|Pierre Mendès France|
|Image:Pierre Mendès France's.jpg|
143rd Prime Minister of France
June 18, 1954 – February 23, 1955
|Preceded by||Joseph Laniel|
|Succeeded by||Edgar Faure|
|Born||January 11, 1907|
|Died||October 18, 1982|
Pierre Mendès France (11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of "mixed" Portuguese - Sephardic (Mendes de França) and Ashkenazi Jewish origin . The Prime Minister of France ( Premier ministre français) in Fifth Republic is the functional Head of the government and Council of Ministers Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Joseph Laniel (12 October 1889 - 8 April 1975 was a French conservative politician of the Fourth Republic, who served as Prime Minister for a year from 1953 Edgar Faure (18 August 1908 30 March 1988 was a French politician essayist historian and memoirist Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) The Radical Party ( Parti Radical, Rad also known as Parti radical valoisien) is a liberal and centrist political party in France PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
He was educated at the University of Paris, graduating with a doctorate in law and becoming the youngest member of the Paris Bar association in 1928. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1924 he joined the Radical Socialist Party, the traditional party of the French middle-class centre-left (not to be confused with the mainstream socialist party of the time, the SFIO). Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Radical Party ( Parti Radical, Rad also known as Parti radical valoisien) is a liberal and centrist political party in France The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. The centre-left (or center-left) is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France.
In 1932, Mendès France was elected to the National Assembly as a deputy for the Eure département; he was the Assembly's youngest member. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) Eure is a department in the north of France named after the Eure River. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division His ability was recognized at once, and, in the 1936 Popular Front government of Léon Blum, he was appointed Secretary of State for Finance. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Popular Front (French Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements including the French Communist Party (PCF the Socialist André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 30 March 1950 was a French politician usually identified with the moderate left and three times the Prime Minister of France. When World War II broke out, he joined the French Air Force. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The French Air Force ( French: Armée de l'Air (ALA literally Air Army) is the Air force of the French Armed Forces. After the French surrender to Nazi Germany, he was arrested by the Vichy government authorities and sentenced to six years' imprisonment on a fallacious charge of desertion, but, in 1942, he escaped and succeeded in reaching Britain, where he joined the Free French forces of Charles de Gaulle. In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres FFL) were French fighters in World War II who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French
After serving with the Free French Air Force, Mendès France was sent by de Gaulle as his Finance Commissioner in Algeria, and then headed the French delegation to the 1944 monetary conference at Bretton Woods. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, commonly known as Bretton Woods conference, was a gathering of 730 Delegates from all 44 Allied Bretton Woods is an area within the town of Carroll, New Hampshire, USA, whose principal points of interest are three leisure and recreation facilities When de Gaulle returned to liberated Paris in September 1944, he appointed Mendès France as Minister for National Economy in the provisional government. The Liberation of Paris' (also known as Battle for Paris) took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the surrender of
But Mendès France soon fell out with the Finance Minister, René Pleven, when he favoured state regulation of wages and prices to control inflation (while Pleven favoured free market policies). René Pleven (15 April 1901 – 13 January 1993 was a notable French politician of the Fourth Republic. Wage regulation refers to attempts by a government to regulate wages paid to citizens In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers When de Gaulle sided with Pleven, Mendès France resigned. Nonetheless, de Gaulle valued Mendès France's abilities, and appointed him as a director of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and as French representative in the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD is one of five institutions that comprise the World Bank Group. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation
In 1947, when normal French politics resumed under the Fourth Republic, Mendès France was re-elected to the National Assembly. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The founding of the Fourth Republic (1944-47 See also Three Parties, Third Force (France European Unity The creation of the He first tried to form a government in June 1953, but was unable to gain the numbers in the Assembly. Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. From 1950 he had been a consistent opponent of French colonialism, and, by 1954, France was becoming hopelessly embroiled in major colonial conflicts: the First Indochina War and the Algerian War of Independence. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War, the The Anti-French War, the Franco-Vietnamese War, the Franco-Vietminh War, The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from When French forces were defeated by the Vietnamese Communists at Dien Bien Phu in June 1954, the government of Joseph Laniel resigned, and Mendès France formed a government. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ was the climactic battle of the First Indochina War between French Union Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Joseph Laniel (12 October 1889 - 8 April 1975 was a French conservative politician of the Fourth Republic, who served as Prime Minister for a year from 1953 Among his ministers was the young François Mitterrand. François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist
Mendès France immediately negotiated an armistice with Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese Communist leader. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name There was, he said, no choice but total withdrawal from Indochina, and the Assembly supported him by 471 votes to 14. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit Nevertheless, nationalist opinion was shocked, and Roman Catholic opinion opposed abandoning the Vietnamese believers to Communism. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation A tirade of abuse, much of it anti-Semitic, was directed at Mendès France. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Jean-Marie Le Pen, then a Poujadist member of the Assembly, described his "patriotic, almost physical repulsion" for Mendès France. Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, Brittany, France) is a French far-right Nationalist Robert Poujade is an unrelated French politician Pierre Poujade ( December 1, 1920 – August 27, 2003 Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country
Undeterred, Mendès France next came to an agreement with Habib Bourguiba, the nationalist leader in Tunisia, for the independence of that colony by 1956, and began discussions with the nationalist leaders in Morocco for a French withdrawal. Habib Bourguiba (حبيب بورقيبة Ḥabīb Būrqība ( August 3, 1903 &ndash April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa He also favoured concessions to the nationalists in Algeria, but the fact that there were a million Pied-noirs there meant that there could be no easy way of out that situation. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje The future mercenary Bob Denard was convicted in 1954 to fourteen years of jail for an assassination attempt against him . "Colonel" Bob Denard ( April 7, 1929 &ndash October 13, 2007) born Gilbert Bourgeaud, was one of the most famous and
Mendès France hoped that the Radical Party would become the party of modernisation and renewal in French politics, by-passing the SFIO, a party mired in nostalgia for the 1930s. An advocate of greater European integration, he helped bring about the formation of the Western European Union, and proposed far-reaching economic reform. European integration is the process of political legal economic (and in some cases social and cultural integration of European states including some states that are partly in Europe The Western European Union ( WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 He also favoured defence co-operation with other European countries, but the National Assembly rejected the proposal for a European Defence Community, mainly because of misgivings about Germany's participation. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
His cabinet fell in February 1955. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) In 1956 he served as Minister of State in the cabinet headed by the SFIO leader Guy Mollet, but resigned over the issue of Algeria, which was coming to dominate French politics. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975 was a French Socialist politician His split over Algeria with Edgar Faure, leader of the conservative wing of the Radical Party, led to Mendès France resigning as party leader in 1957. Edgar Faure (18 August 1908 30 March 1988 was a French politician essayist historian and memoirist Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar)
Like most of the French left, Mendès France opposed de Gaulle's seizure of power in May 1958, when the mounting crisis in Algeria brought about a breakdown in the Fourth Republic system and the creation of a Fifth Republic. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on He led the Union of Democratic Forces, an anti-Gaullist group, but, in the November 1958 elections he lost his seat in the Assembly. Gaullism (Gaullisme is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1959 he was expelled from the Radical Party, whose majority faction supported de Gaulle. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Mendès France then joined the Unified Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Unifié or PSU), a small party of the intellectual left. The Unified Socialist Party ( French: Parti Socialiste Unifié, PSU) was a socialist Political party in France, founded In 1967, he returned to the Assembly as a PSU member for the Isère, but again lost his seat in de Gaulle's 1968 landslide election victory. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Isère ( Arpitan: Isera, Occitan: Isèra) is a department, in the Rhône-Alpes ( Rôno-Arpes in Arpitan Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In accordance with the PSU, Mendès France expressed sympathy for the sentiments and actions of the student rioters during the "events" (les évènements) of May 1968, a position unusual for a politician of his age and status. For other events in May 1968 see 1968. In an unorthodox move, de Gaulle's socialist opponent, Gaston Defferre, had designated him Prime Minister-elect prior to the election; but to no avail for either. Gaston Defferre ( September 14, 1910 - May 7, 1986, Marseille) was a French socialist politician When Mitterrand formed a new Socialist Party in 1971, Mendès France supported him, but did not attempt another political come-back. The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar.
Shortly before Mendès France died in 1982, he witnessed the coming to office of Socialist President François Mitterrand. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist
Maurice Couve de Murville
|Free French Commissioner for Finance|
|Minister of National Economy|
|Prime Minister of France|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Minister of State|