|Part of Middle Eastern theatre (World War I)|
|Ottoman Empire||Russian Empire|
|•2nd Army||•Russian Caucasus Army|
The Persian Campaign, also known as Invasion of Persia, was a series of engagements that took place in northern and western Persia as an extension of the Caucasus Campaign. The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the Allied Powers, primarily the British and the Russians on the one hand and the World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya İsmail Enver ( Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور ( November 22, 1881 in Constantinople - August 4 Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov, (1855–1931 was an Armenian general in the Russian Army who was the governor of the Administration for Western Armenia The Ottoman Second Army protected the south eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Caucasus Army (Росси́йская Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought the Caucasus Campaign A detachment (from the French Détachement) is a Military unit. Armenian volunteer units or " Armenian volunteer corps " were Armenian battalions in Russian and British armies during the World War I. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including the Armenia, Central Caspian Dictatorship
Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak Persia had significant oil reserves, and was strategically situated between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
With the beginning of the war, Russians maintained forces in northern Persia. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Contact was limited to skirmishes on the border of northern Persia. Kurdish bands plundered and murdered the Christian population – that is Armenians and Assyrians. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. The presence of Russian cavalry units kept them quiet. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on 
However, at the height of the battle of Sarikamish, in December , Myshlaevsky ordered withdrawal from Persia. As a result, the regular Turkish Army reinforced with Turkish volunteers entered Tabriz on January 14. Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. During their occupation in Persia, Ottoman forces proceeded to massacre Christians. 
Yudenich immediately began to plan to re-take the area. After brief fighting on January 26-8 in Sufian area, General Chernozubov entered Tabriz on January 30.
General Nazarbekov managed to push Halil Pasha regulars towards Başkale after the Battle of Diliman, securing the situation. Başkale ( Kurdish: Elbak, Armenian: Albayrak, and alternatively rendered as Bashkala or Pashgala) is a town and district 
As a result of his initial successes, Enver Pasha began planning a Pan-Turkic and Pan Islamic uprising against the Russian empire, entrusting command of this to his uncle Halil Bey. The Battle of Manzikert (Битва при Манцикерте or Malazgirt was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign. The Battle of Manzikert (Битва при Манцикерте or Malazgirt was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign. İsmail Enver ( Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور ( November 22, 1881 in Constantinople - August 4 Pan-Turkism is a political movement aiming to unite the various Turkic peoples into a modern political State, a Confederation, or an economic union closely Pan-Islamism ( اتّحاد الاسلام) is a Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state or a Caliphate 
As the Turks were organizing, Yudenich planned an attack to limit the Ottomans at Moush and Manzikert. Muş is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8196 km² in area and has a population of 488997 (2006 est Malazgirt (also Malâzgird; Մանզիկերտ Manzikert) is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23697 (year 2000 He also planned to outflank from Beyazit and Persian Azerbaijan towards Van. A van is a kind of vehicle used for Transporting goods or groups of people 
In April, Turks under Halil Bey moved towards Tabriz, but was defeated by Chernozubov. The Resistance at Van (Վանի Հերոսամարտ was an Insurgency against the Ottoman Empire 's attempts to eliminate the Armenian population in the Simultaneously, Russians got word of the resistance of the Armenian population of Van. The Resistance at Van (Վանի Հերոսամարտ was an Insurgency against the Ottoman Empire 's attempts to eliminate the Armenian population in the When word got to Yudenich, he sent a brigade of Trans-Baikal Cossacks under General Trukhin and some Armenian volunteers towards Van. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is Armenian volunteer units or " Armenian volunteer corps " were Armenian battalions in Russian and British armies during the World War I. With Van secure, fighting shifted farther west for the rest of the summer. 
Of a more serious threat were German espionage attempts in Persia. The Germans hoped to free Persia from British and Russian influence, and to further create a wedge between Russia and the British, eventually leading to an invasion of British India by locally organized armies. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Wilhelm Wassmuss and Count Kaunitz were at the head of this operation. Wilhelm Wassmuss (1880 &ndash November 29, 1931) was a German Diplomat, also known as the "German Lawrence of Arabia or "Wassmuss
Wilhelm Wassmuss, known as the German Lawrence, was a German consular official in Persia who loved the desert, and wore the flowing robes of a desert tribesman He persuaded his superiors in Constantinople that he could lead Persian tribes in a revolt against Britain. Wilhelm Wassmuss (1880 &ndash November 29, 1931) was a German Diplomat, also known as the "German Lawrence of Arabia or "Wassmuss Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS In 1915 he conferred with local chiefs and distributed pamphlets urging revolt. He was arrested by a local chief, but managed to escape from British custody.
This plan was conducted in conjunction with the Turks. They hoped to incite a revolt through pro-German members of the Persian government in conjunction of invasion of Turkish troops towards Kermanshah and Hamadan. Kermanshah or Kermashan ( Kermānshāh; Kurdish: کرماشان Kirmaşan is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 km Hamedān or Hamadān ( Persian: همدان, Old Persian: Hagmatana Hebrew: המזיין Ancient Greek: Ecbatana) 
The premature coup was crushed in Tehran as Shah Ahmet took refuge in the Russian legation, and a sizable Russian force arrived to Tehran under Baratov after they landed in Bandar-e Pahlavi in November of that year. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Bandar-e Anzali ( known as Bandar-e Pahlavi ( before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province 
The pro-German coup members of the Mejlis fled to Kirmanshah and Qom without fighting. The Qajar dynasty (also known as Ghajar or Kadjar ( ( - or دودمان قاجار) is a common term to describe Iran (then known as Persia) under In December, Baratov began to move on Qoms and Hamadan, to clear German sympathizers and Turkish troops. Hamedān or Hamadān ( Persian: همدان, Old Persian: Hagmatana Hebrew: המזיין Ancient Greek: Ecbatana) Both cities fell in the same month. 
Count Kaunitz disappeared without a trace, either killing himself or being a victim of assassination by disenchanted coup members. Kirmanshah was taken on February 16, 1916 and by March 1 of that year operations were complete. Events 1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant