Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like are cultivated, usually by resident laborers. A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock For other uses see Estate. An estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or
A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. The term is currently most often used for plantings of trees and shrubs. The term tends also to be used for plantings maintained on economic bases other than that of subsistence farming.
A crop may be called a plantation because of their association with a specific type of farming economy. Most of these involve a large landowner, raising crops with economic value rather than for subsistence, with a number of employees carrying out the work. Often it refers to crops newly introduced to a region. In past times it has been associated with slavery, indentured labour, and other economic models of high inequity. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to However, arable and dairy farming are both usually (but not always) excluded from such definitions. A comparable economic structure in antiquity was the latifundia that produced commercial quantities of olive oil or wine, for export. Latifundia are pieces of property covering tremendous areas The latifundia (Latin lātifundium; lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm estate" Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice
Industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. The Coast Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii) a variety of Douglas-fir, is an Evergreen Conifer native Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Plantations are grown by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and/or the paper and wood industries and other private landowners (such as Weyerhaeuser and International Paper in the United States, Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) in Indonesia). The Forestry Commission (established in 1919 is a Non-ministerial government department responsible for Forestry in Great Britain. Weyerhaeuser is one of the largest pulp and paper companies in the world the world's largest private owner of Softwood Timberland International Paper ( is an American pulp and paper company, the largest pulp and paper company in the world The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Christmas trees are often grown on plantations as well. A Christmas tree, Yule tree, holiday tree or Tannenbaum (fir tree is one of the most popular Traditions associated with the celebration In southern and southeastern Asia, rubber, oil palm, and more recently teak plantations have replaced the natural forest. The oil palms ( Elaeis) comprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family Teak ( Tectona) is a genus of tropical Hardwood Trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia
Industrial plantations are actively managed for the commercial production of forest products. Individual blocks are usually even-aged and often consist of just one or two species. These species can be exotic or indigenous. Industrial plantations are usually large-scale.
Wood production on a tree plantation is generally higher than that of natural forests. While forests managed for wood production commonly yield between 1 and 3 cubic meters per hectare per year, plantations of fast-growing species commonly yield between 20 and 30 cubic meters or more per hectare annually; a Grand Fir plantation at Craigvinean in Scotland has a growth rate of 34 cubic meters per hectare per year (Aldhous & Low 1974), and Monterey Pine plantations in southern Australia can yield up to 40 cubic meters per hectare per year (Everard & Fourt 1974). Grand Fir or Giant Fir ( Abies grandis) is a Fir native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Pinus radiata (family Pinaceae is known in English as Monterey Pine in some parts of the world (mainly in the USA, Canada and the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In 2000, while plantations accounted for 5 percent of global forest, it is estimated that they supplied about 35% of the worlds roundwood .
Some plantation trees, such as pines and eucalyptus, can be at high risk of fire damage because their leaf oils and resins are flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions. Conversely, an afflicted plantation can in some cases be cleared of pest species cheaply through the use of a prescribed burn, which kills all lesser plants but does not significantly harm the mature trees.
In contrast to a naturally regenerated forest, plantations are typically grown as even-aged monocultures, primarily for timber production. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or
In the 1970s, Brazil began to establish high-yield, intensively managed, short rotation plantations. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld These types of plantations are sometimes called fast-wood plantations or fiber farms and often managed on a short-rotation basis, as little as 5 to 15 years. They are becoming more widespread in South America, Asia and other areas. The environmental and social impacts of this type of plantation has caused them to become controversial. In Indonesia, for example, large multi-national pulp companies have harvested large areas of natural forest without regard for regeneration. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. From 1980 to 2000, about 50% of the 1. 4 million hectares of pulpwood plantations in Indonesia have been established on what was formerly natural forest land.
The replacement of natural forest with tree plantations has also caused social problems. In some countries, again, notably Indonesia, conversions of natural forest are made with little regard for rights of the local people. Plantations established purely for the production of fiber provide a much narrower range of services than the original natural forest for the local people. India has sought to limit this damage by limiting the amount of land owned by one entity and, as a result, smaller plantations are owned by local farmers who then sell the wood to larger companies. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Some large environmental organizations are critical of these high-yield plantations and are running an anti-plantation campaign, notably the Rainforest Action Network and Greenpeace. Rainforest Action Network (RAN is an Environmental organization based in San Francisco California, USA. Greenpeace, originally known as the Greenpeace Foundation, was founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1972
Farm or home plantations are typically established for the production of timber and fire wood for home use and sometimes for sale. Management may be less intensive than with Industrial plantations. In time, this type of plantation can become difficult to distinguish from naturally-regenerated forest.
These may be established for watershed or soil protection. They are established for erosion control, landslide stabilization and windbreaks. Such plantations are established to foster native species and promote forest regeneration on degraded lands as a tool of environmental restoration. Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ Environmental movement.
Probably the single most important factor a plantation has on the local environment is the site where the plantation is established. If natural forest is cleared for a planted forest then a reduction in biodiversity and loss of habitat will likely result. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. In some cases, their establishment may involve draining wetlands to replace mixed hardwoods that formerly predominated, with pine species. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical
If a plantation is established on abandoned agricultural land, or highly degraded land, it can result in an increase in both habitat and biodiversity. A planted forest can be profitably established on lands that will not support agriculture or suffer from lack of natural regeneration.
The tree species used in a plantation is also an important factor. Where non-native varieties or species are grown, few of the native fauna are adapted to exploit these and further biodiversity loss occurs. However, even non-native tree species may serve as corridors for wildlife and act as a buffer for native forest, reducing edge effect. A wildlife corridor or green corridor is a strip of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities (such as roads development or logging An edge effect in Biology is the effect of the Juxtaposition of contrasting environments on an Ecosystem.
Once a plantation is established, how it is managed becomes the important environmental factor. The single most important factor of management is the rotation period. Plantations harvested on longer rotation periods (30 years or more) can provide similar benefits to a naturally regenerated forest managed for wood production, on a similar rotation. This is especially true if native species are used. In the case of exotic species, the habitat can be improved significantly if the impact is mitigated by measures such as leaving blocks of native species in the plantation, or retaining corridors of natural forest. In Brazil, similar measures are required by government regulations.
Many forestry experts claim that the establishment of plantations will reduce or eliminate the need to exploit natural forest for wood production. In principle this is true because due to the high productivity of plantations less land is needed. Many point to the example of New Zealand, where 19% of the forest area provides 99% of the supply of industrial round wood. It has been estimated that the worlds needs for fiber could be met by just 5% of the world forest (Sedjo&Botkin1997). However in practice, plantations are replacing natural forest, for example in Indonesia. According to the FAO, about 7% of the natural closed forest being lost in the tropics is land being converted to plantations. The remaining 93% of the loss is land being converted to agriculture and other uses. Worldwide, an estimated 15% of plantations in tropical countries are established on closed canopy natural forest.
In the Kyoto Protocol, there are proposals encouraging the use of plantations to reduce carbon dioxide levels (though this idea is being challenged by some groups on the grounds that the sequestered CO2 is eventually released after harvest). The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases in an effort Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single
Crops may be called plantation crops because of their association with a specific type of farming economy. Cameron Highlands is a highland region located about 121 km east of Ipoh and about 214 km north of Kuala Lumpur, in Pahang, Malaysia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Most of these involve a large landowner, raising crops with economic value rather than for subsistence, with a number of employees carrying out the work. Often it referred to crops newly introduced to a region. In past times it has been associated with slavery, indentured labour, and other economic models of high inequity. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to However, arable and dairy farming are both usually (but not always) excluded from such definitions. A comparable economic structure in antiquity was the latifundia that produced commercial quantities of olive oil or wine, for export. Latifundia are pieces of property covering tremendous areas The latifundia (Latin lātifundium; lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm estate" Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice One plantation crop is bananas and there are others as well.
Plantings of a number of trees or shrubs grown for food or beverage, including tea, coffee, and cacao are generally called plantations. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market This article discusses the coffee plant for information on the beverage see Coffee. CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. Some spice and high value crops grown from permanent perennial stock, such as black pepper may also be so called. Black pepper ( Piper nigrum) is a flowering Vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its Fruit, which is usually dried When the holding belongs to a single individual, that person may be called a planter.
Sugar plantations were highly valued in the Caribbean by the British and French colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries and the use of sugar in Europe rose during this period. Sugarcane is still an important crop in Cuba. Sugar plantations also arose in countries such as Barbados and Cuba because of the natural endowments that they had. These natural endowments included soil that was condusive to growing sugar and a high marginal product of labor realized through the increasing number of slaves. These sugar plantations dragged down an economy in the long run as sugar plantations allowed for inequality and low voting rates in any given country. These sugar plantations allowed for there to be a small elite ruling class to have all the power in the country as they overpowered all the slaves and peasants under them.
Plantings of para rubber, the tree Hevea brasiliensis, are usually called plantations. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la
Fruit orchards are sometimes considered to be plantations. An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production.
These include tobacco, sugarcane, pineapple, and cotton, especially in historical usage. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Pineapple ( Ananas comosus) is the common name for an edible Tropical Plant and also its Fruit It is native to the southern part of Brazil Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp
Before the rise of cotton in the American South, indigo and rice were also sometimes called plantation crops. Indigo dye is Dye with a distinctive blue color (see Indigo) The chemical compound that constitutes the indigo dye is called indigotin Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many
Racially segregated Slave labour extracted from forcibly transported Africans was used extensively to work on early plantations (such as cotton and sugar plantations) in the southern states of the United States, throughout the Caribbean, the Americas and in European occupied areas of Africa. A plantation economy is an Economy which is based on Agricultural mass production usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called Plantations As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Negro is a term referring to people of Black African ancestry List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Several notable historians and economists such as Eric Williams, Walter Rodney and Karl Marx contend that the global capitalist economy is largely founded on the creation and produce of thousands of slave labour camps based in colonial plantations exploiting tens of millions of abducted Africans. Eric Eustace Williams ( September 25, 1911 &ndash March 29, 1981) was the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago Walter Rodney ( March 23, 1942 &ndash June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in Penal labor.
In modern times, low wages which are normally paid to plantation workers are still a part of plantation profitability in some areas with minimal employee-protection legislation. Sugarcane plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil, worked by slave labour, are also examples of the plantation system. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
In more recent times, overt slavery has been replaced by para-slavery or slavery-in-kind, including the sharecropping system. Sharecropping is a system of agriculture or agricultural production in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e At its most extreme, workers are in debt bondage: they must work to pay off a debt at such punitive interest rates that it may never be paid off. Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods Others work unreasonably long hours and are paid subsistence wages that (in practice) may only be spent in the company shop. A truck system is an arrangement in which employees are paid in commodities or in lieu of wages for work performed thereby limiting their ability to choose how to spend their earnings
In the U.S. South, plantations were centered on a plantation house, the residence of the owner, where important business was conducted. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive There was a variety of architecture on plantations. The largest and wealthiest planter families, for instance, those with estates fronting on the James River, constructed mansions in brick and Georgian style, e. g. Berkeley Plantation. Berkeley Plantation, one of the first great estates in America comprises about 1000 acres (4 Common or smaller planters in the late 18th and 19th century had more modest wood frame buildings.
In Brazil, a sugarcane plantation was termed an engenho ("engine") and the 17th-century English usage for organized colonial production was "factory". |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Such colonial social and economic structures are discussed at Plantation economy. A plantation economy is an Economy which is based on Agricultural mass production usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called Plantations Sugar workers on plantations in Cuba and elsewhere in the Caribbean lived in company towns known as Bateys. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la A batey (plural is bateyes) is a Company town where Sugar workers live