Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of Peru and Chile. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the It is the most widely consumed spirit in Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The right to produce and promote pisco has been the matter of legal disputes between Chile and Peru, in both of which the most iconic cocktail is the pisco sour. A Pisco Sour is a Cocktail containing Pisco (a regional Brandy) Lemon juice egg whites Simple syrup, and regional
The first vineyards in the Viceroyalty of Peru were planted in the fertile coastal valleys of Peru shortly after the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors. Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador The Marquis Francisco de Caravantes was the first to import grapes, bringing them from the Canary Islands in 1553. A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish Even though Spain imposed many restrictions on wine production and commerce, the wine-making industry developed rapidly, mainly in the Corregimiento of Ica in Peru. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Ica is a region in Peru. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west the Lima Region on the north the Huancavelica and Ayacucho
In the late 1550s, the Spanish began to plant and harvest grapes for wine in the southern regions of what is now Peru. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. "Export quality" grapes were selected to produce wine with, while those that did not measure up were discarded or given to the farmers to do with as they pleased. It is in this context that small groups began to use these grapes to distill a brandy-like liquor from the discarded grapes, using similar techniques to those of Chicha production. Chicha is a term used in some regions of Latin America for several varieties of fermented beverages, particularly those derived from Maize, but which also
The oldest written historical record of grape brandy production in the Spanish colonies date back to Peru 1613. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine It is in the will of a resident of the department of Ica—a town called Pisco, close to the Nazca lines, named by Pedro Manuel the Greek. In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property In it he itemizes his worldly goods, including 30 containers of grape brandy, one barrel of the same spirit, a large copper pot and all of the utensils needed to produce pisco. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29
Pisco was considered a lesser beverage by the Spanish and not consumed by them unless they were poor or curious. Pisco did not have a name for a long time, although it is reported the Spanish called it "aguardiente" (firewater).
The drink began to acquire consumers in the sailors that transported products between the colonies and Spain, who began to call it pisco, naming it after the port where it could be bought. Pisco is a city located in the Ica Region of Peru, the capital of the Pisco Province. The drink then became a favorite of sailors and workers who visited the port of Pisco. It was exalted for its strong taste and ability to quickly affect the consumer. As trade from Peru to the world grew, so did the popularity of pisco, until it almost equaled wine in quantity as an export.
In 1641, wine imports from Peru into Spain were banned, severely damaging the wine industry in the colony; only a few vineyards that had parallel wine and pisco operations survived this change. Those that did began to concentrate on pisco production, nearly eliminating wine production in Peru.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, pisco was a mainstay on ocean-crossing vessels, drunk mostly by sailors, as officers usually drank whisky or other "finer" spirits. The main reasons for its heyday were the low price and high availability. This position was maintained by pisco until the onset of rum, which won over consumers with lower prices and a softer flavor.
Pisco was also briefly popular in San Francisco and nearby areas of California during the Gold Rush in the 19th century, where it was introduced by Chilean and Peruvian miners. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California
Pisco received its name from the town of Pisco, located on the coast of Peru.  The origins of the word pisco can be traced to the Quechua language where the birds that inhabited the valleys of the Ica region were called pisqu (or any of: pisco, pisku, phishgo, pichiu, pisccu depending on the orthography). Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Ica is a region in Peru. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west the Lima Region on the north the Huancavelica and Ayacucho The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language
After the South American independence period, vineyards whose main product was pisco were located solely in what was then Peru, due to geographical and political divisions left by the Spaniards. However, during the War of the Pacific, Peru was effectively defeated and became an occupied nation, until the Treaty of Ancon in 1883 ceded the desert area of Tarapaca to Chile; this desert area was used to produce a pisco adapting the Peruvian techniques. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia The Treaty of Ancón was signed by Peru and Chile on 20 October 1883, in the Ancón District near Lima. Provinces and municipalities Iquique 2 Iquique (Regional and provincial capital Alto Hospicio In the occupation years, the attempts by Chile to convert the people of the occupied territories to Chilean sentiments, combined with the constant uprisings by Peruvian nationalists led to a severe disruption in pisco production in the entire Atacama region. Atacama redirects here for the political-administrative region of Chile, see Atacama Region. It was not until several years later, in 1929, that definitive boundaries were established and the situation began to calm. In the newly conquered Pica and Pozo Almonte oasis of Tarapaca, the Chilean government banned the production of wine due to the high grade of "Peruvianity" (some Peruvian presidents had links with the wine production there), thereafter the oasis changed the production to fruits instead. Pozo Almonte is a city and comune of Chile located in the Tamarugal Province, I Region of Tarapacá. Provinces and municipalities Iquique 2 Iquique (Regional and provincial capital Alto Hospicio This has also been interpreted as a war for the wine production in the southern hemisphere. Since then Chile's Central Valley has had the biggest wine production in the southern hemisphere.
In the years between the 1880s and the 1940s, pisco production was severely hampered in Peru due to the national reconstruction taking place and the widespread misery due to the destruction of the nation's production, military and political infrastructure; and in Chile because of the aforementioned instability in the region.
It is important to remark the fact that Pisco production was never stopped in Peru and there is many documents demostrating that fact. In the 1940s one of the most emblematic brands of Pisco was founded by two cousins from Italy, Pedro Raggio and Francisco Queirolo. After the death of Pedro Raggio and later his brother Vittorio Raggio, the Queirolo family took over and still today manufacture the pisco and wine product in the city of Magdalena. Many Peruvians agree that Queirolo pisco excels all other piscos. Production ramped up and Peru began to export pisco as a national product at that time, however, due to the nation's focus on raw materials exports, pisco was not given much prominence. National sentiment began to flare up in the 1960s when Chile decided to ban all imports of any product denominated "pisco" coming from Peru. From that time on, Peru has been constantly trying to enforce the denomination of "pisco" as a Peruvian-only product, beginning at first with internal rules and regulations pertaining to the harvesting of grapes, distillation and storage requirements for a product to be named "pisco", and finally establishing trademarks and other legal processes. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Peru has presented an application for international registration in the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), according to the Lisbon Agreement (23 countries parties). The World Intellectual Property Organization ( WIPO) is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations. After one year from the date of receipt of the application, the protection of the appellation of origin takes effect in all member countries of the Lisbon Union that have not rejected it .
The black grape taken to Peru by the Spanish suffered due to its adaptation to soil and weather conditions in the province of Pisco, eventually stabilizing in a new variety named "Quebranta", purportedly named because the original grape was "broken" (Spanish quebrar), or tamed, for its new environment. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Almost all early pisco was produced from this variety of grape. Others used any grape available at the time, however, since only the largest vineyards (and those with dedicated pisco distilleries) were able to produce exportable volume, Quebranta was the only variety exported, since it was the preferred grape for pisco production.
In the years following the re-establishment of pisco production, many grapes were used to produce pisco, leading to a wide variation in flavor, aroma, viscosity and appearance of the liquor. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a Fluid which is being deformed by either Shear stress or Extensional stress. This harmed attempts to export the product under a single denomination since there could be enormous differences between the contents of bottles sold as pisco. As such, a number of regulations were established to counteract this situation and set a baseline for a product to carry the name.
Four levels of pisco were thus designated:
The order is not established on quality, it is simply listed in that way in Peruvian publications.
Some other specific restrictions of note are:
Pure pisco is a very viscous liquid, slightly more so than vodka and comparable to Sambuca. Vodka is one of the world's most popular Distilled beverages It is a clear liquid which consists of mostly Water and Ethanol purified by Distillation Sambuca is an Italian Aniseed -flavored usually colorless Liqueur. It has an odor which is vaguely reminiscent of reeds. Its flavor is very smooth and almost non-alcoholic, which can be very deceptive, with the result that many first-time drinkers often drink to excess and can quickly become inebriated without noticing. Some people consider it "heresy" to mix pure pisco with anything else, and it is generally accepted that it should be drunk alone, even to the exclusion of ice.
Aromatic is rarely seen nowadays, as its production has almost ceased in Peru, since according to Peruvian specifications, some Chilean pisco would be classified as aromatic, provided that the restriction of 'no additives' is obeyed. See the Chilean pisco section for more information.
Green Must is generally seen in high income environments. Its grape taste is very strong, as is its fruity perfume.
Acholado is gaining popularity due to its sweetness, both in odor and flavor, making it a favorite for Pisco sour, a mixed drink. A Pisco Sour is a Cocktail containing Pisco (a regional Brandy) Lemon juice egg whites Simple syrup, and regional The acholado variety is also preferred due to its "kick", which can be felt immediately after drinking, one can literally feel the drink making its way to the stomach.
During the adaptation of many vineyards to pisco production, the most widespread grape was used as raw material, namely the Muscat, with some vineyards preferring the Torontel and Pedro Jiménez varieties. The muscat family of Grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for Wine, Raisins and Table grapes Their color Pedro Ximénez (also known as PX and many other variations is the name of a white Grape grown in certain regions of Spain, and also a Varietal As is the case with Peru, regulations for pisco designations have been enacted in Chile:
No distinction between varietal mixes is made other than it is restricted to the three kinds of grapes named before.
Regular pisco is quite bland in taste, reminiscent of a weak rum, and its odor is very sweet and woody with a slight yellowish tinge to the color.
Special and reserve are very similar in flavor and color, both being very sweet and of a cloudy yellowish color. The flavor is much stronger than regular pisco and leaves an alcoholic aftertaste in the mouth, similar to bourbon. Bourbon is an American Whiskey, a type of distilled spirit, made primarily from Corn and named for Bourbon County Kentucky.
Great pisco has a commanding odor and a very pleasant dark yellow color, it is not as sweet as the other varieties, yet it carries strong woody flavor the others lack.
The yellowish to amber color in Chilean pisco is due to the wood aging process, with the darker colors being a telltale sign that they have been aged longer. Not all Chilean pisco is tinge, and the more mass scale brands can be clear.
|Definition||Distillate obtained exclusively from the distillation of recently fermented "pisco grapes", using methods which maintain the traditional principles of quality established in recognized production areas.||. . . is reserved to firewater produced and bottled, in consumable quantities, in Regions III and IV, elaborated by the distillation of genuine wine, originating from specified varietals, grown in said regions.|
|Grapes||Non Aromatic: Quebranta, Common Black, Mollar|
Aromatic: Italia, Muscat, Albilla, Torontel.
|Yellow Muscat, White Early Muscat, Alexandria Muscat, Austrian Muscat, Frontignan Muscat, Hamburg Muscat, Black Muscat, Pink Muscat, Canelli Muscat, Orange Muscat, Pedro Jiménez , Torontel.|
|Production||The fermentation process can be done with partial or total maceration of the grape, strictly controlling the temperature and decomposition of sugars.||The grape juice is fermented into wine containing 14° alcohol (28 proof).|
|The fermented product is distilled in copper or stainless steel receivers to the desired alcoholic proof. No product may be added to alter the alcoholic proof, odor, flavor or color of the liquid.||The fermented product is distilled in copper receivers until an alcoholic proof of 55° to 60° is reached. Rectifiers must be added if the alcoholic proof is less than that specified.|
|The pisco must be aged a minimum of three months in glass, stainless steel or other materials which do not alter the physical, chemical or organic properties before bottling.||The crude firewater is aged in wood for a short time, usually not more than a few months. Higher quality brands may be aged in oak barrels for a longer time.|
|The pisco must be bottled directly after aging, without alteration or adding any product which could alter the odor, flavor or appearance.||The firewater from different distilleries is mixed, diluted with demineralized water in order to lower the alcoholic proof to the desired level, filtered and bottled.|
38° to 48° (76 to 96 proof)
30° to 50° (60 to 100 proof)
|Designated Pisco Areas||Departments of Lima, Ica (Ica, Chincha,Pisco), Arequipa, Moquegua and the Locumba, Sama and Caplina valleys in the Department of Tacna.||Atacama, Coquimbo.|
There is a long-standing debate between Peru and Chile as to the rightful owner of the "pisco" denomination, as it can be clearly seen by the specifications listed above, there is a difference between the products. Peru claims proprietorship on the basis of historical arguments, mainly that pisco originated in Peru and is still made in the traditional way only in Peru, where the regulations ensure this. Many also push the argument that Chile simply "stole" pisco production from Peru during the War of the Pacific and, therefore, cannot claim it as a national product. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia Chile also claims that its larger production and marketing efforts have popularized pisco, and that what the world recognizes as pisco today is the Chilean variety.
Both nations have established decrees, laws, regulations, treaties, etc. in order to protect their pisco product as the canonical pisco, though their efforts have been markedly opposite. Chile has concentrated on internal regulations, specifying from what a "pisco grape" is to what a "pisco bottle" is, in order to establish standardization among its products. This way, Chile started to trade and promote its product as Pisco. On the other hand, concentrated more in the artesanal and traditional production, started to focus on the international arena claiming for an Origin Denomination arguing that only Peruvian Pisco can be called Pisco and chilean produdct is another type of Aguardiente. Aguardiente ( Spanish) aguardente ( Portuguese) or augardente ( Galician) is the generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 However, Chile has traded far more its chilean pisco but only Peruvian Pisco has been the only one recognized by Lisboa Treaty with an Origin denomination.
Some of the most popular cocktails with pisco include: