Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, without a commission from a sovereign nation (robbery with sovereign commission is privateering, and distinct from piracy). Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. A letter of marque is an official warrant or commission from a Government authorizing the designated agent to search seize or destroy specified assets Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Seaborne piracy against transport vessels remains a significant issue (with estimated worldwide losses of US $13 to $16 billion per year), particularly in the waters between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, off the Somali coast, and also in the Strait of Malacca and Singapore, which are used by over 50,000 commercial ships a year. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Piracy off the Somali coast has been a threat to international shipping since the beginning of Somalia's civil war in the early 1990s The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra Singapore A recent surge in piracy off the Somali coast spurred a multi-national effort led by the United States to patrol the waters near the Horn of Africa to combat piracy. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa While boats off the coasts of North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea are still assailed by pirates, the Royal Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard have nearly eradicated piracy in U. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) S. waters and in the Caribbean Sea. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere
Maritime piracy, according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982, consists of any criminal acts of violence, detention, or depredation committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or aircraft that is directed on the high seas against another ship, aircraft, or against persons or property on board a ship or aircraft. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS) also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty is the international agreement that resulted Piracy can also be committed against a ship, aircraft, persons, or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any state.
The Jolly Roger is the traditional name for the flags of European and American pirates and a symbol for piracy that has been adopted by film-makers and toy manufacturers. The Jolly Roger is the name given to any of various Flags flown to identify a ship's crew as pirates The flag most usually identified as the Jolly Roger today A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification
The English "pirate" is derived from the Latin term pirata, and ultimately from Greek peira (πεῖρα) "attempt, experience", implicitly "to find luck on the sea". English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The word is also cognate to peril. In 17th and 18th century sources the word is often rendered "pyrate". However, the term does not exclusively relate to robbery committed at sea, as other similar origins have a broader definition .
The earliest documented instances of piracy are the exploits of the Sea Peoples who threatened the Aegean and Mediterranean in the 13th century BC. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age Civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. In Classical Antiquity, the Tyrrhenians and Thracians were known as pirates. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Tyrrhenians ( Attic Greek Turrēnoi) or Tyrsenians ( Ionic Tursēnoi, Doric Tursānoi) is an Exonym "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity The island of Lemnos long resisted Greek influence and remained a haven for Thracian pirates. Lemnos (Λήμνος is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca By the 1st century BC, there were pirate states along the Anatolian coast, threatening the commerce of the Roman Empire. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
On one voyage across the Aegean Sea in 75 BC, Julius Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria The Dodecanese ( Greek Δωδεκάνησα Dodekánisa 'twelve islands' are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Pharmakonisi, or Farmakonisi (Gr Φαρμακονήσι is a small Greek island of the Dodecanese prefecture  He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of gold, Caesar is said to have insisted that he was worth at least fifty, and the pirates indeed raised the ransom to fifty talents. The talent ( Latin: talentum, from Ancient Greek: "scale balance" is an ancient unit of Mass. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. The Senate finally invested Pompey with powers to deal with piracy in 67 BC (the Lex Gabinia), and Pompey after three months of naval warfare managed to suppress the threat. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation The Lex Gabinia (Gabinius's Law was a law established in Ancient Rome in 67 BC. In the 3rd century, pirate attacks on Olympos (city in Anatolia) brought impoverishment. Olympos is a common variation of Olympus. This article refers to a National Park in Turkey Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Among some of the most famous ancient pirateering peoples were the Illyrians, populating the western Balkan peninsula. Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly Constantly raiding the Adriatic Sea, the Illyrians caused many conflicts with the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the It was not until 68 BC that the Romans finally conquered Illyria and made it a province, ending their threat.
As early as 258 AD, the Gothic-Herulic fleet ravaged towns on the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths Huns and The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Sea of Marmara ( Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίς, Bulgarian The Aegean coast suffered similar attacks a few years later. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. In 264, the Goths reached Galatia and Cappadocia, and Gothic pirates landed on Cyprus and Crete. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Cappadocia (or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya, from Greek: Καππαδοκία / Kappadokía which in turn is from the Persian: Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the In the process, the Goths seized enormous booty and took thousands into captivity.
In 286 AD, Carausius, a Roman military commander of Gaulish origins, was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, and given the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coasts of Armorica and Belgic Gaul. Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (died 293 was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century The Classis Britannica (literally British fleet, in the sense of 'the fleet in British waters' or 'the fleet of the province of Britannia ' rather than 'the fleet The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany Peninsula and the territory between the Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western
In the Roman province of Britannia, Saint Patrick was captured and enslaved by Irish pirates. Saint Patrick (Patricius Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Roman Britain -born Christian Missionary and is the Patron saint Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Early Polynesian warriors attacked seaside and riverside villages. Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over They used the sea for their hit-and-run tactics - a safe place to retreat to if the battle turned against them. Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical Doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory but to inflict damage on a target and immediately
The widely known and far reaching pirates in medieval Europe were the Vikings, warriors and looters from Scandinavia. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well They raided the coasts, rivers and inland cities of all Western Europe as far as Seville, attacked by the Norse in 844. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. Vikings even attacked coasts of North Africa and Italy. They also plundered all the coasts of the Baltic Sea, ascending the rivers of Eastern Europe as far as the Black Sea and Persia. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The lack of centralized powers all over Europe during the Middle Ages favoured pirates all over the continent.
After the Slavic invasions of the Balkan peninsula in the 5th and 6th centuries, a Slavic tribe settled the land of Pagania between Dalmatia and Zachlumia in the first half of the 7th century. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Pagania, Merania or Neretvia (the Narentine Frontier, Ancient Greek:, Italian: Narentani Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Zachlumia ( Croatian: Zahumlje Serbian: Захумље also known as the Land of the Hum and Chelm, was a Medieval The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. These Slavs revived the old Illyrian piratical habits and often raided the Adriatic Sea. By 642 they invaded southern Italy and assaulted Siponte in Benevento. Benevento is a town and Comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the Province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. Their raids in the Adriatic increased rapidly, until the whole Sea was no longer safe for travel.
The "Narentines," as they were called, took more liberties in their raiding quests while the Venetian Navy was abroad, as when it was campaigning in Sicilian waters in 827-82. Pagania, Merania or Neretvia (the Narentine Frontier, Ancient Greek:, Italian: Narentani The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica As soon as the Venetian fleet would return to the Adriatic, the Narentines temporarily abandoned their habits again, even signing a Treaty in Venice and baptising their Slavic pagan leader into Christianity. In 834 or 835 they broke the treaty and again raided Venetian traders returning from Benevento, and all of Venice's military attempts to punish the Marians in 839 and 840 utterly failed. Later, they raided the Venetians more often, together with the Arabs. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In 846 the Narentines broke through to Venice itself and raided its lagoon city of Kaorle. In the middle of March of 870 they kidnapped the Roman Bishop's emissaries that were returning from the Ecclesiastical Council in Constantinople. This caused a Byzantine military action against them that finally brought Christianity to them.
After the Arab raids on the Adriatic coast c. 872 and the retreat of the Imperial Navy, the Narentines restored their raids of Venetian waters, causing new conflicts with the Italians in 887-888. The Narentine piracy traditions were cherished even while they were in Serbia, serving as the finest Serb warriors. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Venetians futilely continued to fight them throughout the 10th-11th centuries.
In 937, Irish pirates sided with the Scots, Vikings, Picts, and Welsh in their invasion of England. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century Athelstan drove them back.
In 12th century the coasts of west Scandinavia were plundered by Slavic pirates from the southwest coast of Baltic Sea. The robbery committed by Slavic tribes on the Baltic Sea and its coast during the Middle Ages was initially a part of the Viking movement
H Thomas Milhorn mentions a certain Englishman named William Maurice, convicted of piracy in 1241, as the first person known to have been hanged, drawn and quartered, which would indicate that the then-ruling King Henry III took an especially severe view of this crime. To be hanged drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for the crime of High treason. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216
The ushkuiniks were Novgorodian pirates who looted the cities on the Volga and Kama Rivers in the 14th century. The ushkuiniks (ушкуйники were medieval Novgorodian Pirates who led the Viking -like life of fighting killing and robbery Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod Kāma ( Skt, Pali; Devanagari: काम is pleasure sensual gratification sexual fulfillment pleasure of the Senses, desire eros the aesthetic
As early as Byzantine times, the Maniots - one of Greece's toughest populations - were known as pirates. The Maniots (or Maniates; Greek Μανιάτες) are the Greek inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula (the middle leg of the Peloponnese located Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Maniots considered piracy as a legitimate response to the fact that their land was poor and it became their main source of income. The main victims of Maniot pirates were the Ottomans but the Maniots also targeted ships of European countries. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
The Haida and Tlingit tribes who lived along the Southeast Alaska's coast were traditionally known as fierce warriors, pirates and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. The Haida (19th C-early 20th C Indigenous nation of the west coast of North America. Not to be confused with the Turkic Telengit people The Tlingit (ˈklɪŋkɪt in English also /-gɪt/ or Tlinkit /ˈtlɪŋkɪt/ which Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent According to the Random House Dictionary, the term warrior has two meanings The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. 
Since the 14th century the Deccan (Southern Peninsular region of India) was divided into two entities: on the one side stood the Muslim-ruled Bahmani Sultanate, and on the other stood the Hindu kings rallied around the Vijayanagara Empire. The Bahmani Sultanate (Also called the Bahmanid Empire was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms The Vijayanagara Empire ( Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము was a South Continuous wars demanded frequent resupplies of fresh horses, which were imported through sea routes from Persia and Africa. This trade was subjected to frequent raids by thriving bands of pirates based in the coastal cities of Western India.
During the 16th century there was frequent European piracy against Mughal Indian vessels, especially those en route to Mecca for hajj. The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world The situation came to a head, when Portuguese attacked and captured the vessel Rahimi which belonged to Mariam Zamani the Mughal queen. Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba (often shortened to Mariam-uz-Zamani) née Rajkumari Hira Kunwari Sahiba alias Harkha Bai ( October 1, 1542 - 1622 was  In the 18th century, the famous Maratha privateer Kanhoji Angre ruled the seas between Mumbai and Goa. The Maratha Empire ( Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta Kanhoji Angre or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (Sarkhel is a title meaning Admiral of the Fleet(? &ndash June 4, 1729) was the first notable chief of 
The most famous pirate utopia is that of Captain Misson and his pirate crew, who founded free colony of Libertatia in northern Madagascar in the late 17th century. Pirate utopias were described by essayist Peter Lamborn Wilson (aka Hakim Bey in his 1995 book Pirate Utopias Moorish Corsairs & European Renegadoes, and in his Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) is said to have been a free colony forged by Pirates under the leadership of Captain James Misson in the late Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar In 1694, it was destroyed in a suprise attack by the island natives. 
From the 13th century, Japan based Wokou made their debut in East Asia, initiating invasions that would persist for 300 years.
Piracy in South East Asia began with the retreating Mongol Yuan fleet after the betrayal by their Sri Vijayan allies in the war with Majapahit. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. They preferred the junk, a ship using a more robust sail layout. Marooned navy officers, consisting mostly of Cantonese and Hokkien tribesmen, set up their small gangs near river estuaries, mainly to protect themselves. They recruited locals as common foot-soldiers known as 'lang' (lanun) to set up their fortresses. They survived by utilizing their well trained pugilists, as well as marine and navigation skills, mostly along Sumatran and Javanese estuaries. Their strength and ferocity coincided with the impending trade growth of the maritime silk and spice routes.
However, the most powerful pirate fleets of East Asia were those of Chinese pirates during the mid-Qing dynasty. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Pirate fleets grew increasingly powerful throughout the early 19th century. The effects large-scale piracy had on the Chinese economy were immense. They preyed voraciously on China’s junk trade, which flourished in Fujian and Guangdong and was a vital artery of Chinese commerce. This article is about the People's Republic of China province Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the Pirate fleets exercised hegemony over villages on the coast, collecting revenue by exacting tribute and running extortion rackets. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services In 1802, the menacing Zheng Yi inherited the fleet of his cousin, captain Zheng Qi, whose death provided Zheng Yi with considerably more influence in the world of piracy. Zheng Yi and his wife, Zheng Yi Sao (who would eventually inherit the leadership of his pirate confederacy) then formed a pirate coalition that, by 1804, consisted of over ten thousand men. Ching Shih (c 1785 – 1844 ( Cantonese Jihng Sih "widow of Zheng" also known as Zheng Yi Sao ( Cantonese Jihng Yāt Sóu Their military might alone was sufficient to combat the Qing navy. However, a combination of famine, Qing naval opposition, and internal rifts crippled piracy in China around the 1820s, and it has never again reached the same status.
The Bugi sailors of South Sulawesi were infamous as pirates who used to range as far west as Singapore and as far north as the Philippines in search of targets for piracy. The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest South Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island Singapore The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP  The Orang laut pirates controlled shipping in the Straits of Malacca and the waters around Singapore. The Orang laut are a group of Malay people living in the Riau Islands of Indonesia. Piracy in the Strait of Malacca has historically been an unresolved threat to ship owners and the mariners who ply the 900km-long (550 miles sea lane  and the Malay and Sea Dayak pirates preyed on maritime shipping in the waters between Singapore and Hong Kong from their haven in Borneo. Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Iban History See also Iban history The origin of the name Iban is a mystery although many theories exist Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. 
One example of a pirate republic in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century was Zaporizhian Sich. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Uskoci ( Pronounced: "uskoczy" meaning "Uskoks" Singular: Uskok) were Croatian Habsburg soldiers that inhabited Zaporizhian Sich (Запорізька Січ Zaporiz'ka Sich) original Slavonic name "Zaporizhska Sich'" was the center of the Dnieper Cossacks Situated in the remote Steppe, it was populated with Ukrainian peasants that had run away from their feudal masters, outlaws of every sort, destitute gentry, run-away slaves from Turkish galleys, etc. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced Galleys redirects here For other uses see Galley (disambiguation. The remoteness of the place and the rapids at the Dnepr river effectively guarded the place from invasions of vengeful powers. For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation. The main target of the inhabitants of Zaporizhian Sich who called themselves “Cossacks” were rich settlements at the Black Sea shores of Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. Zaporizhian Sich (Запорізька Січ Zaporiz'ka Sich) original Slavonic name "Zaporizhska Sich'" was the center of the Dnieper Cossacks The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Qırım Hanlığı|قريم خانلغى Крымское ханство - Krymskoye khanstvo;  By 1615 and 1625, Zaporozhian Cossacks had even managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Istanbul, forcing the Ottoman Sultan to flee his palace. The Zaporozhian Cossacks (Запорожці Zaporozhtsi,were Cossacks who lived in Zaporizhia, in Central Ukraine Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with  Don Cossacks under Stenka Razin even ravaged the Persian coasts. Don Cossacks (Донские казаки were Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don. For the place in Azerbaijan see Stepan Razin Azerbaijan. Stepan (Sten'ka Timofeyevich Razin ( Russian: Степан (Стенька For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
The Barbary pirates were pirates and privateers that operated from North African (the "Barbary coast") ports of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on ships on their way to Asia around Africa until the early 19th century. The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Pirates and Privateers that operated from North Africa, from A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa—what Tunis ( Arabic: تونس Tūnis) is the Capital of the Tunisian Republic and also the Tunis Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest For the Canadian figure skater see Jamie Salé. For the Finnish Union of Sex Workers see Salli. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The coastal villages and towns of Italy, Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland . Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This is a list of Islands in the Mediterranean Sea: By area By country Croatia Croatian islands Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1. 25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Arab Slave trade was the practice of Slavery in West Asia, North Africa, East Africa, and certain parts of Europe (such North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The most famous corsairs were the Ottoman Barbarossa ("Redbeard"), and his older brother Oruç, Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West), Kurtoğlu (known as Curtogoli in the West), Kemal Reis, Salih Reis and Koca Murat Reis. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha ( Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the Oruç Reis (also called Barbarossa or Redbeard) ( Turkish: Aruj or Oruç Reis, Arabic: عروج بربروس Turgut Reis ( 1485 - June 23, 1565) was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral as well as Bey of Turgut Reis ( 1485 - June 23, 1565) was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral as well as Bey of Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487 &ndash c 1535 was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor of Rhodes Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487 &ndash c 1535 was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor of Rhodes Kemal Reis (c 1451 &ndash 1511 was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral. Salih Reis (1488 ca - 1568 was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral. Murat Reis the Elder (Koca Murat Reis was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral A few Barbary pirates, such as Jan Janszoon and John Ward, were renegade Christians who had converted to Islam. Jan Janszoon van Haarlem (circa 1570 - post 1641 was a Dutch Pirate also known as Murat Reis the Younger.
According to recent legal analysis by the U.S. Supreme Court, the United States treated captured Barbary corsairs as prisoners of war, indicating that they were considered as legitimate privateers by at least some of their opponents, as well as by their home countries. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary.
In 1523, Jean Fleury seized two ships carrying Aztec treasures from Mexico to Spain. The great era of Piracy in the Caribbean began in the 1560s and died out in the 1720s as the Nation-states of Western Europe with colonies in Jean Fleury or Florin (d 1527 was a 16th century French naval officer and privateer  The great or classic era of piracy in the Caribbean extends from around 1560 up until the mid 1720s. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The period during which pirates were most successful was from 1700 until the 1730s. Many pirates came to the Caribbean after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714 several European powers combined to stop French succession to the Spanish throne and what would likely have been a resulting Many people stayed in the Caribbean and became pirates shortly after that. Others, the buccaneers, arrived in the mid-to-late 17th century and made attempts at earning a living by farming and hunting on Hispaniola and nearby islands; pressed by Spanish raids and possibly failure of their means of making a living, they turned to a more lucrative occupation (not to mention more active and conducive to revenge). This article refers to the type of pirate For other uses see Buccaneer (disambiguation The buccaneers were Pirates who attacked As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Caribbean piracy arose out of, and mirrored on a smaller scale, the conflicts over trade and colonization among the rival European powers of the time, including England, Spain, Dutch United Provinces, Portuguese Empire and France. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The Dutch Empire was the territories controlled by The Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world Most of these pirates were of English, Dutch and French origin. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Because Spain controlled most of the Caribbean, many of the attacked cities and ships belonged to the Spanish Empire and along the East coast of America and the West coast of Africa. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Some of the best-known pirate bases were New Providence, in the Bahamas from 1715 to 1725, Tortuga established in the 1640s and Port Royal after 1655. Tortuga may refer to a Spanish word meaning Tortoise the name of several islands La Tortuga Island in Port Royal, Jamaica was the centre of Shipping Commerce in the Islands of the Greater Antilles which make up the northeastern Among the most famous Caribbean pirates are Edward Teach or "Blackbeard" and Henry Morgan. Edward Teach (tɛtʃ c 1680 – November 22, 1718) better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English Pirate in the Caribbean Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh) ( ca 1635 &ndash August 25, 1688) was a Welsh Privateer, who made a name
In the popular modern imagination, pirates of the classical period were rebellious, clever teams who operated outside the restricting bureaucracy of modern life. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government In reality, many pirates ate poorly, did not become fabulously wealthy, and died young. Unlike traditional Western societies of the time, many pirate crews operated as limited democracies. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Both the captain and the quartermaster were elected by the crew, they in turn appointed the other ship's officers. Quartermaster refers to two different military occupations In land armies it is a term referring to a military individual or unit who specializes in supplying and provisioning troops The captain of a pirate ship was often a fierce fighter in whom the men could place their trust, rather than a more traditional authority figure sanctioned by an elite. However, when not in battle, the quartermaster usually had the real authority. Many groups of pirates shared in whatever they seized; pirates injured in battle might be afforded special compensation. Often all of these terms were agreed upon and written down by the pirates, but these articles could also be used as incriminating proof that they were outlaws. A pirate code is a Code of conduct invented for governing Pirates. Pirates readily accepted outcasts from traditional societies, perhaps easily recognizing kindred spirits, and they were known to welcome them into the pirate fold. Such practices within a pirate crew were tenuous, however, and did little to mitigate the brutality of the pirate's way of life.
Even though pirates raided many ships, most did not bury their treasure, or booty. Often, the "treasure" that was stolen was food, water, alcohol, weapons, or clothing. For this reason, there was no need for the pirates to bury these goods.
The classical age of piracy coexisted with a rise in British imperialism which required merchant vessels to transport goods and warships to protect the trade ships from pirates and privateers. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Living conditions on the warships were horrible even by 17th-century standards; sailors were often fed rotten, maggot-infested food, frequently suffered from scurvy or other nutritional disorders, and could be counted lucky to escape their service without a crippling injury. Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans British captains were known to have been extremely brutal; the captain held a nearly sovereign power aboard his ship and many were unafraid to abuse that power. To fill the warships, officers would forcibly pressgang boys and young men to replace lost crew. Impressment (colloquially " the Press " or " press-ganging " is the act of conscripting people to serve in the military or navy usually The horrid living conditions, constant threat to life, and brutality of the captain and his officers pushed many men over the edge. Possessing seafaring skill, a learned intolerance for absolute authority, and a disdain for the motherland they might have believed abandoned them, many crews would simply mutiny during an attack and offer themselves and their ship as a new pirate vessel and crew. Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even
A privateer or corsair used similar methods to a pirate, but acted while in possession of a commission or letter of marque from a government or monarch authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation. This is a list of known pirates buccaneers corsairs privateers and others involved in Piracy and piracy-related activities Thomas Anstis (d 1723 was an early 18th century pirate who served under Captain Howell Davis and then Captain Bartholomew Roberts, before setting up on his own Louis-Michel Aury was a French Corsair operating in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean during the early 19th century Samuel Bellamy (c February 23 1689 &ndash April 27, 1717) aka "Black Sam" Bellamy was a formidable pirate in the early eighteenth Stede Bonnet (c 1688 – December 10 1718 was an early 18th-century Barbadian pirate, sometimes called "the gentleman pirate" because he was a moderately Anne Bonny ( March 8, 1700 - possibly April 25, 1782) was an Irish American Pirate who plied her trade in the Caribbean Roche Braziliano (sometimes spelled Rock, Roch, Roc, Roque, Brazilliano, or Brasiliano) (c Nathaniel Butler (born c 1577 date of death unknown was an English Privateer who later served as the colonial governor of Bermuda during the early 17th-century Simon de Danser ("Simon The Dancer" (1579? Dort - 1611? conflicting dates are reported was a Dutch Privateer and Pirate of the Pier Gerlofs Donia of Kimswerd (c1480 &ndash 1520 was a Frisian Warrior, Pirate, Freedom fighter, Folk hero, Knight Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician Sir Richard Hawkins (c 1562 &ndash April 17, 1622, London) (also spelled "Hawkyns" was a 17th century English seaman explorer Jan Janszoon van Haarlem (circa 1570 - post 1641 was a Dutch Pirate also known as Murat Reis the Younger. William " Captain " Kidd ( c 1645 &ndash May 23, 1701) was a Scottish sailor remembered for his Henry Every or Avery or Avary (born c 1653 in Plymouth, disappeared from record 1696 was a Pirate / marooner whose aliases Jean Lafitte (ca 1776 - ca 1826 was a Privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century Captain Edward "Ned" Low, also Lowe or Loe, (c 1690 &ndash c William Dampier ( 5 September 1651 (baptised &ndash March 1715 was an English Buccaneer, sea captain Author and scientific observer Jean-David Nau (c 1635 - c 1668 Panama) better known as François l'Olonnais, was a French pirate active in the Caribbean during the Gráinne Ní Mháille (c 1530 – c 1603 also known as Granuaile or Gráinne Mhaol, known in English as Grace O'Malley, is an important Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh) ( ca 1635 &ndash August 25, 1688) was a Welsh Privateer, who made a name Christopher Newport (c 1561&ndash1618 was an English sailor and Privateer. John Rackham ( December 21, 1682 – November 18, 1720 in Jamaica) also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico For Mary Karen Read see Virginia Tech massacre. Mary Read (do Kemal Reis (c 1451 &ndash 1511 was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral. Turgut Reis ( 1485 - June 23, 1565) was a Turkish Privateer and Ottoman Admiral as well as Bey of Born John Roberts ( May 17, 1682 &ndash February 10, 1722) Bartholomew Roberts was a Welsh Pirate who raided shipping Ching Shih (c 1785 – 1844 ( Cantonese Jihng Sih "widow of Zheng" also known as Zheng Yi Sao ( Cantonese Jihng Yāt Sóu Zheng Zhilong ( 1604 &ndash 1661 also known as Nicholas Iquan Gaspard was a 17th century Chinese Merchant, Pirate and Admiral Klaus Störtebeker (c 1360 &ndash 20 October 1401) was a leader and the best known representative of a companionship of Privateers known as the Surcouf redirects here for ships of this name see French ship Surcouf. Edward Teach (tɛtʃ c 1680 – November 22, 1718) better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English Pirate in the Caribbean A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping A letter of marque is an official warrant or commission from a Government authorizing the designated agent to search seize or destroy specified assets For example, the United States Constitution of 1787 specifically authorized Congress to issue letters of marque and reprisal. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The letter of marque was recognized by international convention and meant that a privateer could not technically be charged with piracy while attacking the targets named in his commission. This nicety of law did not always save the individuals concerned, however, as whether one was considered a pirate or a legally operating privateer often depended on whose custody the individual found himself in--that of the country that had issued the commission, or that of the object of attack. Spanish authorities were known to execute foreign privateers with their letters of marque hung around their necks to emphasize Spain's rejection of such defenses. Furthermore, many privateers exceeded the bounds of their letters of marque by attacking nations with which their sovereign was at peace (Thomas Tew and William Kidd are notable examples), and thus made themselves liable to conviction for piracy. Thomas Tew (?-1695 aka the Rhode Island Pirate was a 17th century English Privateer turned Pirate. William " Captain " Kidd ( c 1645 &ndash May 23, 1701) was a Scottish sailor remembered for his However, a letter of marque did provide some cover for such pirates, as plunder seized from neutral or friendly shipping could be passed off later as taken from enemy merchants.
The famous Barbary Corsairs of the Mediterranean were privateers, as were the Maltese Corsairs, who were authorized by the Knights of St. John, and the Dunkirkers in the service of the Spanish Empire. The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Pirates and Privateers that operated from North Africa, from The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St During the Dutch Revolt ( 1568 - 1648) the Dunkirkers or Dunkirk Privateers, were warships in the service of the Spanish Empire operating The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries One famous privateer was Sir Francis Drake. Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician His patron was Queen Elizabeth I, and their relationship ultimately proved to be quite profitable for England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland 
Privateering lost international sanction under the Declaration of Paris in 1856. The Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law of 16 April 1856 was issued to abolish Privateering It regulated the relationship between neutral and belligerent
A wartime activity similar to piracy involves disguised warships called commerce raiders or merchant raiders, which attack enemy shipping commerce, approaching by stealth and then opening fire. A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. Commerce raiding is to destroy the logistics (supplies of an enemy on the open sea rather than engaging the combatants themselves or enforcing a Blockade against them Merchant raiders are Ships which disguise themselves as Non-combatant Merchant vessels whilst actually being armed and intending to attack enemy commerce Commerce raiders operated successfully during the American Revolution. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" During the American Civil War, the Confederacy sent out several commerce raiders, the most famous of which was the CSS Alabama. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 History Construction Alabama was built in secrecy by British shipbuilders John Laird Sons and Company in Liverpool, Merseyside During World War I and World War II, Germany also made use of these tactics, both in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Since commissioned naval vessels were openly used, these commerce raiders should not be considered even privateers, much less pirates - although the opposing combatants were vocal in denouncing them as such.
Modern pirates favor small boats and taking advantage of the small crew numbers on modern cargo vessels. Modern pirates can be successful because a large amount of international commerce occurs via shipping. For commercial reasons, many cargo ships move through narrow bodies of water (such as the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, and the Strait of Malacca) making them vulnerable to be overtaken and boarded by small motorboats. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation The Panama Canal is a man-made Canal in Panama which joins the The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra A motorboat is a vessel propelled by an Internal combustion engine driving a jet pump or a Propeller. Other active areas include the South China Sea and the Niger Delta. The South China Sea is a Marginal sea south of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a As usage increases, many of these ships have to lower cruising speeds to allow for navigation and traffic control, making them prime targets for piracy. Small ships are also capable of disguising themselves as fishing vessels or cargo vessels when not carrying out piracy in order to avoid or deceive inspectors.
Also, pirates often operate in regions of developing or struggling countries with smaller navies and large trade routes. Pirates sometimes evade capture by sailing into waters controlled by their pursuer's enemies. With the end of the Cold War, navies have decreased size and patrol, and trade has increased, making organized piracy far easier. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Modern pirates are sometimes linked with organized-crime syndicates, but often are parts of small individual groups. Pirate attack crews may consist of 4 to 10 sailors for going after a ship's safe (raiding) or up to 70 (depending entirely on the ships and the ships crew size) if the plan is to seize the whole vessel.
The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) maintains statistics regarding pirate attacks dating back to 1995. The International Maritime Bureau (IMB is a specialised bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce. Their records indicate hostage-taking overwhelmingly dominates the types of violence against seafarers. For example in 2006, there were 239 attacks, 77 crew members were kidnapped and 188 taken hostage but only 15 of the pirate attacks resulted in murder.  In 2007 the attacks rose by 10% to 263 attacks. There was a 35% increase on reported attacks involving guns. Crew members that were injured was 64 compared to the 17 in 2006.  That number does not include hostages/kidnapping where they were not injured.
In some cases, modern pirates are not interested in the cargo and are mainly interested in taking the personal belongings of the crew and the contents of the ship's safe, which might contain large amounts of cash needed for payroll and port fees. In other cases, the pirates force the crew off the ship and then sail it to a port to be repainted and given a new identity through false papers often purchased from corrupt or complicit officials. 
Modern piracy can also take place in conditions of political unrest. For example, following the US withdrawal from Vietnam, Thai piracy was aimed at the many Vietnamese who took to boats to escape. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Further, following the disintegration of the government of Somalia, warlords in the region have attacked ships delivering UN food aid. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known A warlord is a person with power who has military control over a subnational area due to Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
Environmental action groups such as Sea Shepherd have been accused of engaging in piracy and terrorism when they sink ships with mines, scuttle them, or ram them and throw butyric acid on their crews; although they carry firearms, they are not known to have fired them during attacks. The Sea Shepherd Conservation A naval mine is a self-contained Explosive device placed in water to destroy Ships or Submarines Unlike Depth charges mines are deposited Butyric acid (from Greek βούτυρος = butter) also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a Carboxylic acid with the structural 
The attack against the U. S. cruise ship the Seabourn Spirit offshore of Somalia in November 2005 is an example of the sophisticated pirates mariners face. Pirate attack On 5 November 2005 at 550 am the ship was attacked 115 km off the coast of Somalia, by two Pirate speedboats launched The pirates carried out their attack more than 100 miles (160 km) offshore with speedboats launched from a larger mother ship. The attackers were armed with automatic firearms and an RPG. RPG or rocket-propelled grenade, is a loose term describing hand-held shoulder-launched Anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided 
Many nations forbid ships to enter their territorial waters or ports if the crew of the ships are armed in an effort to restrict possible piracy.  Shipping companies sometimes hire private security guards.
Modern definitions of piracy include the following acts:
In modern times, ships and airplanes are hijacked for political reasons as well. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property to secure their release or it can refer to the sum of money involved Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries An epileptic seizure is caused by excessive and/or hypersynchronous electrical Neuronal activity and is usually self-limiting Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take over of an Aircraft, by a person or group usually armed The perpetrators of these acts could be described as pirates (for instance, the French for "plane hijacker" is pirate de l'air, literally "air pirate"), but in English are usually termed "hijackers". An example is the hijacking of the Italian civilian passenger ship Achille Lauro, which is generally regarded as an act of piracy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Concept and construction Ordered in 1938 her Keel was laid in 1939 at Vlissingen, Netherlands, for Rotterdamsche Lloyd
Modern pirates also use a great deal of technology. It has been reported that crimes of piracy have involved the use of mobile phones, modern speedboats, assault rifles, shotguns, pistols, mounted machine guns, and even RPGs and grenade launchers. A motorboat is a vessel propelled by an Internal combustion engine driving a jet pump or a Propeller. An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle A shotgun (also known as a scattergun) is a Firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. RPG or rocket-propelled grenade, is a loose term describing hand-held shoulder-launched Anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided A grenade launcher is a Weapon that launches a Grenade with more accuracy higher velocity and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand However, more primitive weapons such as knives, batons, or boat-hooks are also often used. A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting A club (also known as cudgel, baton, truncheon, night stick, and bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons
Reports of piracy attacks were declining worldwide since 2004, but seems to have bottomed out in 2007.  Figures reported by the International Maritime Bureau indicate incident reporting fell for the third year in a row in 2006. Ships reported 239 incidents to the IMB during the year 2006, down from 276 in 2005, and 329 in 2004.  But the piracy rose by 14 percent in the first nine months of 2007. 
The maritime watchdog group points to better awareness of the magnitude of piracy and subsequent involvement by governments in combating piracy as factors in the decline. 
Yet hotspots remain. They include Indonesia, still the world’s most dangerous piracy region, Nigeria, Somalia, and the ports of Chittagong in Bangladesh and Santos in Brazil, according to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) 2006 Annual Report. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The International Maritime Bureau (IMB is a specialised bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce. Furthermore, experts caution that local problem areas can emerge quickly, despite a worldwide down trend in pirate attacks.
"When attacks hit a peak in 2000, at that time Somalia was just a blip on the radar screen," said the secretary-general of the Shipping Federation during an interview with the London Financial Times. "Then it becomes a big problem. Piracy tends to be a feature of areas where there is either lawlessness or real economic deprivation and it's very difficult to eradicate. "
The recent downward trend in piracy worldwide follows a period when attacks tripled between 1993 and 2003. The first half of 2003 was the worst 6-month period on record, with 234 pirate attacks, 16 deaths, and 52 people injured worldwide. There were also 193 crew members held hostage during this period In the first 6 months of 2004, 182 reported cases of piracy turned up worldwide, 50 of which occurring in Indonesian waters. 
The Piracy Reporting Centre of the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) stated in 2004 that more pirate attacks in that year occurred in Indonesian waters (70 of 251 reported attacks) than in the waters of any other country. Of these attacks, a majority occurred in the Straits of Malacca. The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra They also stated that of the attacks in 2004, oil and gas tankers and bulk carriers were the most popular targets with 67 attacks on tankers and 52 on bulk carriers. Definition There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier
Authorities estimate that only between 50% to as low as 10% of pirate attacks are actually reported (so as not to increase insurance premiums). Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss
During the 18th century, the British and the Dutch controlled opposite sides of the Straits of Malacca. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra Some pirates carried on activities similar to armed rebellion with the aim of resisting the colonisers. In order to put a stop to this, the British and the Dutch drew a line separating the Straits into two halves. The agreement was that each party would be responsible for combating piracy in their respective half. Eventually this line became the border between Malaysia and Indonesia in the Straits. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
Piracy is of note in international law as it is commonly held to represent the earliest invocation of the concept of universal jurisdiction. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in International law whereby States claim criminal Jurisdiction The crime of piracy is considered a breach of jus cogens, a conventional peremptory international norm that states must uphold. A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens, Latin for "compelling law" is a fundamental principle of Those committing thefts on the high seas, inhibiting trade, and endangering maritime communication are considered by sovereign states to be hostis humani generis (enemies of humanity). International waterways Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Hostis humani generis ( Latin for "enemy of mankind" is a Legal Term of art, originating from the Admiralty law, and referring The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time 
In English admiralty law, piracy was defined as petit treason during the medieval period, and offenders were accordingly liable to be drawn and quartered on conviction. Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of Law which governs maritime questions and offenses In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. Piracy was redefined as a felony during the reign of Henry VIII. In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of In either case, piracy cases were cognizable in the courts of the Lord High Admiral. English admiralty vice-admiralty judges emphasized that "neither Faith nor Oath is to be kept" with pirates; i. e. contracts with pirates and oaths sworn to them were not legally binding. Pirates were legally subject to summary execution by their captors if captured in battle. A summary execution is a type of Extrajudicial punishment in which a person is killed on the spot without Trial. In practice, instances of summary justice and annulment of oaths and contracts involving pirates do not appear to have been common.
Since piracy often takes place outside the territorial waters of any state, the prosecution of pirates by sovereign states represents a complex legal situation. Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most The prosecution of pirates on the high seas contravenes the conventional freedom of the high seas. However, because of universal jurisdiction, action can be taken against pirates without objection from the flag state of the pirate vessel. This represents an exception to the principle extra territorium jus dicenti impune non paretur (the judgment of one who is exceeding his territorial jurisdiction may be disobeyed with impunity). C D E 
In 2008 the British Foreign Office advised the Royal Navy not to detain pirates of certain nationalities as they might be able to claim asylum in Britain under British human rights legislation, if their national laws included execution, or mutilation as a judicial punishment for crimes committed as pirates. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998 and mostly came into force 
In the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982, "maritime piracy" consists of:
The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) defines piracy as:
Pirates are a frequent topic in fiction and are associated with certain stereotypical manners of speaking and dress, some of them wholly fictional: "nearly all our notions of their behavior come from the golden age of fictional piracy, which reached its zenith in 1881 [sic] with the appearance of Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. In American and British popular culture the modern pirate stereotype owes its tradition mostly to depictions of Captain Hook and his crew in theatrical and film Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894 was a Scottish novelist poet and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in Treasure Island is an adventure Novel by author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "pirates and buried gold" " Some inventions of pirate culture such as "walking the plank" were popularized by J. M. Barrie's novel, Peter Pan, where Captain Hook's pirates helped define the fictional pirate archetype. "Walk the plank" redirects here For other uses see Walk the Plank. Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet OM ( 9 May, 1860 &ndash 19 June, 1937) more commonly known as J Peter Pan is a fictional character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J "Captain Hook" is also a nickname for former baseball manager Sparky Anderson.  Robert Newton's portrayal of Long John Silver in Disney's 1950 film adaptation of Treasure Island also helped define the modern rendition of a pirate. Robert Newton ( June 1 1905 – March 25 1956) was a noted English stage and film Actor. Long John Silver is a Fictional character in the Novel Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson. Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner was established Treasure Island is a Disney film based on Robert Louis Stevenson 's novel Treasure Island, and was released on July 19 Treasure Island is an adventure Novel by author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "pirates and buried gold"  The recent Pirates of the Caribbean films have helped kindle modern interest in piracy and have succeeded quite handsomely in box office grosses. Pirates of the Caribbean is a multi-billion dollar Walt Disney franchise encompassing a theme park ride a series of films Pirates of the Caribbean is a trilogy of Adventure films directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio and produced Due to modern piracy's status as basically robbery mixed with violence, filmmakers do not commonly depict modern pirates in movies (with Piraty XX veka, Six Days Seven Nights, and The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou being rare exceptions). Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. The Pirates of 20th Century (Пираты 20 века Piraty XX veka 1979, is a Soviet Action / Adventure film about modern Piracy Six Days Seven Nights is a 1998 Romantic comedy film interspersed with elements of the adventure film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou is Wes Anderson 's fourth feature length Film, released in the U
The classic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta The Pirates of Penzance focuses on The Pirate King and his hopeless band of pirates on the South coast of England. Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of Librettist W Operetta is a genre of light Opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Pirate King is often believed to be inspiration for Jack Sparrow. Captain Jack Sparrow is a Fictional character from the Pirates of the Caribbean franchise who is portrayed by Johnny Depp.
Running Wild a long running Speed Metal/Power Metal act from Germany have utilized a piracy gimmick since the late 1980s, releasing albums and songs with names such as "Under Jolly Roger", "Port Royal", "Treasure Island", "Calico Jack", "Jennings' Revenge" (about the hugely successful 1715 pirate raid by Henry Jennings) and "Rogues en Vogue". Running Wild are a German heavy metal band formed in 1976 in Hamburg. Speed metal is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music originating in the late 1970s and early 1980s that was the direct musical progenitor of Thrash metal. Power metal is a style of Heavy metal music combining characteristics of traditional metal with Thrash metal or Speed metal, often within Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Henry Jennings (died 1745 was an 18th century British Privateer who served primarily during the War of Spanish Succession and later served as leader of
"Pirate Master" is a CBS reality show which premiered on May 31, 2007. Pirate Master is an Emmy Award-winning CBS Reality television show created by Mark Burnett following 16 modern-day Pirates CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. "Pirate Master" is about a modern day pirate crew searching for lost treasure. The National Geographic Channel is airing a documentary about Samuel Bellamy on January 7, 2008 called "Pirate Treasure Hunters. Samuel Bellamy (c February 23 1689 &ndash April 27, 1717) aka "Black Sam" Bellamy was a formidable pirate in the early eighteenth Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common " This features footage of the exploration of the wreck of the Whydah Gally by excavation expert Barry Clifford. The Whydah Gally (variously written as Whidah or Whidaw) was the Flagship of the Pirate "Black Sam" Barry Clifford is an underwater archaeological explorer best known for discovering the remains of the wrecked ship Whydah in 1984 after a 15-year search 
"Long John Silver" is portrayed as an anti-hero in the 2008 novel "SILVER--My Own Tale As Told By Me With A Goodly Amount Of Murder" by Edward Chupack. Long John Silver is a Fictional character in the Novel Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson. 
Various variants on the pirate idea exist, notably "space pirates" in science fiction, such as the TV series "Firefly," that imagine future space shipping subject to similar pressures as shipping in the Age of Exploration. Firefly is an American Science fiction Television series created by writer/director Joss Whedon, creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer Pirates are also common mascots and names of sports teams.
Goodman, Timothy H. 'Leaving the Corsair's name to other times:' How to enforce the law of sea piracy in the 21st century through regional international agreements / Timothy H. Goodman In: Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, vol. 31 (Winter 1999) nr. 1, P. : 139-168