|Locale||Chicago and St. Louis to New York City and Washington, DC|
|Dates of operation||1846–1968|
|Successor line||Penn Central|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)|
The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting marks PRR) was an American railroad, founded in 1846. A reporting mark is an identification assigned by the Association of American Railroads (AAR to rail carriers and other companies operating in North America. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The City of New York Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or Normal gauge) is a widely-used Rail gauge. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class M1 Steam locomotives were a class of heavy mixed-traffic locomotives of the 4-8-2 "Mountain" arrangement which The 1939-40 New York World's Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair) was one of the largest The PRR S1 class Steam locomotive (nicknamed "The Big Engine" was an experimental locomotive that was the largest rigid frame passenger locomotive ever The 1939-40 New York World's Fair, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair) was one of the largest A reporting mark is an identification assigned by the Association of American Railroads (AAR to rail carriers and other companies operating in North America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Commonly referred to as the "Pennsy", the PRR was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
The PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the US throughout its 20th-century existence and was at one time the largest publicly traded corporation in the world. At its peak, it controlled about 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail line. During its history, the PRR merged with or had an interest in at least 800 other rail lines and companies.  The PRR corporation still holds the record for the longest continuous dividend history: it paid out annual dividends to shareholders for more than 100 years in a row.  For many years the President of the PRR was considered more powerful than the President of the United States. The budget for the PRR was larger than that of the U. S. government and they employed approximately 250,000 workers. 
In 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with its rival, the New York Central Railroad, to form Penn Central Transportation. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 The ICC required that the ailing New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad be added in 1969. The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed The New York New Haven and Hartford Railroad was a railroad that operated in the northeast United States from 1872 to 1969 A series of events including inflation, poor management, abnormally harsh weather and the withdrawal of a government-guaranteed 200-million-dollar operating loan forced the Penn Central to file for bankruptcy protection on June 21, 1970. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The Penn Central raillines were then divided between Conrail and Amtrak. Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail, began operations on April 1, 1976 as a federally funded takeover of the major railroad The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971
The Pennsylvania Railroad's corporate symbol was the keystone, which is Pennsylvania's state symbol, with the letters PRR intertwined inside. A keystone is the architectural piece at the crown of a vault or Arch and marks its apex, locking the other pieces into position The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern When colored, it was bright red with silver-grey molding and lettering.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as part of the Main Line of Public Works, chartered the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1846 to build a rail line that would connect Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. The Main Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad was a Rail line in the U The Main Line of Public Works was a railroad and canal system built by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the 19th century Harrisburg is the Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in the United States of America  This western line from Harrisburg would complete the main line, which was to be a railroad and canal corridor across the state. Work on the western part of the main line was completed in 1854 and rail service from Philadelphia across the state to Pittsburgh was available. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə In 1857 the PRR purchased the main line from the State of Pennsylvania. This line is still an important cross-state corridor, composed of Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line and the Norfolk Southern Railway's Pittsburgh Subdivision.
In the early 1860s, the PRR gained control of the Northern Central Railway, giving it access to Baltimore, Maryland, along the Susquehanna River via connections at Columbia, Pennsylvania, or Harrisburg. The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency The Susquehanna River (originally "Sasquesahanough" per the 1612 John Smith map is a River located in the northeastern United States. Columbia is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 28 miles (45 km southeast of Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River across from
On December 1, 1871, the PRR leased the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Companies, which included the original Camden and Amboy Railroad from Camden, New Jersey (across the Delaware River from Philadelphia) to South Amboy, New Jersey (across Raritan Bay from New York City), as well as a newer line from Philadelphia to Jersey City, New Jersey, much closer to New York, via Trenton, New Jersey. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company was part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system in New Jersey, including their main line to New York City The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. South Amboy is a City in Middlesex County, New Jersey, on the Raritan Bay. Raritan Bay is a Bay located at the confluence of the Raritan River and the Arthur Kill between the U Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Trenton is the Capital of the US state of New Jersey and the County seat of Mercer County. Track connection in Philadelphia was made via the United Companies' Connecting Railway and the jointly owned Junction Railroad (Philadelphia). The Junction Railroad was a Railroad in the US state of Pennsylvania, connecting lines west of downtown Philadelphia Pennsylvania. 
The PRR's Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road opened on July 2, 1872, between Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. This route required transfer via horse car in Baltimore to the other lines heading north from the city. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D A horsecar was an animal-powered Streetcar or Tram. The first passenger services in the world were started by the Oystermouth Railway in On June 29, 1873, the Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel through Baltimore was completed. Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The PRR initiated the misleadingly named Pennsylvania Air Line service via the Northern Central Railway and Columbia, Pennsylvania. This service was 54. 5 miles (87. 5 km) longer than the old route but avoided the transfer in Baltimore. The Union Railroad (Baltimore) line opened on July 24, 1873. The Union Tunnel is a railroad tunnel on Amtrak 's Northeast Corridor in Baltimore Maryland that connects Pennsylvania Station to the Pennsylvania Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This route eliminated the transfer in Baltimore. PRR officials contracted with both the Union Railroad and the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (PW&B) Railroad for access to this line. The Philadelphia Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad was the Pennsylvania Railroad 's main line from Philadelphia Pennsylvania southwest to Baltimore Maryland The PRR's New York–Washington trains began using the route the next day, ending Pennsylvania Air Line service. In the early 1880s, the PRR acquired a majority of PW&B Railroad's stock. This action forced the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to build the Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad to keep its Philadelphia access, where it connected with the Reading Railroad for its competing Royal Blue Line passenger trains to reach New York. The Reading Company, usually called the Reading Railroad ( and officially known as the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road and then the Philadelphia and The Royal Blue was the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O 's flagship Passenger train between New York City and Washington D
In 1885, the PRR began passenger train service from New York City to Washington, D. C. with limited stops along the route. This service became known as the "Congressional Limited Express. " The service expanded, and by the 1920s, the PRR was operating hourly passenger train service between New York and Washington. In the early 1950s, 18-car stainless steel streamliners were introduced on the Morning Congressional and Afternoon Congressional between New York and Washington, as well as the Senator from Boston to Washington, D. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 C.  In 1912, the "Broadway Limited" was started. The Broadway Limited was the Pennsylvania Railroad 's (PRR premier named passenger train operating one train daily in either direction between New York This train ran from New York City to Chicago, via Philadelphia, with an additional section between Harrisburg and Washington (later operated as a separate Washington–Chicago train, the Liberty Limited).
Around 1900, the PRR built several low-grade lines for freight to bypass areas of steep grade (slope). The grade (or gradient or pitch or slope) of any physical feature such as a Hill, Stream, Roof, railroad, or These included the following:
The Pennsylvania and Newark Railroad was incorporated in 1905 to build a low-grade line from Morrisville, Pennsylvania to Colonia, New Jersey. Morrisville (ˈmɒrɨsvɪl in General American; in Philadelphia accent; in fast speech the latter is often shortened to) is a Borough in Bucks Kearny (ˈkɑɹni is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Thorndale is a Village (and Census-designated place) in Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States. Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail, began operations on April 1, 1976 as a federally funded takeover of the major railroad Parkesburg is a borough in Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States. Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail, began operations on April 1, 1976 as a federally funded takeover of the major railroad It was never completed, but some work was done in the Trenton area, including bridge piers in the Delaware River. North of Colonia, the alignment was going to be separate, but instead two extra tracks were added to the existing line. Work was suspended in 1916.
Early in the 20th century, the PRR began construction to electrify some of their rail lines. Railway electrification supplies electrical energy to railway Locomotives and Multiple units so they can operate without having a Reciprocating The initial construction was in the New York terminal area, including some of the tunnels. This was a direct current (DC) low-voltage system that supplied power through a third rail. Direct current ( DC) is the unidirectional flow of Electric charge. The system was put into service in 1910. 
The next area to be electrified was the Philadelphia terminal area. After researching and experimenting with different power systems, PRR officials decided to use overhead lines to supply power to the trains. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the Unlike the New York terminal system, the overhead wires would carry high-voltage alternating current (AC) power. An alternating current ( AC) is an Electric current whose direction reverses cyclically as opposed to Direct current, whose direction remains constant This became the type of system used for all future installations. In 1915, electrification of the line from Philadelphia's Broad Street Station to Paoli, Pennsylvania was completed. Other Philadelphia lines electrified were the Chestnut Hill Branch (1918), White Marsh (1924), West Chester (1928), and in 1930 the Norristown branch along with the main line to Trenton, New Jersey.
PRR's president William Atterbury announced in 1928 plans to electrify the lines between New York, Philadelphia, Washington and Harrisburg. In January 1933, through main-line service between the principal cities was placed in operation. The first test run of an electric train between Philadelphia and Washington occurred on January 28, 1935. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On February 1 the Congressional Limiteds in both directions were the first trains in regular electric operation between New York and Washington, drawn by the first of the GG1 type locomotives. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's GG1 class of Electric locomotives were built between 1934 to 1943 at the PRR shops in Altoona Pennsylvania, with a total of All regular passenger trains between these cities were electrified by March 15, and shortly thereafter through trains to the west were electrically operated from New York City to Paoli, Pennsylvania. Paoli is a Census-designated place located in Chester County Pennsylvania near Philadelphia
To complete the electrification project initiated in 1928, work was started January 27, 1937, on the main line from Paoli, Pennsylvania to Harrisburg; the low-grade freight line from Morrisville through Columbia to Enola, Pennsylvania Yard; the freight line from Perryville to Columbia; and the freight line from Monmouth Junction to South Amboy. Events 98 - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Enola is a Census-designated place (CDP located along the Susquehanna River in East Pennsboro Township, Cumberland County Pennsylvania, Perryville is a town in Cecil County, Maryland, United States. In less than a year—on the following January 15—the first passenger train, the Metropolitan, went into operation over the newly electrified line from Philadelphia to Harrisburg. On April 15 the electrified freight service from Harrisburg and Enola Yard east was inaugurated, thus completing the Pennsy's eastern seaboard electrification program with a total of 2,677 miles (4,308 km) of track electrified—41 percent of the total electrically operated standard railroad trackage of the United States. 
In 1849, PRR officials developed plans to construct a repair facility at Altoona. Altoona is a city in Blair County, Pennsylvania, United States. Construction was started in 1850, and soon a long building was completed that housed a machine shop, woodworking shop, blacksmith shop, locomotive repair shop and foundry. This facility was later torn down to make room for continuing expansion. In time additional PRR repair facilities were located in Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Mifflin, and Juniata, Pennsylvania. Alexander Graham Bell sent two assistants to the Altoona shops in 1875 to study the feasibility of installing telephone lines. In May 1877, telephone lines were installed for various departments to communicate with one another.  By 1945 the Altoona Works had grown to be one of the largest repair and construction facilities for locomotives and cars in the world.  During World War II, PRR facilities (including the Altoona Shops) were on target lists of German saboteurs. Operation Pastorius was a failed plan for Sabotage via a series of attacks by Nazi German agents inside the United States. They were caught before they could complete their missions.  In 1875 the Altoona Works started a testing department for PRR equipment. In following years, the Pennsylvania Railroad led the nation in the development of research and testing procedures of practical value for the railroad industry.  Use of the testing facilities were discontinued in 1968 and many of the structures were demolished.
On February 1, 1968, the PRR merged with arch-rival the New York Central railroad to form the Penn Central. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 The ICC required that the ailing New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad be added in 1969. The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed The New York New Haven and Hartford Railroad was a railroad that operated in the northeast United States from 1872 to 1969 A series of events including inflation, poor management, abnormally harsh weather conditions and the withdrawal of a government-guaranteed 200-million-dollar operating loan forced the Penn Central to file for bankruptcy protection on June 21, 1970. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The Penn Central rail lines were split between Amtrak (Northeast Corridor and Keystone Corridor) and Conrail in the 1970s. The Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company, almost always called Penn Central, was an American Railroad company that operated from 1968 The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency The Keystone Corridor is a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA "designated high speed corridor" with a 349-mile (562 km railroad line between Philadelphia Consolidated Rail Corporation, also known as Conrail, began operations on April 1, 1976 as a federally funded takeover of the major railroad After the breakup of Conrail in 1999, the portion which had formerly been PRR territory largely became part of the Norfolk Southern Railway. This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern
In 1916 the PRR began using the slogan Standard Railroad of the World. This meant that it was perceived as the standard to which all other railroads aspired.  For a long time this was true. The PRR had an impressive list of firsts, greatests, biggests, and longests. It was the first railroad to completely replace wooden-bodied passenger cars with steel-bodied cars. Over its history it led the way in many safety and efficiency improvements. In later years the PRR abandoned the use of the slogan.
The Pennsylvania Railroad was "standard" in another way. It was an early proponent of standardization. While other railroads used whatever was available, the PRR tested and experimented with equipment designs. When they found the right design, it became standard across the whole company. This gave the railroad a feel of uniformity, and it also reduced costs.  This was unlike other railroads who purchased locomotives and railroad cars in small lots, taking whatever was available from manufacturers at the time. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or The PRR was also an early adopter of standard color schemes for their equipment. 
As noted above, the PRR colors and paint schemes were standardized. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an early proponent of standardised colors and paint schemes for its Locomotives Rolling stock and other equipment Locomotives were painted in a shade of green so dark it seemed almost black. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. The official name for this color was DGLE (Dark Green Locomotive Enamel). Often it was referred to as "Brunswick Green". The undercarriage of the locomotives were painted in black referred to as True Black. The passenger cars of the Pennsylvania Railroad were painted Tuscan Red. This article is about railroad equipment For other cars see Automobile and Wiktionary definition of passenger car. This is a brick colored shade of red. Some electric locomotives and most passenger-hauling diesel locomotives were also painted in Tuscan Red. "Electric Trains" redirects here For the 1995 Squeeze single see Electric Trains (song. A Diesel locomotive is a type of Railroad Locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine. Freight cars of the PRR had their own color. It was known as Freight Car Color which was an iron-oxide shade of red. On passenger locomotives and cars, the lettering and out-lining was originally done in real gold leaf. Metal leaf is a thin foil used for decoration It is also called composition leaf or schlagmetal. After World War II the lettering was done in a light shade of yellow called Buff Yellow. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
The Pennsylvania Railroad was one of the first railroads to use position-light signals trackside. A signal is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a Railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train drivers/engineers. A signal is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a Railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train drivers/engineers.  The signals were designed to replace semaphore signals. A signal is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a Railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train drivers/engineers. Visibility in foggy conditions was one of the factors for the development of this type of signal. A position-light signal used a large round target (sign) with an array of up to nine lights. Eight lights are arranged in a circle near the edge of the target with another light positioned in the center. The lights in position-light signals used amber-colored lenses, which could penetrate fog. With a position signal light, the positioning of the light display determined the meaning of the message. The design also allowed train personnel to recognize the signal aspect even when one light in a row was inoperative.
Signal aspects were displayed as rows of three lit lights. These signal aspects corresponded with upper-quadrant semaphore signal positions: vertical display for proceed, a 45° angle display for approach, and horizontal display for stop. Additionally, a row of lights at a 45° angle leaning left of vertical (perpendicular to the approach aspect) was also used for a restricting aspect. A "X" shape was a "take siding" aspect (message) and a full circle was a "raise pantograph" aspect in electrified territory. Additional aspects were conveyed with a second target head below the first, either a single light, a partial target, or a full target, depending on the location.
In later years, the two outside lights in the horizontal "stop" row were often given red lenses, and the center lamp would be extinguished when the signal displayed a stop aspect. 
For most of its existence, the PRR was conservative in its locomotive power choices and pursued a path of standardization, both in locomotive types and their component parts. The Strasburg Rail Road is a  Almost alone among American railroads, the PRR designed most of its steam locomotive classes itself and built a proportion of them in its Altoona Works. A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive" The PRR is believed to have been the 4th-most prolific U. S. builder of steam locomotives. 
Outside builders were used due to the sheer number of locomotives the PRR ordered. The number required exceeded the capacity that its own shops could produce. PRR used a commercial builder as a subcontractor, building exact replicas of an existing PRR design.  This was unlike most railroads who gave only a broad specification, thereby leaving the majority of the decision making and design to the locomotive builder. 
When it needed to use a commercial locomotive builder, the PRR favored Philadelphia's Baldwin Locomotive Works. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Baldwin Locomotive Works was an American builder of Railroad Locomotives It was located in Philadelphia Pennsylvania originally and later Baldwin was a major PRR customer, receiving its raw materials and shipping out its finished products on PRR lines. Moreover, the two companies were headquartered in the same city, with PRR and Baldwin management, along with the engineers, knowing each other well. When both the PRR and Baldwin shops were at capacity, orders went to the Lima Locomotive Works in Lima, Ohio. Lima Locomotive Works was an American firm that manufactured Railroad Locomotives from the 1870s through the 1950s  Only as a last resort would the PRR use the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) based in Schenectady, New York. The American Locomotive Company, often shortened to ALCO or Alco (or less frequently ALCo) was a builder of Railroad Locomotives in The American Locomotive Company, often shortened to ALCO or Alco (or less frequently ALCo) was a builder of Railroad Locomotives in This may have been due to the fact that Alco was serviced by, as well as the favorite locomotive supplier to, the PRR's arch-rival: the New York Central Railroad. The New York Central Railroad, known simply as the New York Central in its publicity was a Railroad operating in the Northeastern United States.
The PRR had a design style that it favored in its locomotives. One example is the square-shouldered Belpaire firebox. The Belpaire firebox is a type of firebox used on Steam locomotives It was invented by Alfred Belpaire of Belgium. This British style firebox was a PRR trademark that was rarely used by other locomotive builders in the United States. Also, the PRR used track pans extensively to pick up water, for the locomotive, while on the move. A track pan ( American terminology or water trough ( British terminology is a device to enable a steam railway locomotive to replenish its water supply Using this system meant that the tenders of their locomotives had a comparatively large proportion of coal (which could not be taken on board while running) compared to water capacity. Locomotives of the PRR had a clean look to them. Only necessary devices were used and they were mounted neatly on the locomotive.  Smoke box fronts bore a round locomotive number board denoting a freight locomotive or a keystone number board denoting a passenger locomotive. Otherwise, the smoke box was uncluttered with the exception of a headlamp mounted at the top and a steam-driven turbo-generator behind it. In later years the positions of the two were reversed, since the generator needs more maintenance than the lamp. 
Each class of steam locomotive was assigned a class designation.  Early on, this was simply an alphabetical letter, but when these began to run out, the scheme was changed so that each wheel arrangement had its own letter, and different types of the same arrangement were defined by a subsequent number. Locomotive wheel arrangement is how the wheels of the locomotive are arranged by type position and connections Subtypes were in turn indicated by a lower-case letter; superheating was designated by an "s" until the mid 1920s, by which time all new locomotives were superheated. Thus, for example, a K4sa class was a 4-6-2 "Pacific" type (K) and of the fourth class of Pacifics designed by the PRR. Under the Whyte notation for the classification of Steam locomotives, a 4-6-2 Locomotive has four Leading wheels (generally arranged in a It was superheated (s) and was of the first variant type (a) after the original (unlettered). See PRR locomotive classification for details. Locomotive classification on the Pennsylvania Railroad took several forms Steam locomotives remained part of the PRR fleet until 1957 when they were retired from active service.
It should be noted that the PRR's reliance on steam locomotives in the mid 20th century was a factor contributing to its downfall. Steam locomotives require more maintenance than diesel locomotives, are less cost efficient, and requires more personnel to operate. Also, the PRR was unable to update its fleet during the World War II years, and by the end of the war their fleet was in rough shape. The PRR's competitors managed this period better with their diesel locomotive fleets.  The PRR was historically-minded when it voluntarily preserved a roundhouse-full of representative steam locomotives at Northumberland, PA in 1957, and kept them there for several decades. These locomotives are now at the Pennsylvania State Railroad Museum in Strasburg, PA. In sharp contrast, the New York Central's Alfred E. Perlman deliberately scrapped all but two large NYC steam locomotives, and these survived only by accident. 
On December 18, 1987 the State of Pennsylvania designated the Pennsylvania Railroad's K4s as the official State Steam Locomotive. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Examples can be seen on display at museums in Altoona and Strasburg, Pennsylvania. 
When the work on the Hudson River tunnels and Pennsylvania Station was in progress, the type of electric locomotives to be used was an important consideration. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City At that time just a few electric locomotives had been built anywhere. Several experimental locomotives were designed by railroad and Westinghouse engineers and tried on the West Jersey track. From these tests the DD1 class was developed. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class DD1 were semi-permanently coupled pairs of Third rail Direct current Electric locomotives built for the  The DD1s were used in pairs (back to back). The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class DD1 were semi-permanently coupled pairs of Third rail Direct current Electric locomotives built for the Thirty-three of these engines having Westinghouse equipment were built at Altoona. They were capable of speeds up to 85 miles per hour. Placed in service in 1910, they proved to be very efficient.
Various types of locomotives were being designed for the long-range electrification program. The first equipment to be put into service consisted of 93 motor cars, and by 1924 there were 286 cars of this type in use. By 1935 the motor and trailer equipment totaled 43 units, with the number eventually reaching 524 units.
The most powerful single-unit electric locomotive ever built was tried in 1917 and used experimentally for a number of years. This engine was classed the FF1 and had a side-rod drive. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class FF1 of Electric locomotive comprised a single prototype numbered #3931 and nicknamed "Big Liz" by its crews  This class developed a tractive force of 140,000 pounds.
In 1924 another type of side-rod locomotive was designed (the L5 class), and three engines were built. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class L5 were the railroad's second generation of production Electric locomotives after the DD1, and the last to use a Jackshaft Two were DC engines for use in the New York electrified zone and the third, road number 3930, was AC-equipped and put in service at Philadelphia. Later, 21 more L-5 locomotives were built for the New York service. A six-wheeled switching engine was the next electric motive power designed, being classified as B1. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class B1 comprised 42 Switcher -type Electric locomotives built between 1926 and 1935.  Of the first 16 AC engines, two were used at Philadelphia and 14 on the Bay Ridge line, while 12 DC-equipped engines were assigned to Sunnyside Yard. Sunnyside Yard is a large railroad yard in Sunnyside Queens in New York City.
The O1 class was a light passenger type. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class O1 comprised eight experimental Boxcab Electric locomotives ref name="pennsypower">built in 1930 and  Eight of these engines were built from June 1930 to December 1931. The P5 class was also introduced, with two of this class being placed in service during July and August 1931. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class P5 comprised 92 mixed-traffic Electric locomotives constructed 1931–1935 by the PRR Westinghouse and General Electric  Following these came the P5A, a slightly heavier design capable of traveling 80 miles per hour and with a tractive force of 56,250 pounds. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class P5 comprised 92 mixed-traffic Electric locomotives constructed 1931–1935 by the PRR Westinghouse and General Electric In all, 89 of these locomotives were built. The first had a box cab design and were placed in service in 1932. The following year, the last 28 under construction were redesigned to have a streamlined type of cab. Some of these engines underwent regearing for freight service.
In 1933 two entirely new locomotives were being planned. These were the R1 and the GG1 class. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class R1 comprised a single prototype Electric locomotive constructed in 1934 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia The Pennsylvania Railroad 's GG1 class of Electric locomotives were built between 1934 to 1943 at the PRR shops in Altoona Pennsylvania, with a total of The R-1 had a rigid frame for its four driving axles, while the GG-1 had two frames which were articulated. Both of these prototypes, along with an O-1, a P5A and a K4s steam locomotive underwent exhaustive testing. The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class O1 comprised eight experimental Boxcab Electric locomotives ref name="pennsypower">built in 1930 and The Pennsylvania Railroad 's class P5 comprised 92 mixed-traffic Electric locomotives constructed 1931–1935 by the PRR Westinghouse and General Electric The Pennsylvania Railroad 's K4s 4-6-2 "Pacific" (425 built 1914 &ndash 1928, PRR Altoona Baldwin) was their premier Testing was conducted over a special section of test track near Claymont, Delaware and lasted for nearly two years. Claymont is a Census-designated place (CDP in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. 
The PRR built several grand railroad passenger stations in major cities, either alone or in conjunction with other railroads. |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains These architectural marvels served as the hubs for the PRR's extensive passenger service. Many of these stations are still in use today, served by Amtrak as well as regional passenger carriers. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 See also Pennsylvania Station, the name given to many of them. "Penn Station" redirects here For the restaurant chain see Penn Station (restaurant.
Broad Street Station, Philadelphia
Broad Street Station was the first of the great passenger stations built by the PRR. Broad Street Station was a railroad station built in 1881 and served as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 's primary rail hub until the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR Opened in 1881, the station was dramatically expanded in the early 1890s by famed Philadelphia architect Frank Furness, and for most of its existence served with City Hall as arguably one of the crown jewels of Philadelphia's architecture, and for thirty years had the largest train shed in the world (a 91 m span). Frank Heyling Furness (1839–1912 was an acclaimed American architect It was the terminal station for the PRR service into Philadelphia, bringing trains right into the center of the city. It was demolished in 1953 after the PRR moved all its hub service to 30th Street Station.
Union Station, Washington, DC
Union Station served as a hub for PRR passenger services in the nation's capital, with connections to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and Southern Railway (US). Union Station is the grand ceremonial Train station designed to be the entrance to Washington D The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac provided a link to Richmond, Virginia, about 100 miles (160 km) to the south, where major north–south lines of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and Seaboard Air Line Railroad provided service to the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida. This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Penn Station, New York, NY
The original Pennsylvania Station was modeled on the Roman Baths of Caracalla; it was notable for its enormous rail shed and its infamous demolition in the railroad's waning years. Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City "Penn Station" redirects here For the restaurant chain see Penn Station (restaurant. The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths or Thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216 during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla The station was built in 1910 to provide direct access to Manhattan from New Jersey without having to use a ferry, and was served by the PRR's own trains as well as those of the PRR's subsidiary the Long Island Rail Road. Its 1963 demolition did not, however, extend to the platforms, the tracks, or even some of the staircases.
Penn Station, Newark, NJ
This recently refurbished station was built in the 1930s as part of the PRR's Northeast Corridor infrastructure. Pennsylvania Station in Newark New Jersey (also known as Newark Penn Station) is a railroad/subway/bus transportation hub The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency Its style is a mixture of Art Deco and Neo-Classical. Amtrak still makes stops here, however this station mainly serves as a stop for three commuter lines.
30th Street Station, Philadelphia, PA
In classical grandeur, the 30th Street Station displays its majestic—and traditional—architectural style with its enormous waiting room and its vestibules. 30th Street Station is the main railroad station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The station, in spite of its apparent architectural classicism, was constructed in the 1930s, when moderne and art deco styles were more popular. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Its construction was necessitated by the shifting of much of the PRR's intercity and suburban traffic out of Broad Street Station, and now is the primary rail station in Philadelphia.
Union Station, Chicago, IL
The Pennsylvania Railroad, along with the Milwaukee Road and the Burlington Route, built Chicago's Union Station, the only one of Chicago's old stations to still exist as a train station (the rest of Chicago's operating passenger stations have been substantially remodeled). Union Station is a Chicago Train station that opened in 1925 replacing an earlier 1881 station and is now the only Intercity rail terminal in Chicago It was designed by Graham, Anderson, Probst & White in the Beaux-Arts style. Graham Anderson Probst & White is a Chicago architecture firm that was founded in 1912 originally as Graham Burnham & Co Beaux Arts architecture denotes the academic classical Architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris.
Presidents of the Pennsylvania Railroad:
Chief Executive Officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad: