The first issue of Playboy
|Publisher||Playboy Enterprises, Inc.|
|First issue||December 1953|
|Language||English, many others|
Playboy is an American men's magazine, founded in Chicago, Illinois, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc., with a presence in nearly every medium. A publication's editor in chief is its Primary editor, having final responsibility for the operations and policies Hugh Marston Hefner (born April 9 1926 is an American Magazine Publisher, and best known as the editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine This is a list of Magazines primarily marketed to Men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines Playboy Enterprises Inc ( also organized as New Playboy Inc ( is the company founded by Hugh Marston Hefner to manage the Playboy magazine empire The United States of America —commonly referred to as the English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States An International Standard Serial Number ( ISSN) is a unique eight-digit number used to identify a print or electronic Periodical publication. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This is a list of Magazines primarily marketed to Men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Hugh Marston Hefner (born April 9 1926 is an American Magazine Publisher, and best known as the editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine Playboy Enterprises Inc ( also organized as New Playboy Inc ( is the company founded by Hugh Marston Hefner to manage the Playboy magazine empire Playboy is one of the world's best known brands. A brand is a collection of Images and ideas representing an economic producer more specifically it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Although the monthly magazine's hallmark from its inception has been its photography of naked women, every issue has featured "entertainment for men" in the form of articles on food, fashion, beverages and beauty, in the spirit of (in the words of its publisher in his very first issue) "mixing up cocktails and an hors d'oeuvre or two, putting a little mood music on the phonograph, and inviting in a female acquaintance for a quiet discussion on Picasso, Nietzsche, jazz, sex. Glamour photography is the photographing of a model with the emphasis on the subject Nudity is the state of wearing no Clothing. The term' "nudity" can also occasionally be used to refer to wearing significantly less clothing than expected " The magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by such novelists as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, and Margaret Atwood, as well as monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, architects, economists, composers, conductors, film directors, journalists, novelists, playwrights, religious figures, politicians, athletes and race car drivers. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and Ian Lancaster Fleming ( May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, Journalist and Second World War This page is about the novelist For his father the politician see Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov. Margaret Eleanor Atwood, CC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian Writer. The magazine throughout its history has expressed a libertarian outlook on political and social issues. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Many regard Playboy's use of "tasteful" nude photos as "erotic," in contrast to the "hardcore" pornographic magazines that began to appear in the 1970s in response to the success of Playboy's more revealing, softcore rival, Penthouse. Erotica (from the Greek Eros —"desire" or "curiosa" works of art including literature, photography film sculpture Hardcore pornography is a form of Pornography that features explicit sexual acts. Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Softcore (or soft porn) is a form of Pornography, either video or nude Glamour photography, that is less explicit than hardcore material Penthouse, a Men 's Magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combines urban lifestyle articles and Soft-core pornographic pictorials
Playboy's original title was to be Stag Party, but an unrelated outdoor magazine, Stag, contacted Hefner and informed him that they would protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Hefner and co-founder and executive vice-president Eldon Sellers met to seek a new name. Sellers, whose mother had worked for the Chicago sales office of the short-lived Playboy Automobile Company, suggested "Playboy. "
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated, as Hefner was unsure there would be a second. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen. History (Hyde Park Paul Cornell a successful businessman real-estate speculator and Abolitionist, purchased of land between 51st and 55th Streets along the Lake The first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used originally was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson, June 1 1926 &ndash August 5 1962 baptized Norma The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991.  The cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002.
The logo, the stylized profile of a rabbit wearing a tuxedo bow tie, was designed by art designer Art Paul for the second issue and has appeared ever since. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world Black tie is a dress code for semi-formal evening events and is worn to many types of social functions Art (Arthur Paul (b January 18 1925 in Chicago Illinois) is an American graphics designer and the designer of the Playboy bunny A running joke in the magazine involves hiding the logo somewhere in the cover art or photograph. Hefner said he chose the rabbit for its "humorous sexual connotation," and because the image was "frisky and playful. Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display "
An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them For the word "playmate" in the common sense see its definition in Wiktionary. From 1955 to 1979 (except for a six month gap in 1976), the "P" in Playboy had stars printed in or around the letter. The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and twelve, actually indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy has seen a decline in circulation and cultural relevance because of competition in the field it founded — first from Penthouse, Oui (which was published as a spin-off of Playboy) and Gallery in the 1970s; later from pornographic videos; and more recently from lad mags such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. Penthouse, a Men 's Magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combines urban lifestyle articles and Soft-core pornographic pictorials Oui is a men's hardcore Pornographic magazine published in the USA and featuring explicit nude photographs of models, with full page pin-ups Gallery is a men's magazine published by Montcalm Publishing since 1972 This is a list of Magazines primarily marketed to Men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines Maxim is an international men's magazine based in the United Kingdom and known for its revealing pictorials featuring popular Actresses FHM or For Him Magazine is an international monthly Men's Lifestyle magazine. Stuff is a men's magazine featuring Interviews pictorials and other articles of interest to a predominantly male audience In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 male demographic lled through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience — such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview".
The magazine celebrated its 50th anniversary with the January 2004 issue. Celebrations were held at Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York, and Moscow during the year to commemorate this event. Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of
Besides its centerfold, a major part of Playboy for much of its existence has been the Playboy Interview, an extensive (usually several thousand-word) Q&A-style discussion between a notable individual and an interviewer (historian Alex Haley, for example, served as a Playboy interviewer on a few occasions; one of his interviews was with Martin Luther King Jr.). Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11 1921–February 10 1992 was an American Writer. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader One of the magazine's most notable interviews was a discussion with then-presidential candidate Jimmy Carter in the November 1976 issue in which he stated "I've committed adultery in my heart many times. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is " David Sheff's interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono appeared in the January 1981 issue, which was on newsstands at the time of Lennon's murder; the interview was later published in book format. David Sheff is an American author He has written for The New York Times, Playboy, Wired, and ''Fortune''. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (born born in Tokyo on February 18 1933 is a Japanese Artist and Musician.
The best-selling Playboy edition was the November 1972 edition, which sold 7,161,561 copies. One-quarter of all American college men were buying the magazine every month.  On the cover was model Pam Rawlings, photographed by Rowland Scherman.
Perhaps coincidentally, a cropped image of the issue's centerfold (which featured Lena Soderberg) became a de facto standard image for testing image processing algorithms. Lena Soderberg (born March 31 1951 in Sweden; the actual Swedish spelling of this name is Lena Söderberg, but she is better known without the A standard test image is a digital image file used across different institutions to test Image processing and Image compression algorithms It is known simply as the "Lenna" (also "Lena") image in that field. Lenna or Lena is the name given to a Standard test image originally cropped from a Playboy magazine Centerfold picture of Lena Söderberg 
Playboy is still the largest selling men's magazine, selling about three million a month in the U. This is a list of Magazines primarily marketed to Men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines S. 
In many parts of Asia, including India, mainland China, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Brunei, sale and distribution of Playboy is banned. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Singapore Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام In addition, sale and distribution is banned in almost all Muslim countries in Asia and Africa, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and However, it is sold in Hong Kong. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders In Japan, where genitals of models cannot be shown, a separate edition is published under license by Shueisha. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a major publisher in Japan, headquartered in Tokyo. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan
An Indonesian edition launched in April 2006, but controversy started before the first issue. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Even the publisher said the content of the Indonesian edition will be different from the original edition but the government was trying to ban it by using anti-pornography rules, since the Indonesian government cannot ban any medium. A Muslim organization, the Islamic Defenders Front (IDF), opposed to Playboy on the grounds of pornography. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion On April 12 about 150 IDF members clashed with police and stoned the editorial offices. Despite this, the edition quickly sold out. On 6 April 2007 the chief judge of the case dismissed the charges because they had been incorrectly filed. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
In 1986, the American convenience store chain 7-Eleven removed the magazine. A convenience store is a small store or shop. They are often located alongside busy roads or at gas/petrol stations. 7-Eleven is a worldwide chain of Convenience stores It is since March 2007 the largest chain store in any category beating McDonald's by 1000 stores The store returned Playboy to its shelves in late 2003. 7-Eleven had also been selling Penthouse and other, more extreme, magazines before the ban.
In bookstores throughout the world, it is common for Playboy, as well as other adult publications, to be put on a higher shelf than other magazines, keeping them out of the reach of children. They are also often wrapped in opaque plastic bags so as to not reveal the cover.
Playboy was not sold in the state of Queensland, Australia during 2004 and 2005 but has returned as of 2006. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Furthermore, due to declining sales, the last edition of the Australian edition of Playboy was January 2000 .
On the January 14, 2004, the Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Playboy Enterprises Inc. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with Appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts 's (PEI) trademark terms "Playboy" and "Playmate" should be protected even in Internet searches that prompt pop-up advertisements. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Pop-up ads or popups are a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract Web traffic or capture email addresses The suit started on April 15, 1999, when Playboy sued Excite Inc. and Netscape for trademark infringement. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) See @Home Network for more information about that company For the term referring to an elevation in energy level see Excited state. Netscape Communications (formerly known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape) is an American computer services company Attorneys Barry Felder, Catherine McGrath and Matthew Moren represented Playboy.
Many notable photographers have contributed to Playboy, including Richard Fegley, William Figge, Arny Freytag, Ron Harris, David Mecey, Russ Meyer, Pompeo Posar, Suze Randall, Herb Ritts, Stephen Wayda, Sam Wu, R Scott Hooper, Mario Casilli, and Bunny Yeager. Leon Richard Fegley ( November 29, 1936 - September 15, 2001) was a professional Photographer who worked for Playboy Arny Freytag is an American Photographer. Among his works are several photo shoots for Playboy magazine and as of 1994 held the record for photographing Ron Harris or Ronald Harris can refer to Ronald Dale Harris, former computer programmer for the Nevada Gaming Control Board Ron David Mecey began working with Playboy magazine in the fall of 1979 serving as staff Photographer and later as Contributing Photographer Russell Albion Meyer ( March 21, 1922 &ndash September 18, 2004) was an American motion picture director and Pompeo Posar (1921&ndash2004 was a Playboy magazine staff Photographer who photographed many Centerfold Suze Randall (born 1946 is an American model, Photographer, and Pornographer originally from England. Herbert Ritts ( August 13, 1952 in Los Angeles California – December 26, 2002 in Los Angeles was an American fashion Stephen Wayda is a professional Photographer. He has shot many pictorials of Playboy Playmates Sam Wu is an American photographer of the 1950s and 1960s He photographed Pat Sheehan 's centerfold and Tania Velia movie pics Bunny Yeager (born March 13 1930 is an American Photographer and former model
|1960–1963||$500 plus $250 bonus|
|1982–today||$140,000, an automobile, and a motorbike.|
During the 1960s and 1970s all PMOY's received pink automobiles, the hue of pink used was known as "Playmate Pink", the same shade as awarded to Mary Kay's independent sales force, a frequent source of confusion. Mary Kay is a brand of skin care cosmetics and color Cosmetics sold by Mary Kay Inc
There is some controversy over airbrushing (or, in recent times, image editing) that is done on the photos featured in the magazine. An airbrush is a small air-operated tool that sprays various media including Ink and Dye, but most often Paint by a process of Nebulization Image editing encompasses the processes of altering Images whether they be digital photographs traditional analog photographs or Illustrations Some readers say that this kind of photo-editing takes away from authenticity and makes photographs look unnatural.
One example was the case of Pamela Anderson and the "disappearing labia". Pamela Denise Anderson (born July 1 1967 is a Canadian -born actress, Sex symbol, glamour model, producer, Author, and In her original Playboy appearance in February 1990, there was a rear-view photo with her legs slightly apart and her labia minora visible. The labia minora (singular labium minus) or nymphae are two longitudinal Cutaneous folds on the human Vulva. In reprints in later "Newsstand Specials" as well as a poster-sized print, she had been "defeminized," this area having been painted over in the color of the object in front of which she was standing.
Similarly, in Rena Mero's ("Sable") first Playboy shoot, one photo of Mero lying on her back was edited to add pubic hair over her genitalia. Rena Mero Lesnar (born Rena Greek August 8 1967 is an American model actress, and former professional wrestler. However, in the 50th Anniversary issue, this picture was printed in its original, unedited state.
Rival adult magazine Hustler and owner Larry Flynt has often been critical of Playboy and airbrushing. Hustler is a monthly pornographic Magazine aimed at heterosexual men and published in the United States. Larry Claxton Flynt Jr (born November 1, 1942) is an American Publisher and the head of Larry Flynt Publications (LFP This has led Hustler to promote the fact that their nude pictorials are never airbrushed and are completely natural. This is a separate issue from whether the models are completely natural: that is, free of silicone breast implants. Silicones are largely inert compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty
Many celebrities (singers, actresses, models, etc. ) have posed for Playboy over the years. This list is only a small portion of those who have posed. Some of them are:
(starting at the accompanying date, or during the accompanying date range)
The success of Playboy magazine has led PEI to market other versions of the magazine, the Special Editions (formerly called News Stand Specials), such as Playboy's College Girls and Playboy's Book of Lingerie, as well as the Playboy video collection. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Australian Playboy was an Australian imprint of Playboy magazine that was published between February 1979 and January 2000 for a total of 252 |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Brazilian issue of the Playboy magazine is the local franchise of the magazine created by Hugh Hefner The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Playboy Special Editions (formerly known as flats, then Newsstand Specials) are a Spin-off series of Playboy magazine Playboy Special Editions (formerly known as flats, then Newsstand Specials) are a Spin-off series of Playboy magazine Playboy Special Editions (formerly known as flats, then Newsstand Specials) are a Spin-off series of Playboy magazine Playboy Videos are a series of videos released by Playboy Enterprises Inc
The growth of the Internet prompted the magazine to develop an official web presence called Playboy Online or Playboy. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks com, which is the official website for Playboy Enterprises, and an online companion to Playboy magazine. Playboy Enterprises Inc ( also organized as New Playboy Inc ( is the company founded by Hugh Marston Hefner to manage the Playboy magazine empire The site has been available online since 1994.  As part of the online presence, Playboy developed a pay web site called the Playboy Cyber Club in 1995 which features online chats, additional pictorials & videos of Playmates and Playboy Cyber Girls that are not featured in the magazine, as well as archives of past Playboy articles and interviews. For the word "playmate" in the common sense see its definition in Wiktionary. Playboy Cyber Club has opened up a new door for girls interested in posing. It is much easier to access, because it is online. It attracts just about as many as the magazine, and brought a whole new line of girls. Some Playmates start in Cyber Club and work their way to the magazine. In September 2005, Playboy launched the online edition of the magazine Playboy Digital.
The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) has published a Braille edition of Playboy since 1970. The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write  The Braille version includes all the written words in the non-Braille magazine, but no pictorial representations. Congress cut off funding for the Braille magazine translation in 1985, but U. S. District Court Judge Thomas Hogan reversed the decision on First Amendment grounds. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress