia Civil) is the Spanish Gendarmerie. It has both military and civilian functions The Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, (National Police Corps is the national civilian police force of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Polizia di Stato (State Police or PdS is one of the National police forces of Italy. The Carabinieri (Italian for Carabiniers are the national-level Gendarmerie of Italy who also perform Military police duties Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 
Most countries are members of the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), established to detect and fight trans-national crime and provide for international co-operation and co-ordination of other police activities, such as notifying relatives of the death of foreign nationals. The International Criminal Police Organization, better known by its telegraphic address Interpol is an organization facilitating international police cooperation Interpol does not conduct investigations nor arrests by itself, but only serves as a central point for information on crime, suspects and criminals. Political crimes are excluded from its competencies. In Criminology, a political Crime is one involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act which prejudice the interests of the State
The Special Investigations Unit of Ontario, Canada, is a civilian agency responsible for investigating circumstances involving police and civilians that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault. The Special Investigations Unit (“SIU” or the “Unit” of Ontario, Canada, is a civilian agency responsible for investigating circumstances involving police Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The SIU is dedicated to maintaining one law, ensuring equal justice before the law among both the police and the public. They assure that the criminal law is applied appropriately to police conduct, as determined through independent investigations, increasing public confidence in the police services. Complaints involving police conduct that do not result in a serious injury or death must be referred to the appropriate police service or to another oversight agency, such as the Ontario Civilian Commission on Police Services.
The SIU is the only civilian oversight agency in Canada, and one of few around the world.