Pietro da Cortona, byname of Pietro Berrettini (November 1, 1596- May 16, 1669) was a prolific artist and architect of High Baroque. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Cortona is best known for painting fresco ceilings, a pursuit in which he had ample competition in the Rome of his day, but he was equally adept and masterful with architectural design. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 While an influential contemporary and peer of the giants of the Roman Baroque, his present fame, somewhat undeservedly, does not match the reverence awarded the likes of Caravaggio, Bernini, and Borromini. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (b Bissone, Ticino, September 25, 1599; Rome, August 3,
Berrettini was born to a family of artisans including his uncle Filippo Berrettini, in Cortona, then a town in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Cortona is a town and comune in the Province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence He first apprenticed with Andrea Commodi in Florence. Andrea Commodi (1560 – 1648 was an Italian painter of the early- Baroque period But soon departed for Rome at about 1612, where he joined the studio of Baccio Ciarpi. Baccio Ciarpi (1574-1654 was an Italian painter of the late- Mannerism and early- Baroque style In Rome, he had encouragement from many prominent patrons including the Colonna. The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other leaders According to a biography, his deft copies of Raphael's Roman frescoes brought him to the attention and patronage (1623) of the Sacchetti brothers, Marcello and Giulio Sacchetti, who became respectively cardinal (1626) and papal treasurer during the Barberini papacy. In the Sacchetti orbit, he met Cardinal Francesco Barberini, the nephew of Pope Urban VIII, as well as Cassiano dal Pozzo. Francesco Barberini seniore ( September 23, 1597 - December 10, 1679) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Pope Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588 — 1657 was an Italian scholar and patron of arts
These three men helped him gain a major commission in Rome (1624-1626), a fresco decoration in the newly constructed Bernini church of Santa Bibiana. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Santa Bibiana is a small church in Rome, devoted to St Bibiana. In 1626, the Sacchetti engaged Cortona to paint for them three large canvases of Sacrifice of Polyxena, Triumph of Bacchus, and Rape of the Sabines (the latter, c. 1629), and to paint a series of frescoes in the Villa Sacchetti in Castel Fusano, near Ostia, using a team that included the young Andrea Sacchi. Ostia Antica is a district in the commune of Rome, Italy, five kilometers away from the coast Andrea Sacchi ( November 30 1599 - June 21 1661) was an Italian painter of High Baroque Classicism active in Soon the rising progidy would attract the patronage of the powerful papal Barberini family. The Barberini are a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome. He had already been involved in the fresco decoration of the Palazzo Mattei. The Palazzo Mattei di Giove is the most prominent among a group of Mattei houses that forms the insula Mattei in Rome, Italy, a block of buildings And Cardinal Orsini had commissioned from him an Adoration of the Shepherds (c. 1626) for San Salvatore in Lauro. San Salvatore in Lauro ( St Salvatore at the Laurels) is a Catholic church in central Rome, found in the rione Ponte.
Fresco cycles were numerous in Cortona's Rome; most represented framed episodes imitating canvases such as found in the Sistine Chapel ceiling or in Carraccis' The Loves of the Gods in the Farnese gallery (completed 1601). Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City. Annibale Carracci ( November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. The Loves of the Gods is a massive Fresco cycle completed by Annibale Carracci and his studio in the Palazzo Farnese (now the French Embassy For other palaces with this name see Palazzo Farnese (disambiguation. In 1633, Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) commissioned from Cortona a large fresco painting for the ceiling of their family palace, Completed six years later, the huge Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power marks a watershed in Baroque painting. Pope The Fresco of the Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power is a masterpiece of Pietro da Cortona, filling the large ceiling of the grand salon A putative sketch of the plan, of doubtful authenticity, is exhibited in the hall. The fresco is an illusion with the central field apparently open to the sky and scores of figures seen 'al di sotto in su' apparently coming into the room itself or floating above it. An illusion is a distortion of the senses revealing how the Brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation Illusionistic ceiling painting, which includes the techniques of perspective di sotto in sù and quadratura, is the tradition in Renaissance, It contains endless number of heraldic symbols and subthemes.
Cortona's panegyric trompe l'oeil extavaganzas have lost favor in minimalist times; yet they are precursors of sunny and cherubim infested rococo excesses. Trompe-l'œil, which can also be spelled without the hyphen in English ( French: "trick the eye" tʁɔ̃p lœj is an Art technique involving extremely They contrast starkly with darker renegade naturalism prominent in Caravaggisti, and reminds us that the Baroque style was not monolithic. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome Cortona, like Bernini in sculpture, appears reactionary, patronizing; yet if excellence in art is measured by the ability to match style to intent within the limitations of the medium, then Cortona was triumphant. He was among the first of the fresco painters that dispensed with the architectural masonry of the roof, erasing it away with painted integral architecture and a broad, non-framed vista. While rising heavenward, works like the Barberini Allegory are meant to stagger and humble the visitor, as if he (she) stood over, and not below, a looming abyss of mythic power that threatens to overwhelm the viewer.
By this time, Cortona was recognized among the top artists of his generation, and was elected director of the Academy of St Luke (Rome) during 1634-38. The Accademia di San Luca, (the "Academy of Saint Luke" was an association of artists in Rome founded in 1593 with the directorship of Federico Zuccari, with the
Cortona had been patronized by the Tuscan community in Rome, hence it was not surprising when in 1637, he was asked to paint a series of frescoes for the Palatine Gallery in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance Palace in Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany These were meant to represent the "ages" of silver and gold.  The Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici recalled him in 1641 to paint the 'Bronze Age' and 'Iron Age' frescoes. Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany ( 14 July 1610 &ndash 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670 Intended to represent the four ages of man, they also celebrates to the Medici lineage. Cortona's next decorations for the Pitti were a series of allegorical, stucco framed ceiling frescoes for the grand-ducal apartments, depicting astrological deities such as Jupiter, Mars, and Venus. Pietro left Florence in 1647, and his pupil, Ciro Ferri, completed the cycle by the 1660s. Ciro Ferri ( 1634 - 13 September 1689) was an Italian Baroque sculptor and painter the chief pupil and successor of Pietro 
For a number of years, Cortona was involved for decades in the decoration of the ceiling frescoes in the Oratorian Chiesa Nuova (Santa Maria in Vallicella) in Rome, a work not finished until 1665 . The Oratory of Saint Philip Neri is a congregation of Catholic Priests and Lay-brothers who live together in a community bound together by no formal Santa Maria in Vallicella, also called Chiesa Nuova, is a church in Rome, facing the alley of Corso Vittorio Other frescoes are in Palazzo Pamphilj in Piazza Navona (1651-4). See also Palazzo Doria Pamphilj and Palazzo Doria Pamphilj of Valmontone Palazzo Pamphilj, also spelled Palazzo Pamphili, is a palace
Towards the end of his life he devoted much of his time to architecture, but he published a treatise on painting in 1652 under a pseudonym and in collaboration. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation He refused invitations to both France and Spain. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Cortona and Andrea Sacchi were involved in theoretical controversies regarding the number of figures that were appropriate in a painted work. Andrea Sacchi ( November 30 1599 - June 21 1661) was an Italian painter of High Baroque Classicism active in These arguments were voiced in talks at the Accademia di San Luca, the painter's guild. The Accademia di San Luca, (the "Academy of Saint Luke" was an association of artists in Rome founded in 1593 with the directorship of Federico Zuccari, with the Sacchi argued for few figures, since he felt it was not possible to grant meaningful individuality, a distinct role, to more than a few figures per scene. Cortona, on the other hand, lobbied for an art that could accommodate many subplots to a central concept. In addition, he also likely viewed the possibility of using many human figures in decorative detail or to represent a general concept. Sacchi's position would be reinforced in future years by Nicolas Poussin. Nicolas Poussin (15 June 1594 – 19 November 1665 was a French painter in the classical style Others have seen in this dichotomy, the long-standing debate whether visual art is about theoretical principles and meant to narrate a full story, or a painterly decorative endeavor, meant to delight the senses. Cortona was a director of the Accademia from 1634-1638.
Cortona employed or trained many prominent artists, who then disseminated his grand manner style. Other than Ferri, others that worked in his studio were
|Lazzaro Baldi||1623-1703||Pistoia, moved to Rome||(H)(W)|
|Lorenzo Berrettini (Cortona's nephew)||Florence||(W)|
|Giovanni Ventura Borghesi||1640-1708||Rome||(H)(W)|
|Giovanni Maria Bottala||1613-||Naples||(H)|
|Andrea Camassei||1602-1649||Bevagna, moved to Rome||(W)|
|Guglielmo Cortese (Il Borgognone)||(H)(W)|
|Nicholas Duval||1644-||The Hague||(H)|
|Giacinto Gimignani||1611-1681||Pistoia, moved to Rome||(H)(W)|
|Giovanni Battista Langetti||1635-1676||Genoa||(H)|
|Livio Mehus (Lieven Mehus)||1630-1691||(Active Florence)||(H)(W)|
|Giovanni Battista Natali||1630-1700||(H)|
|Pio Paolino||? -1681||Udine||(H)|
|Giovanni Francesco Romanelli||1617-1662||(H)(W)|
|Pietro Paolo Ubaldini||(H)(W)|
Romanelli and Camassei also trained under Domenichino. Lazzaro Baldi (c 1624-1703 Italian painter of the of the Baroque period active mainly in Rome. Giovanni Ventura Borghesi (c 1640 - May 20, 1708) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active mainly in Rome. Giovanni Maria Bottala (1613-1644 was an Italian painter active in the Baroque period Andrea Camassei (1602-1649 was an Italian painter of the Baroque, who was mainly active in Rome under the patronage of the Barberini. Salvi Castellucci (1608 - 1672 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active mainly in Arezzo. Carlo Cesi (1626-1686 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active mainly in Rome. Giovanni Coli (1636-1691 was an Italian painter from Lucca, active in the Baroque style Guillaume Courtois ( 1628 - June 15, 1679) called "Il Borgognone", was a French painter and etcher the Vincenzo Dandini (1607 - 1675 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active mainly in Florence. Onofrio Gabrieli ( April 2, 1619 - September 26, 1706) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period Giacinto Gimignani (1606 – 1681 was an Italian painter active mainly in Rome, during the Baroque period Filippo Gherardi (1643 - 1704 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period Luca Giordano ( October 18, 1634 &ndash January 12, 1705) was an eclectic peripatetic and influential Italian late Baroque Giovanni Battista Langetti (1625-1676 (also known as Giambattista Langetti was an Italian late- Baroque painter Pietro Lucatelli (c 1630 -after 1690 was an Italian painter active during the Baroque period in Rome. Giovanni Marracci (1637-1703 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period who trained in Rome in the studio of Pietro da Cortona, but worked Livio Mehus ( 1630 - August 7, 1691) was an Flemish painter and engraver of the Baroque period active mainly in Florence. Giovanni Battista Natali was an Italian painter of the late- Baroque period active in his natal city of Piacenza, but also Savona, Lucca Adriano Palladino (c 1610-1680 was an Italian painter of the Baroque period Giovanni Francesco Romanelli (1610-1662 was an Italian painter of the Baroque. Pietro Paolo Baldini (1614?-1684? was an Italian painter of the Baroque period Raffaello Vanni (1590-1657 was an Italian painter of the Baroque. Giovanni Maria Bottalla was one of his assistants on the Barberini Ceiling. Giovanni Maria Bottala (1613-1644 was an Italian painter active in the Baroque period Sources for (W); while sources for (H). Source for MB is Bryan, Michael (1889). in Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves: Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical (Volume II L-Z). York St. #4, Covent Garden, London; Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18, 2007: George Bell and Sons.
Among Cortona's more important architectural projects are the church of Santi Luca e Martina(completed in 1664, the church of the Accademia di San Luca, located in the Roman Forum. Santi Luca e Martina is a church standing amid the ruins of the Roman forum. The Accademia di San Luca, (the "Academy of Saint Luke" was an association of artists in Rome founded in 1593 with the directorship of Federico Zuccari, with the This page refers to the main forum in the center of Rome See Imperial forums or Other forums in Rome (below for other forums in Rome and While Cortona was principe or director of the Accademia from 1634-38, he obtained permission to dig in the crypt of the church, which led the likely mistaken finding of remains attributed to the first century Roman martyr and Saint Martina. This discovery led to further patronage for construction of the church. The layout is almost a Greek cross, with four nearly identical wings extending from the striking central dome. Much of the ground structure is undecorated, above intricately decorated. The overwhelmingly vertical decoration of the facade is granted liveliness by horizontal convexity. In his will, this bachelor called this church, his beloved daughter.
He also renovated the exterior renewal of the ancient Santa Maria della Pace (1656-1667), and the façade (with an unusual loggia) of Santa Maria in Via Lata (appr. Santa Maria della Pace is one of the churches in Rome, not far from Piazza Navona. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear Loggia is the name given to an Architectural feature originally of Italian design which is often a gallery or Corridor generally on the ground Santa Maria in Via Lata is a church on the Via del Corso (the ancient Via Lata) in Rome, Italy. 1660).
Another influential work for its day was the design and decoration of the Villa Pigneto commissioned by the Marchese Sacchetti . The Villa Pigneto or Sacchetti, or also the Casino al Pigneto del Marchese Sacchetti was an architecturally prominent building designed by the Baroque artist This garden palace or casino gathered a variety of features in a novel fashion, including a garden facade with convex arms, and highly decorated niches, and elaborate tiered staircases surrounding a fountain.
Prior to becoming famous as an architect, Pietro drew anatomical plates that would not be engraved and published until a hundred years after his death. The plates in Tabulae anatomicae are now thought to have been started around 1618. The dramatic and highly studied poses effected by the figures are in keeping with the style of other Renaissance Baroque anatomical artists, although nowhere does such an approach find any fuller expression than in these plates.