Pioneer 11 at Saturn (artist's impression)
|Organization||Ames Research Center - NASA|
|Mission type||Fly-by, Deep Space|
|Flyby of||Jupiter, Saturn, Outer Solar System|
|Launch date||6 April 1973 at 02:11:00 UTC (12851 days ago)|
|Mission duration||undefined (8212 days from launch to end of mission operations on September 30, 1995, last contact was November 1995)|
Pioneer 11 was the second mission (after its sister probe Pioneer 10) to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC is a NASA facility located at Moffett Federal Airfield, which covers 43 acres at the borders of the cities of Mountain View The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Pioneer 11 (also called Pioneer G, part of the Pioneer program) used Jupiter's mass in a gravity assist to alter its trajectory toward Saturn. The US Pioneer program of Unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object In Orbital mechanics and Aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist or swing-by is the use of the relative movement and Trajectory is the path a moving object follows through space The object might be a Projectile or a Satellite, for example The spacecraft made a successful to Saturn flyby and then followed an escape trajectory from the solar system. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity.
Its objectives were to study the interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields; solar wind properties; cosmic rays; transition region of the heliosphere; neutral hydrogen abundance; distribution, size, mass, flux, and velocity of dust particles; Jovian aurorae; Jovian radio waves; the atmospheres of planets and satellites; and the surfaces of Jupiter, Saturn, and some of their satellites. It was developed out of NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Pioneer series (6-12) of spacecraft that include Pioneer Venus. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC is a NASA facility located at Moffett Federal Airfield, which covers 43 acres at the borders of the cities of Mountain View The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components launched separately
The unmanned spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral on April 6, 1973. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. It is 2. 9 meters long and has a 2. 74-meter-diameter high-gain antenna, topped with a medium-gain antenna. An antenna is a Transducer designed to transmit or Receive electromagnetic waves In other words antennas convert electromagnetic waves into A low-gain, omnidirectional antenna is mounted below the high-gain dish. The spacecraft contains two radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which generated 144 W at Jupiter, but had decreased to 100 W by the time it reached Saturn. A radioisotope thermoelectric generator ( RTG, RITEG) is an Electrical generator which obtains its power from Radioactive decay. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second.
There were three reference sensors: a star (Canopus) sensor, and two Sun sensors. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Attitude position could be calculated from the reference direction to Earth and Sun, with the known direction to Canopus as backup. Pioneer 11's star sensor gain and threshold settings were modified, based on experience gained from the settings used on Pioneer 10. Three pairs of rocket thrusters provided spin-axis control (maintained at 4. 8 rpm) and change the spacecraft's velocity. In Physics, velocity is defined as the rate of change of Position. The thrusters could be either fired steadily or pulsed, by command.
Rather than a traditional lens camera, Pioneer used its spin to scan scenes line-by-line (spin-scan). Its imaging system (photopolarimeter) could record brightness values of one narrow spot (pixel) at a time in two wavelengths corresponding to Red and Blue light. In Digital imaging, a pixel ( pict ure el ement is the smallest piece of information in an image Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by A combination of craft rotation and gradual forward or backward movement of this "pixel" allowed color images to be reconstructed using computers back at JPL (Earth). It is roughly comparable to early mechanical television scanners. Mechanical television was a Television system that used mechanical or Electromechanical devices to capture and display images
Instruments on the Pioneer 11 probe studied the interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields; solar wind properties; cosmic rays; the transition region of the heliosphere; neutral hydrogen abundance; distribution, size, mass, flux, and velocity of dust particles; Jovian aurorae; Jovian radio waves; the atmospheres of planets and satellites; and higher layers of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the surfaces of some of their satellites. In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. For the 1962 Bruce Conner film see Cosmic Ray (film Cosmic rays are energetic particles originating from space that impinge on The heliosphere is a bubble in space "blown" into the Interstellar medium (the hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the Galaxy) by the The hydrogen line, 21 centimeter line or HI line refers to the Spectral line created by changes in the energy state of neutral Hydrogen and In the various subfields of Physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, both with rigorous mathematical frameworks Dust is a general name for minute Solid particles with Diameters less than 500 micrometers. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves occurring on the Radio frequency portion of the Electromagnetic spectrum. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. The instruments carried for these experiments were a magnetometer, a plasma analyzer (for solar wind), a charged-particle detector, an ion detector, non-imaging telescopes with overlapping fields of view to detect sunlight reflected from passing meteoroids, sealed pressurized cells of argon and nitrogen gas for measuring penetration of meteoroids, an ultraviolet photometer, an infrared radiometer, and an imaging photopolarimeter, which produced photographs and measured their polarization. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the Magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. In experimental and applied Particle physics and Nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Polarization ( ''Brit'' polarisation) is a property of Waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations Further scientific information was obtained from celestial mechanics and occultation phenomena. Celestial mechanics is the branch of Astrophysics that deals with the motions of Celestial objects The field applies principles of Physics, historically
Pioneer 11 instrument list:
During its closest approach, December 4, 1974, Pioneer 11 passed to within 34,000 km of Jupiter's cloud tops and obtained dramatic images of the Great Red Spot, made the first observation of the immense polar regions, and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon Callisto. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the Magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument In Physics, a charged particle is a particle with an Electric charge. For the 1962 Bruce Conner film see Cosmic Ray (film Cosmic rays are energetic particles originating from space that impinge on The Geiger Tube Telescope is a scientific instrument that measures the intensities energy spectra and angular distribution of energetic Electrons and Protons in interplanetary Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays In the broadest sense a photometer is any instrument used to measure Illuminance or Irradiance. A radiometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power of Electromagnetic radiation. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the Magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Using Jupiter's mass in a gravitational slingshot, the probe altered its trajectory towards Saturn.
Great Red Spot by Pioneer 11 (image C3)
The polar region of Jupiter by Pioneer 11 showing the knotted nature of the cloud cover
View of Jupiter by Pioneer 11
View of Jupiter by Pioneer 11 (image C6)
It passed by Saturn on September 1, 1979, at a distance of 21,000 km from Saturn's cloud tops. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)
By this time Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 had already passed Jupiter and were also en route to Saturn, so it was decided to target Pioneer 11 to pass through the Saturn ring plane at the same position that the soon-to-come Voyager probe would use in order to test the route before Voyager arrived. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. If there were faint ring particles that could damage a probe in that area, mission planners felt it was better to learn about it via Pioneer. Thus, Pioneer 11 was acting as a "pioneer" in a true sense of the word. (If danger was detected, then the Voyager probes could be rerouted further away from the rings, but missing the opportunity to visit Uranus and Neptune in the process. )
Pioneer 11 imaged and nearly collided with one of Saturn's small moons, passing at a distance of no more than a few thousand kilometers from it. The object was tentatively identified as Epimetheus, a moon discovered the previous day from Pioneer's imaging, and suspected from earlier observations by Earth-based telescopes. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Epimetheus (ˌɛpɨˈmiːθiəs,, or After the Voyager flybys, it became known that there are two similarly-sized moons (Epimetheus and Janus) in the same orbit, so there is some uncertainty about which one was the object of Pioneer's near-miss. See also Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Voyager program consists of a pair of unmanned scientific probes Voyager 1 and Saturn X redirects here For the spurious moon reported in 1905 see Themis (moon Pioneer 11 encountered Janus on September 1, 1979 at 14:52 UTC at a distance of 2500 km and Mimas at 16:20 UTC the same day at 103000 km. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)
Besides Epimetheus, instruments located another previously undiscovered small moon and an additional ring, charted Saturn's magnetosphere and magnetic field and found its planet-size moon, Titan, to be too cold for life. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Titan (ˈtaɪtən, or as Hurtling underneath the ring plane, Pioneer 11 sent back amazing pictures of Saturn's rings. The rings, which normally seem bright when observed from Earth, appeared dark in the Pioneer pictures, and the dark gaps in the rings seen from Earth appeared as bright rings.
Pioneer 11 image of Saturn (image F81). Taken on 1979/08/26, showing the satellite Rhea
Pioneer 11 image of Saturn taken on 1979/09/01
Pioneer 11 image of Saturn taken on 1979/09/01
Outgoing Pioneer 11 image of Saturn taken on 1979/09/03
Pioneer 11 explored the outer regions of our Solar system, studying the Solar Wind and cosmic rays entering our portion of the Milky Way.
The spacecraft has operated on a backup transmitter since launch. Instrument power sharing began in February 1985 due to declining generator power output. Science operations and daily telemetry ceased on September 30, 1995 when the RTG power level was insufficient to operate any experiments. Telemetry (synonymous with Telematics) is a Technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of Information of interest to the system designer Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 As of the end of 1995, when its mission ended, the spacecraft was located at 44. 7 AU from the Sun at a nearly asymptotic latitude of 17. 4 degrees above the solar equatorial plane and was heading outward at ~2. 4 AU/year (11. The astronomical unit ( AU or au or au or sometimes ua) is a unit of Length based on the distance from the Earth to the 6 km/s); this is the lowest velocity of the five spacecraft now escaping the Solar System ( Voyagers 1 and 2, Pioneers 10 and 11, and New Horizons). The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway 
Earth's motion has carried it out of alignment with the spacecraft antenna. As it cannot be maneuvered to point back at our planet, it's now impossible to establish further communication with the probe and know if it is still transmitting a signal.
The spacecraft is headed toward the constellation of Aquila (The Eagle), Northwest of the constellation of Sagittarius. Aquila ( or, Eagle; sometimes named the Vulture) is one of the 48 Constellations listed by Ptolemy, also mentioned by Eudoxus (4th Barring incident, Pioneer 11 will pass near one of the stars in the constellation in about 4 million years. 
Like its sister ship, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 carried a plaque with a message from humankind. The Pioneer plaques are a pair of Gold anodized Aluminum plaques which were placed on board the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 The Pioneer plaques are a pair of Gold anodized Aluminum plaques which were placed on board the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 The Pioneer plaques are a pair of Gold anodized Aluminum plaques which were placed on board the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The Pioneer plaques are identical in that they depict a Jupiter flyby. However, Pioneer 11 was redirected to Saturn making its plaque somewhat out of date. If the space probe is ever found by extraterrestrial intelligences, this message is meant to provide information about the origin of the spacecraft. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. It includes a drawing depicting a man, a woman, the transition of a hydrogen atom, and the location of the Sun and Earth in the galaxy. A galaxy is a massive gravitationally bound system consisting of Stars an Interstellar medium of gas and dust, and Dark matter
Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft at distances between 20–70 AU from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small Doppler frequency drift. The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect is the observed deviation from expectations of the trajectories of various Unmanned spacecraft visiting the Outer The drift can be interpreted as being due to a constant acceleration of (8. 74 ± 1. 33) × 10−10 m/s² directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest.