|Comune di Perugia|
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Perugia in Italy
|Elevation||493 m (1,617 ft)|
|Area||449. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune The Province of Perugia (Provincia di Perugia is the larger of the two provinces in the Umbria region of Italy, comprising two-thirds of both the area 92 km² (174 sq mi)|
|Population (as of 2007)|
|- Density||361/km² (935/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET, UTC+1|
|Patron||St. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St. Lawrence|
|- Day||29 January|
Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Here are a list of area codes in Italy. All numbers here begin with the country code (0039 A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a Comune; for other Administrative Saint Constantius (also known as Costantius Constance or Costanzo (d Saint Herculanus (Sant' Ercolano of Perugia (d 549 was a Bishop of Perugia and is Patron saint of that city Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains The Province of Perugia (Provincia di Perugia is the larger of the two provinces in the Umbria region of Italy, comprising two-thirds of both the area The city symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. The griffin is a Legendary creature with the body of a Lion and the head and often wings of an Eagle.
Perugia is a notable artistic center of Italy. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Perugia. Pietro Perugino (1446–1524 was the leading painter of the Umbrian school who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria.  Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city) and one fresco. Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Bernardino di Betto, called Pintoricchio or Pinturicchio (1454 &ndash 1513 was an Italian painter of the Renaissance Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi ( 1512 - December 30, 1572) was an Italian architect from Perugia, known throughout Europe for his distinctive style based on
Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria; it was first mentioned in Q. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan league by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. History and Geography The Umbri are one of the oldest races of indigenous people in Italy ( Pliny, Natural History Vol 3 The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Etruria &mdash usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia &mdash was a region of Central Italy, located in an area Quintus Fabius Pictor (c 254 BC -? was one of the earliest Roman Historians and considered the first of the Annalists. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus (or Rullus) son of Marcus, of the Patrician Fabii of Ancient Rome, was five times Consul At that time a thirty-year indutia (truce) was agreed upon; however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was reduced, with Vulsinii and Arretium (Arezzo), to seek for peace in the following year. A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century involving Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in 
In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41-40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, and its senators sent to their death. The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western Lucius Antonius may refer to Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony, the brother of Mark Antony Lucius Antonius (grandson of Mark Antony Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found in and around the city.  The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno— the massive Etruscan terrace-walls, naturally, can hardly have suffered at all— and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whomever chose. In ancient Roman religion and Hellenic neopaganism, Vulcan is the god of beneficial and hindering fire including the fire of Volcanoes He is also In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer It must have been rebuilt almost at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusta sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but it did not become a colonia, until 251-253 AD, when it was resettled as Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, under the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus. A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August 253 was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253 in a joint rule with his son Volusianus. 
It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege, apparently after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Totila (died Jul 1 552) was king of the Ostrogoths from 541 until his death Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Saint Herculanus (Sant' Ercolano of Perugia (d 549 was a Bishop of Perugia and is Patron saint of that city  Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be flayed and beheaded. Flaying is the removal of Skin from the Body. Generally an attempt is made to keep the removed portion of skin intact St. Herculanus (Sant'Ercolano) later became the city's patron saint. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members 
In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Tuscia is a historical region of Italy that comprised the southern territories under Etruscan influence  In the ninth century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes; but by the eleventh century its commune was asserting itself, and for many centuries the city continued to maintain an independent life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities— Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Siena, Arezzo, etc. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic Administrative division of both provinces and regions and may be properly approximated in Foligno, (Latin Fulginiae Fulginium) is an ancient town of Italy in the Province of Perugia in east central Umbria, on the Topino river Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria For the festival in South Carolina see Spoleto Festival USA. Spoleto ( Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Todi is a town and Comune (municipality of the Province of Perugia ( Umbria) in central Italy. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city; afterward Pope Innocent III, whose major aim was to give state dignity to the dominions having been constituting the patrimony of St. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the imperial statement and recognized the established civic practices having the force of law. Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January The expression Patrimonium Sancti Petri, or shorter Patrimonium Petri, meaning 'Patrimony of (Saint Peter' originally designated the landed possessions and revenues of 
On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those which elected Honorius III (1216), Clement IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), and Clement V (1305); the papal presence was characterized by a pacificatory rule between the internal rivalries. A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor Pope Honorius III (1148 &ndash March 18 1227) born Cencio, was Pope from 1216 to 1227 Pope Clement IV ( Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, November 23, year ca 1195 &ndash November 29, 1268 in Viterbo) born Gui Faucoi Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de  But Perugia had no mind simply to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. In the other hand side by side with the thirteenth-century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, and Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines. The Palazzo dei Priori Perugia is among the most renowned civic structures built by Italian communes of Central Italy during the High Middle Ages to house their city The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting respectively the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy However this dominant tendency was rather an anti-Germanic and Italian political strategy.  The Angevin presence in Italy appeared offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei Priori. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied Saint Louis of Toulouse (February 1274 &ndash August 19, 1297) was a cadet of the royal French House of Anjou who was made a Catholic The Palazzo dei Priori Perugia is among the most renowned civic structures built by Italian communes of Central Italy during the High Middle Ages to house their city At the half of the 14th century Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a renowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support. Bartolus de Saxoferrato (Italian Bartolo da Sassoferrato; 1313 &ndash July 13 1357) was an Italian law professor and one of the most prominent continental  In 1347, at the time of Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise in reviving the Roman republic, Perugia sent ten ambassadors to pay him honour; and, when papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance, which broke into open warfare with Pope Urban V in 1369; in 1370 the noble party reached an agreement signing the treaty of Bologna and Perugia was forced to accept a papal legate; however the vicar-general of the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot of Marmoutier and nephew of Gregory IX, was expelled by a popular uprising in 1375, and his fortification of Porta Sole was razed to the ground. Cola di Rienzo or di Rienzi ( c 1313 – October 8, 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader Tribune Blessed Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Gérard du Puy (died February 14 1389 was a French cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI. Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August 
Civic peace was constantly disturbed in the fourteenth century by struggles between the party representing the people (Raspanti) and the nobles (Beccherini). After the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who had made himself lord of Perugia, the city became a pawn in the Italian Wars, passing to Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), to Pope Boniface IX (1403), and to Ladislas of Naples (1408-14) before it settled into a period of sound governance under the Signoria of the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416-24), who reached a concordance with the Papacy. Biordo Michelotti (1352 &ndash March 10 1398) was an Italian Condottiero, who was lord of Perugia and commander-in-chief of the Gian Galeazzo Visconti (November 1351 – September 3, 1402) son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca di Savoia, was the first Duke of Milan Pope Boniface IX (1356 &ndash October 1, 1404) born Piero Tomacelli, was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November Ladislas the Magnanimous (also spelled Ladislaus; July 14, 1376 / February 11, 1377 &ndash August 6 A Signoria (from Signore or Lord) was an abstract noun meaning (roughly 'government governing authority de facto sovereignty lordship in many of the Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Braccio da Montone, born Andrea Fortebracci, and also known as Braccio Fortebraccio ( 1 July 1368 &ndash 5 June 1424) was Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500.  Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1540 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges. Gian Paolo Baglioni (c 1470 - June 1520 was an Italian condottiero and lord of Perugia. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Pier Luigi Farnese ( November 19, 1503 - September 10, 1547) was the first Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, to designs of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, born Antonio Cordiani ( April 12, 1484 - August 3, 1546) was an Italian architect active "
In 1797, the city was conquered by French troops. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On 4 February 1798, the Tiberina Republic was formed, with Perugia as capital, and the French tricolour as flag. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The National flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau français,and in military parlance les couleurs In 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Roman Republic (Repubblica Romana was proclaimed on February 15, 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded
In 1832, 1838, 1854 and 1997 Perugia was visited by earthquakes; Following the collapse of the Roman republic of 1848-49, when the Rocca was in part demolished, in May 1849 it was seized by the Austrians. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian See also Roman Republic, Roman Republic (18th century The Roman Republic was a short-lived (four months state established on February 8 In June 1859 the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority of the Pope and established a provisional government but the insurrection was bloodily defeated by Pius IX's troops. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878  In September 1860 the city was finally united, along with the rest of Umbria, to the Kingdom of Italy. Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom
Perugia has become famous for chocolate, mostly because of a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci (kisses) are widely exported. Chocolate ( pronounced or /-ˈələt/ comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical Cacao tree Perugina is an Italian Confectionery company based in Perugia, Italy. Perugina is an Italian Confectionery company based in Perugia, Italy.  Perugian chocolate is very popular in Italy, and the city hosts a chocolate festival every October. 
Perugia also hosts one of Europe's largest jazz festivals in early July.
In July 2007, Perugia hosted the International IUGG Assembly, a four-yearly event that is one of the largest gatherings of Earth scientists.
Perugia today hosts two main universities, the ancient Università degli Studi and the Foreigners University (Università per Stranieri). University of Perugia ( Italian Università degli Studi di Perugia) is a public-owned university based in Perugia, Italy. The University for Foreigners Perugia (Università per Stranieri di Perugia is a university located in Perugia, Italy. Stranieri serves as an Italian language and culture school for students from all over the world.  Other educational institutions are the Perugia Fine Arts Academy "Pietro Vannucci" (founded in 1573), the Perugia Music Conservatory for the study of classical music, and the RAI Public Broadcasting School of Radio-Television Journalism.  The city is also host to the Umbra Institute, an accredited university program for American students studying abroad.  The Università dei Sapori (University of Tastes), a National centre for Vocational Education and Training in Food, is located in the city as well. 
The comune includes the frazioni of Bagnaia, Bosco, Capanne, Casa del Diavolo, Castel del Piano, Cenerente, Civitella Benazzone, Civitella d'Arna, Collestrada, Colle Umberto I, Cordigliano, Colombella, Farneto, Ferro di Cavallo, Fontignano, Fratticiola Selvatica, La Bruna, La Cinella, Lacugnano, Lidarno, Migiana di Monte Tezio, Monte Bagnolo, Monte Corneo, Montelaguardia, Monte Petriolo, Mugnano, Olmo, Parlesca, Pianello, Piccione, Pila, Pilonico Materno, Ponte della Pietra, Poggio delle Corti, Ponte Felcino, Ponte Pattoli, Ponte Rio, Ponte San Giovanni, Ponte Valleceppi, Prepo, Pretola, Ramazzano-Le Pulci, Rancolfo, Ripa, Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Sant'Egidio, Sant'Enea, San Fortunato della Collina, San Giovanni del Pantano, Sant'Andrea d'Agliano, Santa Lucia, San Marco, Santa Maria Rossa, San Martino dei Colli, San Martino in Campo, San Martino in Colle, San Sisto, Solfagnano, Villa Pitignano. A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a Comune; for other Administrative Collestrada, in the territorio of the suburb of Ponte San Giovanni, saw a battle between the inhabitants of Perugia and Assisi in 1202. Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria
Palazzo dei Priori
Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo
Perugia has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities:
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