|people of the book|
"People of the Book" (Arabic أهل الكتاب, Ahl al- Kitâb), also "Followers of the Holy Books", is a theological term, primarily related to Islam, describing non-Muslim peoples who, according to the Qur'an, received scriptures which were revealed to them by God before the time of Muhammad (especially Christians and Jews). Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Different approaches and methods for the Romanization of Arabic exist Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the Qur'an, is taken to represent the completion of these scriptures, and to synthesize them as God's true, final, and eternal message to humanity. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran However, because the People of the Book recognize the God of Abraham as the one and only god, as the Muslims do, and they practice revealed faiths based on Divine ordinances, tolerance and autonomy is accorded to them in societies governed by sharia (Islamic divine law). God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The generally accepted interpretation is that the pre-Islamic revealed texts are the Tawrat, Zabur and the Injil. Tawrat ( Tawrah or Taurat, Arabic: توراة is the Arabic transliteration of the Hebrew word Torah (also known as the Five Zabur ( زبور) is the holy book of the Sebo'un ( Arabic:صابؤون Greek:Σεβομενοι and according to Islam, one of the The Injil ( Arabic إنجيل (or Injeel) is one of the five Islamic Holy Books the Qur'an records as revealed by God, the others They are roughly equivalent to the Jewish Torah, the Book of Psalms, and the Four Christian Gospels, respectively. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament
A dhimmi is a person of the dhimma, a term which refers in Islamic law to a pact contracted between non-Muslims and authorities from their Muslim government: this status was originally only made available to non-Muslims who were People of the Book (i. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish e. Jews and Christians), but was later extended to include Sikhs, Zoroastrians, Mandeans, and, in some areas, Hindus and Buddhists. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( Mandaic: Mandaiuta, مندائية Mandā'iyya) is a Monotheistic Religion with a strongly A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the 
In Judaism the term "People of the Book" (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am HaSefer) subsequently became self-applied to refer specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah; also the Jewish people and the wider canon of written Jewish law (including the Mishnah and the Talmud). Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history In the Jewish tradition's use of the term there is generally no connotation as to the nature of Judaism's relationship with other faiths. 
In the classical understanding, the People of the Book are those whose faiths share the following qualities:
The term "People of the Book" is thus taken in classical orthodox Islam to refer to followers of monotheistic Abrahamic religions which are older than Islam. This includes all Christians, all Jews (including Karaites and Samaritans), and "Sabaeans" (a Qur'anic term interpreted to refer to the Mandaeans). A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Karaite Judaism or Karaism (ˈkærəˌaɪt ˈkærəˌɪzəm) is a Jewish movement NOTE The word sect should not be used without defining it first and See also Ancient history of Yemen The Sabaeans ( Arabic: السبأيين were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who Mandaeism or Mandaeanism ( Mandaic: Mandaiuta, مندائية Mandā'iyya) is a Monotheistic Religion with a strongly
Many early Islamic scholars, such as Malik ibn Anas, agreed that Zoroastrians should also be included. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn 'Amr al-Asbahi ( Arabic مالك بن أنس Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Zoroastrianism is believed by scholars and historians to have been founded between 1000 BCE and 600 BCE making it older than Christianity and Islam. It shares similar eschatological views with Christianity and Islam, and recognizes life after death, Satan (as Angra Mainyu), Heaven, and Hell. "Ahriman" redirects here For other uses see Ahriman (disambiguation. There is no official Zoroastrian viewpoint regarding Adam and Eve or Moses.
Generally speaking, only pre-Islamic religions are considered to be the religions of the Book. This is because Muhammad is viewed in Islam as the seal of the prophets, the final prophet that God will ever send to humanity for all time. Seal of the Prophets ( ar خاتم اﻟﻨﺒﻴﻴﻦ Khatim-an-Nabiyyin) is a title given to Muhammad by a verse in the Qur'an. This means that post-Islamic faiths are not considered religions of the Book in the classical sense, even if they are revealed, scriptural, monotheistic, and/or Abrahamic.
The Islamic conquest of India necessitated that this definition be revised, because the majority of the inhabitants of India were followers of Indian religions, and as such were generally regarded as mushrikeen (polytheists). The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 11th to the 17th centuries though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region beginning Indian religions, also called Dharmic religions, are the related religious traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, namely Hinduism, Shirk (شرك is the Islamic concept of the Sin of Polytheism specifically but in a more general way refers to worshipping other than Allah Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals Scholars have had diverse opinions as to whether or not Hinduism constitutes a religion of the Book. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism was, and still is, the Indian religion with the largest number of followers. However, Hindu views of God are diverse and multifaceted, ranging from conventional monotheism, to panentheism, monism, immanence, and pure polytheism; many Hindus have a perspective that is somewhere between the extremes of polytheism and monotheism. Panentheism (from Greek (pân "all" (en "in" and (Theós "God" "all-in-God" is a belief system Monism is the metaphysical and Theological view that all is one that all reality is subsumed under the most fundamental category of being or existence Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere "to remain within" refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals Because of the substantial Hindu tradition of monism, and the prominent Hindu theological perspective that there is a single Entity (Brahman) which sustains the world, Hindus have often been included as dhimmis. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism.
Sikhism is not Abrahamic, as it rejects the concept of the Devil, angels and the concept of Adam and Eve. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century It also post-dates Muhammad.
Buddhism does not explicitly recognize a God, or the concept of prophethood. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices However, there is no official Buddhist view of God, and Buddhism does not specifically oppose monotheism. Since the time of the Buddha the refutation of the existence of a creator has been seen as a key point in distinguishing Buddhist from non-Buddhist views Brahman is recognised as the supreme Deva. However, it is explicitly stated in sutra that deva, including supreme Brahman is insufficient (or irrelevant or inferior) to attainment of enlightenment, as they are still trapped in cycle of rebirth. Moreover, Buddhism does not recognize God in the sense of Creator.
The Yazidi, Druze and Azali faiths are small post-Islamic monotheistic faiths whose adherents mainly reside in Muslim-majority countries. The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: ئزیدی or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزدي Assyrian/Syriac: ܓ̰ܠܟܝܐ is a The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon Azali, or Azali Bábí is the name of a follower of Subh-i-Azal and the Báb. Because they number very few and have seldom disturbed, countered or threatened Muslim authority, they are usually regarded as dhimmis.
Some strains of Islam, such as Salafism and Wahhabism, reject all of the above, most especially the followers of Indian religions, as kafir (unbelievers). Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to This article is on the Islamic religious term For the pejorative racial slur see Kaffir (ethnic slur.
Saudi Arabia, which has the Wahhabi sect of Islam as its state religion, has implemented full sharia law, but does not regard Non-Muslims staying in the country as 'dhimmis'. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Numerous non-Arabs, mostly South Asians and Filipinos, have been allowed into the country as foreign workers, some of whom are Muslim, and some of whom are not. Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. expatriate foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a Citizen. However, public practice of a non-Muslim religion in Saudi Arabia is a punishable offence.
The definition of "dhimmi" always excludes followers of the Bahá'í Faith. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind This is because the Bahá'í Faith, which grew out of Shi'a Islam, is a post-Islamic religion which does not accept the finality of Muhammad's revelation. Instead, Bahá'ís believe in the concept of progressive revelation, which states that God's will is progressively revealed through different teachers at different times, and that there will never be a final revelation. Progressive revelation is a core teaching in the Bahá'í Faith that suggests that religious truth is revealed by God progressively and cyclically over time through a series Bahá'ís refer to the people who bring a new revelation into the world as Manifestations of God; the person who is accepted as the current Manifestation of God is Bahá'u'lláh. The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called Prophets The Manifestations of God are a series of personages Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri
The Bahá'í Faith is revealed, scriptural and Abrahamic, and Bahá'ís accept Muhammad as one of the previous Manifestations of God. However, because they have explicitly repudiated the eternal authority of the Qur'an and Sunnah, they are condemned as murtadeen (apostates). Sunnah ar (سنة plural سنن Sunan literally means “trodden path” and therefore the sunnah of the prophet means “the way and the manners of the prophet” They are sometimes also called zandiqa ("atheists"). Zindīq (زنديق refers to those who Muslims believe have strayed so far from mainstream Islamic beliefs to have left Islam altogether Atheism Bahá'ís are considered to be subject to the fate of Dar al-Harb, the doomed pagan world which is not beloved of God. The house of divisions in Islam such as "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Harb" does not appear in the Koran or the Hadith. Bahá'ís have been badly persecuted by Muslim regimes up to the present day. The persecution of Bahá'ís is the Religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and The most significant persecution has occurred in Iran, where Bahá'ís are the most populous religious minority. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The exception is Turkey, where a policy of state secularism has resulted in almost no official persecution. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Separation of church and state is a Political and Legal Doctrine that Government and religious institutions are to be kept separate
There are many statements in the Qur'an that promote tolerance towards People of The Book. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran For example:
There are also many statements that promote an adversarial relationship. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran For example:
In other places the Qur'an says:
Throughout Islamic history, Muslims have used these ayah (verses) to justify a variety of positions towards non-Muslims. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Ayah (ar آية, plural Ayat ar آيات) is the Arabic word for sign or Miracle, cognate with Hebrew ot, In some places and times, Muslims showed a great deal of tolerance towards non-Muslims; in other places and times non-Muslims were treated as enemies and persecuted. Islamic law demands that Muslims treat Jews and Christians as dhimmis, protected citizens who have a number of rights. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish
One ayah in the Qur'an can even be interpreted to encourage a neutral position toward non-Muslims. This ayah says, "Those who follow the Jewish and the Sabi'een, Christians, Magians and Polythesists — Allah will judge them On the Day of Judgement:" (22:17). The acceptance of Zoroastrians as dhimmis is partly because of this ayah, as the Magians were Zurvanist Zoroastrians, and this verse, specifically mentions them alongside other People of the Book, and lists them ahead of polytheists. The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish Zurvanism is a now-extinct branch of Zoroastrianism that had the divinity Zurvan as its First
When non-Muslim People of the Book live in an Islamic nation under Sharia law, they become dhimmis. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish They are given a number of rights, such as the right to freely practice their faith in private, in return for state protection, and exemption from military service. The social structure of the Ottoman Empire would serve as an example of how non-Muslims were treated. There is considerable controversy regarding social structure in the Ottoman Empire. They also have some responsibilities, such as the payment of a special tax called jizyah ("tribute"), but they are exempted from Zakat which Muslims are required to pay. Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or as was often case in historical contexts of submission This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied People of the Book living in non-Islamic nations are not considered dhimmis. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish