A pineapple, on its parent plant
(L.) Merr. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant and fruit (multiple), native to Uruguay, Brazil, and Paraguay. In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only It is a medium tall (1–1. 5 m) herbaceous perennial plant with 30 or more trough-shaped and pointed leaves 30–100 cm long, surrounding a thick stem. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than A stem is one of two main structural axes of a Vascular plant. The pineapple is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, spirally-arranged flowers along the axis each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit. Multiple fruit s are fruits that are formed from a cluster of flowers (called an Inflorescence) growing on a Catkin. The leaves of the cultivar 'Smooth Cayenne' mostly lack spines except at the leaf tip, but the cultivars 'Spanish' and 'Queen' have large spines along the leaf margins. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Pineapples are the only bromeliad fruit in widespread cultivation. It is one of the most commercially important plants which carry out Crassulacean acid metabolism, or CAM photosynthesis. Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is an elaborate Carbon fixation pathway in some Plants These plants fix carbon dioxide
The name pineapple in English comes from the similarity of the fruit to a pine cone. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. A cone (in formal botanical usage Strobilus, plural strobili is an organ on Plants in the division Pinophyta ( Conifers
The word "pineapple", first recorded in 1398, was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit, they called them "pineapples" (term first recorded in that sense in 1664) because it resembled what is known as pine cones. The term "pine cone" was first recorded in 1694 to replace the original meaning of "pineapple". 
In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) word for pine nanas, as recorded by André Thevenet in 1555 and comosus means "tufted" and refers to the stem of the fruit. The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called pine as well by laymen. The Genus Ananas pilli to the Bromeliad family ( Bromeliaceae)
In Spanish pineapples are called ananá ("ananás", in Spain) or piña (see the piña colada drink). Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The piña colada ( Spanish, strained pineapple piña, pineapple + colada, strained is a sweet Rum -based Cocktail made with A large, sweet pineapple grown especially in Brazil is called abacaxi (/abaka'ʃiː/). In Tamil (Indian Ancient Language) is called "Annachi Pazham". In Bengali, pineapples are called "anarosh".
Certain bat-pollinated wild pineapples, members of the bromeliad family, do the exact opposite of most flowers by opening their flowers at night and closing them during the day; this protects them from weevils, which are most active during daylight hours. A weevil is any Beetle from the Curculionoidea Superfamily. They are usually small less than 6  mm (¼  Inch) and herbivorous
The fruitlets of a pineapple are arranged in two interlocking spirals, eight spirals in one direction, thirteen in the other; each being a Fibonacci number. In Mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are a Sequence of numbers named after Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci This is one of many examples of Fibonacci numbers appearing in nature.
The natural (or most common) pollinator of the pineapple is the hummingbird. A pollinator is the biotic agent ( vector) that moves Pollen from the male Anthers of a Flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. Pollination is required for seed formation; the presence of seeds negatively affects the quality of the fruit. In Hawaii, where pineapple is cultivated on an agricultural scale, importation of hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the
At one time, most canned and fresh pineapples came from the cultivar 'Smooth Cayenne'. Since about 2000, the most common fresh pineapple fruit found in U. S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid hybrid that was developed in Hawaii in the early 1970s. Pineapple is commonly used in desserts and other types of fruit dishes, or served on its own. Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal usually consisting of sweet Food but sometimes of a strongly-flavored one such as some Cheeses The Fresh pineapple is often somewhat expensive as the tropical fruit is delicate and difficult to ship. Pineapples can ripen after harvest, but require certain temperatures for this process to occur. The ripening of pineapples can be rather difficult as they will not ripen for some time and in a day or two become over-ripe, therefore, pineapples are most widely available canned. To tell if a pineapple is ripe at a grocery store, shoppers should make sure the "eyes," or markings on the fruit, are uniform in size from top to bottom.
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 50 kcal 200 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain, which digests food by breaking down protein. Proteolysis is the directed degradation ( digestion) of Proteins by cellular Enzymes called Proteases or by intramolecular digestion Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Bromelain can refer to one of two Protease Enzymes extracted from the plant family Bromeliaceae, or it can refer to a combination of those enzymes along Pineapple juice can thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat. The enzymes in pineapples can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly or other gelatin-based desserts. The most common culinary use for Gelatin is as a main ingredient in varieties of gelatin desserts. Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the These enzymes can be hazardous to someone suffering from certain protein deficiencies or disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare Genetic disorders affecting humans caused by a defect in Collagen synthesis Pineapples should also not be consumed by those with Hemophilia or by those with kidney or liver disease, as it may reduce the time taken to coagulate a consumer's blood. Haemophilia (also spelled as hemophilia Nephrology (from Greek nephros, " Kidney " and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Liver disease is a broad term describing any number of Diseases affecting the Liver. 
There is evidence pointing to the anti-inflammatory benefits of bromelain. Because of this naturally occurring enzyme, the natural juice of a pineapple can, in substantial quantities, eat away at simple flesh structures like fingerprints or ulcers. A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger
Consumers of pineapple have claimed that pineapple has benefits for some intestinal disorders; others claim that it helps to induce childbirth when a baby is overdue. Induction is a method of artificially or prematurely stimulating labour in a woman Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a Human Pregnancy or 
Pineapple is a good source of manganese (91 %DV in a 1 cup serving), as well as containing significant amounts of Vitamin C (94 %DV in a 1 cup serving) and Vitamin B1 (8 %DV in a 1 cup serving). Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian For the similarly spelled pyrimidine see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1 
The pineapple spread from its original area (central South America) through cultivation, and by the time of Christopher Columbus (1492) it grew throughout South and Central America, southern Mexico and the Caribbean (West Indies). Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Columbus may have taken a sample back to Europe. The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines, Hawaii (introduced in the early 19th century, first commercial plantation 1886) and Guam. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Hawaiian Islands, once known as the Sandwich Islands, form an Archipelago of 19 Islands and Atolls numerous smaller Guam ( Chamorro: cha Guåhån) officially the Territory of Guam, is an island in the western Pacific Ocean and is an organized unincorporated The fruit was successfully cultivated in European hothouses, and pineapple pits, beginning in 1720. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated A pineapple pit is a method of growing pineapples in colder climates Commonly grown cultivars include 'Red Spanish', 'Hilo', 'Smooth Cayenne', 'St. Michael', 'Kona Sugarloaf', 'Natal Queen', and 'Pernambuco'.
Pineapple cultivation by U.S. companies began in the early 1900s on Hawaii. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapple on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively. Dole Food Company Inc is an American -based Agricultural Multinational corporation headquartered in Westlake Village California and is Del Monte Foods ( is an American food production and distribution company based in San Francisco, California. Oahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English) known as ''"The Gathering Place", is the third largest of the Maui Pineapple Company began pineapple cultivation on the island of Maui in 1909. Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd (MPC is a subsidiary of Maui Land & Pineapple Company Ltd and is the USA ’s largest grower processor and shipper of Hawaiian pineapples The Island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727 In 2006, Del Monte announced its withdrawal from pineapple cultivation in Hawaii, leaving only Dole and Maui Pineapple Company in Hawaii as the USA’s largest growers of pineapples. Maui Pineapple Company markets its Maui Gold brand of pineapple and Dole markets its Hawaii Gold brand of pineapple. In 2005 Iceland started indoor commercial farming of pineapples through an extensive network of greenhouses near the volcanic ranges.
In the USA in 1986, the Pineapple Research Institute was dissolved and its assets were divided between Del Monte and Maui Land and Pineapple. Maui Land & Pineapple Company Inc (ML&P is a land holding and operating company based in Maui Hawaii, United States. Del Monte took 73-114, which it dubbed MD-2, to its plantations in Costa Rica, found it to be well-suited to growing there, and launched it publicly in 1996. (Del Monte also began marketing 73-50, dubbed CO-2, as Del Monte Gold). In 1997, Del Monte began marketing its Gold Extra Sweet pineapple, known internally as MD-2. MD-2 is a hybrid that originated in the breeding program of the now-defunct Pineapple Research Institute in Hawaii, which conducted research on behalf of Del Monte, Maui Land & Pineapple Company, and Dole. Maui Land & Pineapple Company Inc (ML&P is a land holding and operating company based in Maui Hawaii, United States.
Southeast Asia dominates world production: in 2001 Thailand produced 1. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj 979 million tons, the Philippines 1. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP 618 million tons while in the Americas, Brazil 1. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 43 million tons. Total world production in 2001 was 14. 220 million tons. The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a
In commercial farming, flowering can be artificially induced and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits.
Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new fruit-bearing plant will grow in a manner similar to that of a potato or onion, which will sprout from a cutting. Alternatively, if left alone, the plant will eventually fall to one side due to the weight of the fruit, and a new plant will grow out of the top of the pineapple.
The root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory and as a proteolytic agent. In Medicine, a topical Medication is applied to body surfaces such as the Skin or Mucous membranes for example the Vagina Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces Inflammation. Proteolysis is the directed degradation ( digestion) of Proteins by cellular Enzymes called Proteases or by intramolecular digestion It is traditionally used as an antihelminthic agent in the Philippines. Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic Worms ( Helminths) from the body by either stunning or killing them The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP 
A root decoction is used to treat diarrhea. A decoction is a method of extraction of Herbal or plant material which includes but is not limited to Stems roots bark and Rhizomes Some In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea
Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs. This article is a list of diseases of Pineapples ( Ananas comosus) Mealybug is the common name of insects in Pseudococcidae, a family of unarmored Scale insects found in moist warm climates  The mealybugs are generally found on the surface of pineapples, but can also be found inside the closed blossom cups.  Other diseases include pink disease, bacterial heart rot, and anthracnose. Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different Plant Diseases characterised by broadly similar Symptoms including the
Pineapples, like bananas, are chill-sensitive. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. Therefore, they should not be stored in the refrigerator. They will, however, ripen if left outside of a refrigerator.