|Phan Boi Chau|
|Quốc Ngữ||Phan Bội Châu|
Phan Bội Châu (1867-1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese twentieth century nationalism. The Vietnamese alphabet has the following 29 letters in collating order Description The Vietnamese alphabet called Chữ Quốc Ngữ Chữ Nôm ( IPA: /cɨ3ˀ5 nom33/ chữ Nôm in Unicode: 字[[wikt 喃|喃]]/ 𡨸 喃/ 𡦂 喃 chữ Nôm in Unicode Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation In 1903 he formed a revolutionary organization called the Reformation Society (Duy Tân Hội). Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting
From 1905 to 1908 he lived in Japan where he wrote political tracts calling for the liberation of Vietnam from the French colonial regime. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. After being forced to leave Japan, he moved to China where he was influenced by Sun Yat-Sen. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often He formed a new group called the Vietnamese Restoration League (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi), modeled after Sun Yat-Sen's republican party. In 1925, French agents seized him in Shanghai. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million He was convicted of treason and spent the rest of his life under house arrest in Huế. ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam.
Phan was born as Phan Van San on December 26, 1867 in the village of Sa Nam, in Nam Dan district of the northern central province of Nghe An. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Nam Dan (Nam Đàn is a district (''huyện'' of Nghe An Province in the North Central Coastal region of Vietnam. Nghệ An ( Hán Tự: 乂[[wikt 安|安]] is the largest province in the North Central Coast of Vietnam.  His father Phan Van Pho descended from a poor family of scholars, who had always excelled academically. Sa Nam was the village of his mother Nguyen Thi Nhan, and the family moved to Dan Nhiem, the home village of his father, also in Nam Dan, when San was aged three. Until San was five, his tu tai father was teaching in other villages, so his mother raised him and taught him to recite passages from the Classic of Poetry, resulting in his absorption of Confucian ethics from an early age. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B 
Aged five, San's father had returned home and he began to take his education in his father's classes, where is took him only three days to memorise all of the Three-Character Classic, a canonical text in Chinese classics.  As a result of his fast learning, his father decided to move him onto further Confucian texts such as the Analects, which he practiced on banana leaves. In his autobiography, San admitted that he did not understand the meaning of the text in great detail at this age, but at the age of six, he was skillful enough to write a variant of the Analects that parodied his classmates. This earnt him a caning from his father. 
At the time, the central region part of Vietnam where San lived was still under the sovereignty of Emperor Tu Duc, but the southern part of the country had gradually been colonised in the 1860s and turned into the colony of Cochinchina. Emperor Tự Đức ( Hán tự: 嗣[[wikt 德|德]] ( 22 September 1829 – 17 July 1883) Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm was The colonization of Cochinchina – which was the European name for the southern part of Vietnam – occurred in two phases between 1858 and 1867 Cochin China is also a type of domestic fowl. Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below (known locally as Nam In 1874, an attack on Hanoi forced Tu Duc to sign a treaty to open up the Red River for French trade. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam  In Nam Dan district, a Binh Tay (Put Down the French) movement sprung among the local scholar-gentry, and San responded at the age of seven by playing Binh Tay with his classmates, using "guns" of bamboo tubes and lychee bullets. The Lychee ( Litchi chinensis) also spelled Litchi (the US FDA spelling or Laichi and Lichu, Chinese: 荔枝  the unrest was enough to prompt the imperial court to bring in troops to quell the opposition to Hue's deal with the French.  San's family was not affected by the crackdown, but the movement had a deep impact on him.  Later in life, he recollected on his youth, noting that "I was endowed with a fiery spirit. From the days when I was a small child. . . every time I read the stories of those in the past who were ready to die for the righteous cause, tears would come running from my eyes, soaking the books. "
At the age of thirteen, San's father sent him to another teacher with a better reputation. Since the family lacked the money for San to travel far away, he studied with a local cu nhan graduate who was able to borrow a range of books from wealthier families in the area.  In 1883, the French finished the colonisation of Vietnam by conquering the northern part of Vietnam, and the country was incorporated into French Indochina. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit  San drafted an appeal for "putting down the French and retrieving the North" (Binh Tay thu Bac). He posted the anonymous appeals at intervals on the main road calling for the formation of local resistance units, but there were no responses and the proclamations were soon torn down. San realised that nobody would listen to a person without the social status ensured by passing mandarin examinations. 
In 1884, his mother died and his aging father was growing weaker, forcing San to take on more of the teaching responsibility to help support one another.  In 1885, the Can Vuong movement began its uprising against French rule, hoping to install the boy Emperor Ham Nghi as the ruler of an independent Vietnam by expelling colonial forces. Emperor Hàm Nghi ( Hán tự: 咸[[wikt 宜|宜]] 帝) Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch (22 July 1872 - 14 January 1943 at the "Purple Forbidden City" Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The imperial entourage fled the palace in Hue and attempted to start the uprising from a military base in Nghe An.  The scholar gentry of the province rose up, and San attempted to rally approximately sixty classmates who were prospective examination candidates to join in the uprising. San called his new unit the "army of Loyalist Examinatin Candidates" (Si tu Can Vuong Doi) and convinced an older cu nhan graduate to act as its commander. They had just began to collect money and raw materials for making their ad hoc weapons when a French patrol attacked the village and scattered the students. San's father had to get San to seek out their leader to have the membership list destroyed to avoid French retributions. 
With his father growing weaker, San decided to keep a low profile to avoid trouble with the French colonials so that as the only son, he could support his family. He did so by teaching and writing, while still continually preparing for examinations.  During this time he quietly acquired books on military strategy by the likes of Sun Tzu, Dao Duy Tu, the military strategist of the Nguyễn Lords who stopped the Trinh lords with a defensive wall, and Trần Hưng Đạo, the military commander of the Trần Dynasty who repelled Mongol invasions of Vietnam in the 13th century. Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the The Nguyễn Lords ( Vietnamese: Chúa Nguyễn; 1558 - 1775 were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam (then called Đàng Trong) The Trịnh Lords (Chúa Trịnh Chu nom: 主[[wikt 鄭|鄭]] 1545-1787 were a series of rulers of Vietnam who controlled the powers of government while leaving Trần Hưng Đạo (1228&ndash1300 陳[[wikt 興|興]] 道) was the Vietnamese military Grand Commander of Thang Long during the Trần The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that For other articles of the same title see Battle of Bạch Đằng.  San also cultivated a small number of his students who he identified as having abundant pro-independence sentiments. He enthusiastically received visits from Can Vuong visitors and passed on their tales to his students, particularly those concerning Phan Dinh Phung, who led the Can Vuong effort. Phan Đình Phùng (1847 &ndash January 21 1896 was a Vietnamese revolutionary who led rebel armies against French colonial 
At the age of 22, Phan married to Thai' Thi. Huye^n, who was also from the same village. The union had long been arranged by their parents, who were acquaintances. Phan was the only son in the family, and his wife initially did not bear him any children, so she arranged for him to be married to a second wife so that the family line could be continued. This practice was not uncommon in Confucian families of the time. His second wife bore him a son and daughter, and his first wife later bore him another son. The two women were reported to be on good terms. 
When Phan passed the regional examinations in 1900, he was eligible to become a public servant. However, Phan had no intention of pursuing such a career and only wanted the qualification to increase his gravitas in rallying anti-colonial action. With his father dying in the same year, Phan had no more family obligations and decided to travel abroad to pursue his revolutionary activities. He served divorce papers on his wife so she would avoid retribution from colonial authorities for his activities. 
Phan only met his wife once after their nominal divorce, which was when he was pardoned and released from Hoa Lo prison more than two decades later. The Hoa Lo Prison (Hỏa Lò later known to American prisoners of war as the "Hanoi Hilton", was a Prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam He was then sent to a loose form of house arrest in Hue and the train stopped at Vinh in Nghe An on the way. Hue is one of the main properties of a Color described with names such as " Red " " Yellow " etc Vinh is a city in Vietnam. It is located in the northern half of the country and is the capital of Nghệ An Province. His wife said "I am very happy. From now on, my only wish is that you will hold to your initial aspiration. Do whatever you like, and do not worry about your wife and children. " While Phan was living out his final years, his children and their families came to visit him, but never his wife. When she died, she instructed her children not to tell Phan so as to not distract him. 
He started his revolutionary career in 1900 after his father died. He spent the next five years living in Huế or travelling the country trying to organise remnants of the Can Vuong movement and sympathisers with the cause.
In 1905, the Vietnam Modernization Association agreed to send Phan Bội Châu to Japan to get Japanese military assistance or weapons.
He soon realised that Japanese military aid would not be possible, and turned his attention to using Japan as a base to train and educate young Vietnamese students, by starting the Dong Du (Visit the East) Society. The number of Vietnamese students sent to Japan for training peaked at 200 in 1908. However, after pressure by the French government, Japan declared Phan to be persona non grata and expelled him in 1909. Persona non grata ( Latin, Plural: personae non gratae, also abbreviated PNG literally meaning "an unwelcome person" is a term used
In 1909, after being deported from Japan, Phan Bội Châu went to Hong Kong with Cường Để. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Cường Để There, he made plans to raise money and bring to Thailand the Vietnamese students who had studied in Japan, but had now been dispersed. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj He had previously had the foresight to establish a base in Thailand.
But instead he received news of an armed uprising in Vietnam, led by Hoang Ha Tam. So he assembled his comrades in Hong Kong, and sent two people to Japan to buy 500 of the Arisaka Type 30 Rifles. The Type 30 Rifle Arisaka (三十年式歩兵銃 Sanjyuu-nen-shiki hoheijyuu) was a Bolt-action rifle But after buying the weapons to support the uprising with, they could not afford to hire a ship to smuggle the rifles into Vietnam. So in July, Phan Bội Châu went to Thailand to ask their government to help with the smuggling. The foreign minister refused, since it would be a major diplomatic incident with France if it leaked out. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. So he had to return to Hong Kong and wait for the money needed for smuggling. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
Money never arrived, and news arrived that his fundraising organiser was dead, and that the uprising was going badly. So Phan Bội Châu donated 480 of the rifles to the forces of Sun Yat-Sen. Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often He then tried to smuggle the remaining 20 of the rifles via Thailand, disguised as first-class luggage. This attempt failed.
He spent the first half of 1910 begging on the street, selling his books, and spending all his money getting drunk at the pub. This went on until he met a kind old woman named Chau Po-Lin, who took the entire movement into her house. Funds arrived and he planned to move to Thailand.
He arrived in Thailand in November 1910, and all his students and followers who could, took up farming there.
The Wuchang Uprising occurred in China on 10 October 1911. The Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội, sometimes known simply as Quang Phuc Hoi ( Vietnamese: Vietnam Restoration League) was a nationalist republican militant The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It quickly spread and declared itself the Republic of China. This greatly inspired Phan Bội Châu, since he had many friends among the Chinese revolutionaries. He thought this new regime would fix all that was wrong with the old China, and would unite with Japan to defeat the Europeans and build a strong Asia.
Leaving the farm in the hands of more than 50 of his comrades, he went to China to visit his friends there.
The old Vietnam Modernization Association had become worthless, with all its members scattered. A new organization needed to be formed, with a new agenda inspired by the Chinese revolution. A large meeting was held in late March 1912. They agreed to form a new group, the Vietnam Restoration League. Cường Để was made president and chairman, Phan Bội Châu was made vice-president. Cường Để
People voted to campaign for democracy instead of a monarchy, despite strong objections of people from southern Vietnam. The organization's sole purpose was to kick out the Westerners and establish a democratic republic. Unfortunately, they had no funds and had great difficulty getting revolutionary leaflets into Vietnam. Also, the new Chinese government was too busy and would not help the movement with anything other than allowing Vietnamese comrades into its education and training system.
The Vietnam Restoration League came up with a proposed flag design. Previously, Vietnam never had a flag, only banners to represent royalty. Their flag idea had 5 five-pointed stars, arranged in a square with a star in the middle. It symbolized the five regions of Vietnam. The national flag had red stars on a yellow background, and the military flag had a red background with white stars. The yellow represented their race, the red represented fire which represented their location to the south of China (see I Ching), and the white represented the metal of their weapons. The I Ching ( Wade-Giles) or “Yì Jīng” ( Pinyin) also called “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes” is one of the oldest of the
They also created a book on military strategy and regulations for their army. They even printed their own currency, which they agreed to honour when, or rather "if", they attained power. If they won they could easily pay people back, and if they lost it wouldn't cost them anything. The "money" was printed in a similar way to the Chinese paper notes.
They also formed an organisation called the "Association for the Revitalization of China". It was dedicated to getting support from China for independence movements in smaller Asian countries, starting with Vietnam of course. Using a medical centre as a front, and a fancy office they managed to create the false impression that they were a huge successful organisation. They got hundreds of people to join, and sold a huge amount of their made-up currency. They changed some of the leadership positions of the "Vietnam Restoration League" to allow the Chinese to take part.
However, they could not get enough money to buy more weapons until they had proved themselves with a military attack of some sort. Everyone said they needed something big and explosive because the people of Vietnam were short on patience. So Phan Bội Châu sent five people with a few grenades to the three regions of Vietnam. The grenades they sent to the North were unfortunately used on a minor target, the governor of Thái Bình province, two officers and a French restauranteur. They were meant to be used at the mandarin examinations when all the officials would be gathered. Those they sent to the centre via Thailand did not make it to Vietnam at the time, and they had to throw their grenades away. Those that they sent to the south were wasted on some Vietnamese traitors.
The attacks in the North enraged the French, and they demanded that Phan Bội Châu be arrested, but the Chinese government refused. But the value of Phan Bội Châu's special currency dropped dramatically after the failure.
They had no money, so they decided to trick a pharmaceutical company in Japan into providing lots of expensive drugs for them on credit. They then closed down their medical centre and didn't pay their debt. But their membership slowly dwindled, and the difficulty of getting into Vietnam increased. And changes in the government of their Chinese province made things difficult. And they had to close their office and send their comrades away.
By 1914, Phan Bội Châu was arrested by the Chinese authorities and thrown in jail on suspicion of helping rival Chinese authorities. Fortunately the intervention of the Chinese minister for the army, stopped them from killing him or handing him over to the French. But he was kept in prison for almost four years until 1917. In prison he wrote many biographies, including his own, and other books.
World War I began shortly thereafter. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The country remained an enthusiastic member of the French Empire, and many Vietnamese fought in World War I (see Vietnamese Expeditionary Force). France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Some 50,000 Vietnamese troops and 50,000 Vietnamese workers were sent to Europe to fight for France in the war, and thousands lost their lives at Somme and Picardy, near the Belgian coast and many more in Middle East. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the Allied Powers, primarily the British and the Russians on the one hand and the Both Vietnamese victories and losses on World War I battlefields contribute significantly to Vietnam's national identity. At the time it was referred to Vietnam's 'Baptism of Fire'. Over 30,000 Vietnamese died during the conflict and 60,000 were wounded. The Vietnamese also endured additional heavy taxes to help pay for France's war efforts. Numerous anti-colonial revolts occurred in Vietnam during the war, all easily suppressed by the French. In May 1916, the sixteen-year-old king, Duy Tân, escaped from his palace in order to take part in an uprising of Vietnamese troops organized by Thái Phiên and Trần Cao Vân. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Emperor Duy Tân ( Hán tự: 維[[wikt 新|新]] Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San (14 August 1899 - 25 December 1945 was a boy Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty Thai Phien (1882 – 1916 was a Vietnamese scholar born in Danang who led the abortive rebellion against French Authorities (4 May 1916 initiated by Association for Recovering The French were informed of the plan and the leaders arrested and executed. Duy Tân was deposed and exiled to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean. Réunion ( French: Réunion or formally La Réunion; previously Île Bourbon) is an island located in the Indian Ocean, east of The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface One of the most effective uprisings during this period was in the northern Vietnamese province of Thái Nguyên. Thái Nguyên is a city and municipality in Vietnam. It is the capital of the Thái Nguyên Province, in northeastern Vietnam Some 300 Vietnamese soldiers revolted and released 200 political prisoners, whom, in addition to several hundred local people, they armed. The rebels held the town of Thái Nguyên for several days, hoping for help from Chinese nationalists. None arrived, however, and the French retook the town and hunted down most of the rebels.
While he was in prison, he organised some of his comrades to meet with the German government in Thailand. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. They donated a large amount of money and promised more if a spectacular action could be done in Vietnam against the French. The comrades attempted an action but failed completely, wasting all the money.
After his release, Phan Bội Châu travelled to Beijing and to Japan, and then to various parts of China trying to get back into Vietnam. When he eventually got to the border of Yunnan Province and Vietnam, he discovered that World War I was over and his plans of using it to help defeat the French were hopeless. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
He wandered around China for years after this without accomplishing anything significant. He pondered collaborating with the French, who were now ruled by the Socialist Party (France), and he wrote a booklet about why collaboration with the French would be good. The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France. He later changed his mind and blamed this thinking on Phan Ba Ngoc, who was assassinated by one of Phan Bội Châu's supporters for being a collaborator with the French.
At the start of 1921, Phan Bội Châu studied Socialism and the Soviet Union in the hope of gaining assistance from the Soviet Union or socialist groups. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 He translated a book called "An Account of the Russian Revolution", by Fuse Katsuji into Chinese. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them He then went to Beijing to meet with Soviet representatives, G. N. Voitinskii and Mr Lap. Mr Lap said that the Soviet Union would educate, train and pay for, any Vietnamese students Phan Bội Châu wanted to send, provided they would engage in social revolution and teach socialism in Vietnam afterwards. Mr Lap was also keen to hear more about the political situation in Vietnam, since Phan Bội Châu was the first Vietnamese revolutionary to come into contact with them. Lap requested that Phan Bội Châu write a book in English about the situation. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Unfortunately, Phan Bội Châu couldn't speak English and so was unable to do so.
Phan Bội Châu wrote of the Russians: "One thing I cannot forget is how dignified, courteous, and sincere the Russians appeared to me. Their language and their expression was at times calm, at times vigorous. "
On December 11 (or November 11?), 1924, Hồ Chí Minh returned from Moscow to Canton. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city Hồ Chí Minh and Phan Bội Châu corresponded several times about the program of a new organisation Phan Bội Châu was trying to start up and other such things. Phan Bội Châu had been a friend of Hồ's father and had known Hồ when he was a child. They were interested in meeting each other again, but never got a chance.
In 1925, Phan Bội Châu arrived in Shanghai on what he thought was a short trip on behalf of his movement. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million But as soon as he arrived he was arrested by French agents and transported back to Hanoi. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Phan Bội Châu wrote about this event:
When he was transported back to Hanoi, he was held in Hỏa Lò prison. The Hoa Lo Prison (Hỏa Lò later known to American prisoners of war as the "Hanoi Hilton", was a Prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam At first, the French authorities did not release his real name, in order to avoid public disturbances. But it quickly leaked out who he was. A criminal trial followed, with all the charges going back to 1913 when he had been sentenced to death in absentia. The charges included incitement to murder and supplying an offensive weapon used to commit murder in two incidents, which had resulted in the death of a Vietnamese governor on April 12, 1913, and two French majors on April 28, 1913. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
In the end the court sentenced Phan Bội Châu to penal servitude for life. Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of Unfree labour. The term may refer to two different notions labour as a form of punishment and labour as a form of occupation He was released from prison on December 24, 1925 by Governor General Alexandre Varenne, in response to huge public protests. Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was placed under house arrest in a house in Huế where Nguyen Ba Trac lived. Nguyen Ba Trac was a former member of the Ðông-Du movement who had become an active collaborator with the French. Guards kept the house under surveillance, so visits by his admirers were a bit inhibited. More public protests against his house arrest caused the authorities to allow him to move to a house which had been organised by his supporters. It was a thatched house divided into three sections and had a medium-sized garden. Here he was able to meet his supporters, his children and his grandchildren.
In 1926, when Phan Chu Trinh died, Phan Bội Châu presided over a memorial service for him in Huế. Phan Chu Trinh
Phan Bội Châu spent his last fifteen years living a quiet life in Huế. He would often relax by taking boat trips on the Sông Hương (Fragrance River). The Perfume River ( Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang Hán nôm: 香江 is a river that crosses the capital city of Huế, in the central He died on October 29, 1940, about a month after Japan invaded northern Vietnam. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The, also known as the Vietnam Expedition, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade China and prevent