Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane and V. K. Krishna Menon(first high comm to Uk from India). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Sir Allen Lane ( 21 September 1902 &ndash 7 July 1970) (born Allen Lane Williams) was a British Publisher who Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon ( 3 May 1897 - 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist and politician Lane's idea was to provide quality writing cheaply, for the same price as a pack of cigarettes. He also wanted them to be sold not only in bookshops but in railway stations, general stores and corner shops. Its most emblematic products are its paperbacks. Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of Bodley Head with the books originally distributed from a church crypt. In the Publishing Industry, an imprint can refer to two different things It can mean a Brand name under which a work is published Bodley Head is an English Publishing house founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s In terms of European architecture a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek κρυπτη, kryptē) is a stone chamber or
Today Penguin Books is a division of the world-wide Penguin Group and is owned by Pearson PLC. Penguin Group is the second largest trade book Publisher in the world behind Random House. Pearson plc () is a London -based media conglomerate. It is the largest book Publisher in the UK, India, Australia Its counterpart in the United States is Penguin Group (USA). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Penguin Group is the second largest trade book Publisher in the world behind Random House. Penguin is the lead publisher for the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and India. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
The publication of literature in paperback, then associated mainly with poor quality, lurid fiction, did not appear viable to Bodley Head and the deliberately cheap price of 6d. £sd (pronounced and sometimes written Lsd) was the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies ( sterling) used in the United Kingdom and made profitability seem unlikely. This helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights cheaply for some works, from other publishers convinced of the short term prospects of the business. The publication right is a Copyright granted to the publisher who first publishes a previously unpublished work after that work's original copyright has expired The purchase of 63,000 books by Woolworth paid for the project outright, confirmed its worth and allowed Lane to establish Penguin as a separate business in 1936. This article is about the British Woolworths Group plc, and its stores By March 1936, ten months after the company's launch on 30 July 1935, one million Penguin books had been printed. Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
From the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. Eschewing the illustrated gaudiness of other paperback publishers, Penguin opted for the simple appearance of three horizontal bands, the upper and lower of which were colour coded according to which series the title belonged to; this is sometimes referred to as the horizontal grid. In the central white panel, the author and title were printed in Eric Gill's sans serif and in the upper band was a cartouche with the legend "Penguin Books". Arthur Eric Rowton Gill ( 22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was a British sculptor, typeface designer, History Ancient usages Sans-serif letter forms can be found in Latin Etruscan, and Greek inscriptions for as early as 5th century BC In Egyptian hieroglyphs a cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line at one end indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name coming into use during The initial design was created by the then twenty-one-year-old office junior Edward Young, who also drew the first version of the Penguin logo. Career After sea trials and working up in Holy Loch and Scapa Flow Storm's first (and uneventful patrol was to the Norwegian coast north of the Arctic Circle A logo ( Greek el λογότυπος = el-Latn logotypos is a graphical element ( Ideogram, Symbol, Emblem, Icon, Sign)
The colour schemes included: orange and white for general fiction, green and white for crime fiction, red and white for travel and adventure, blue and white for biographies; and the rarer purple and white for essays and belles lettres and grey and white for world affairs. An essay is usually a short piece of writing It is often written from an author's personal point of view. See also Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a term that is used to describe a category Lane actively resisted the introduction of cover images for several years. Some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look.
Lane expanded the business in 1937 with the publication of George Bernard Shaw's The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism under the Pelican Books imprint, an imprint designed to educate the reading public rather than entertain. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is a book written by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw. The war years continued the company's success with healthy sales of titles, meaning that Penguin suffered less from the paper rationing which afflicted other publishers. Aircraft Recognition by Saville-Sneath, RA, was a best seller. In 1940, the children's imprint Puffin Books began with a series of non-fiction picture books; the first work of children's fiction published under the imprint was Barbara Euphan Todd's Worzel Gummidge the following year. Barbara Euphan Todd ( 9 January 1890 - 2 February 1976) was a British writer Worzel Gummidge is a British children's fictional character – a walking talking Scarecrow, who originally appeared in a series of books by the novelist Barbara In 1945 Penguin began what would become one of its most important branches, the Penguin Classics, with a translation of Homer's Odyssey by E. V. Rieu. Design Penguin Books have paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. Emile Victor Rieu (1887&ndash1972 is best known for his lucid translations of Homer, as editor of Penguin Classics, and for a modern translation of the four Between 1947 and 1949, the Swiss typographer Jan Tschichold redesigned 500 Penguin books, and left Penguin with a set of influential rules of design principles brought together as the Penguin Composition Rules, a four page booklet of typographic instructions for editors and compositors. Jan Tschichold ( April 2 1902 Leipzig, Germany &ndash August 11 1974 Locarno, Switzerland) was Tschichold's work included the woodcut illustrated covers of the classics series (also known as the medallion series), and with Hans Schmoller, his eventual successor at Penguin, the vertical grid covers that became the standard for Penguin fiction throughout the 1950s. By this time the paperback industry in the UK had begun to grow, and Penguin found itself in competition with then fledgling Pan Books. Pan Books is an Imprint which first became active in the 1940s and is now part of the British-based Macmillan Publishers owned by German publishers
By 1960, a number of forces were to shape the direction of the company, the publication list and its graphic design. On 20 April 1961, Penguin became a publicly listed company on the London Stock Exchange; consequently, Allen Lane had a diminished role at the firm though he was to continue as Managing Director. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New techniques such as phototypesetting and offset-litho printing were to replace hot metal and letterpress printing, dramatically reducing cost and permitting the printing of images and text on the same paper stock, thus paving the way for the introduction of photography and novel approaches to graphic design on paperback covers. Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, rendered obsolete with the popularity of the Personal computer and Desktop publishing software that Offset printing is a commonly used Printing technique where the Inked image is transferred (or "offset" from a plate to a rubber blanket then to the Letterpress printing is a term for Printing text with Movable type, in which the raised surface of the type is Inked and then pressed against a smooth In May 1960, Tony Godwin was appointed as editorial advisor, rapidly rising to Chief Editor from which position he sought to broaden the range of Penguin's list and keep up with new developments in graphic design. Anthony James Wylie "Tony" Godwin was a British publisher of the 1960s/1970s To this end, he hired Germano Facetti in January 1961, who was to decisively alter the appearance of the Penguin brand. Germano Facetti (May 5 1926 &ndash April 8 2006 was an Italian Graphic designer who headed design at Penguin Books from 1962 to 1971 Beginning with the crime series, Facetti canvassed the opinion of a number of designers including Romek Marber for a new look to the Penguin cover. Romek Marber (1925-) was a Polish freelance designer noted for his work with Penguin Books. It was Marber's suggestion of what came to be called the Marber grid along with the retention of traditional Penguin colour coding that was to replace the previous three horizontal bars design and set the pattern for the design of the company's paperbacks for the next twenty years. Facetti rolled out the new treatment across the Penguin line starting with crime, the orange fiction series, then Pelicans, Penguin Modern Classics, Penguin Specials, and Penguin Classics, giving an overall visual unity to the company's list. A pelican is a large water Bird with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the Bird family Pelecanidae. A somewhat different approach was taken to the Peregrine, Penguin Poets, Penguin Modern Poets, and Penguin Plays series. There were over a hundred different series published in total.
By the end of the 1960s, Penguin was in financial trouble. Ultimately, the company was bought out by Pearson Longman on 21 August 1970, some six weeks after the death of Allen Lane. Longman was a publishing company founded in London, England in 1724 Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A new emphasis on profitability emerged and, with the departure of Facetti in 1972, the defining era of Penguin book design came to an end.
Just as Lane well judged the public's appetite for paperbacks in the 1930s, his decision to publish Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence in 1960 boosted Penguin's notoriety. Lady Chatterley's Lover is a Novel by D H Lawrence written in 1928 David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930 was an English writer of the 20th century whose prolific and diverse output included Novels short The novel was at the time unpublished in Britain and the predicted obscenity trial not only marked Penguin as a fearless publisher, it also helped drive the sale of at least 3. Obscenity (in Latin obscenus, meaning "foul repulsive detestable" is a term that is most often used in a legal context to 5 million copies. Penguin's victory in the case heralded the end to the censorship of books in Britain, although censorship of the written word was only finally defeated after the Inside Linda Lovelace trial of 1978. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Other controversial titles published by Penguin include Spycatcher and The Satanic Verses. SpyCatcher is an anti- Spyware program developed by Tenebril, for Microsoft Windows. The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie 's fourth Novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. In the same tradition of courting controversy, Penguin published Deborah Lipstadt's book Denying the Holocaust which accused David Irving of Holocaust denial. Deborah Esther Lipstadt (born March 18 1947 New York City) is an American Historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. David John Cawdell Irving (born 24 March 1938 is a British writer specializing in the Military history of World War II. Holocaust denial is the claim that the Genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as The Holocaust —did not occur in the Irving sued Lipstadt and Penguin for libel in 1998 but lost in a widely publicized trial. David John Cawdell Irving (born 24 March 1938 is a British writer specializing in the Military history of World War II.
But in the early part of the millennium, the publisher has encountered several problems, especially in distribution of its books in the UK, when a new computerised system failed to identify the books needed by booksellers. Authors lost on sales of their books and hence of royalties. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an They waged a long campaign against the publisher for its incompetence. Most recently, its US associate, Penguin Riverhead has published a fabricated autobiography, known as Love and Consequences, by the new author Margaret Seltzer. Margaret Seltzer ( Pseudonymously Margaret B Jones (born 1975 in Sherman Oaks, California) is an American writer Margaret Seltzer ( Pseudonymously Margaret B Jones (born 1975 in Sherman Oaks, California) is an American writer It was a tale of sex, drugs and gangs in Los Angeles, but turned out to be a hoax when the author's sister revealed the extent of the deception. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West A hoax is a deliberate attempt to Dupe, Deceive or trick an audience into believing or accepting that something is real when in fact it is not or that It has been withdrawn as of March 2008, and a book tour cancelled. The genre is well populated by similar works of deception, and is known as Misery lit. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Misery lit ( mis lit, misery memoirs, misery porn) is a term ostensibly coined by ''The Bookseller'' magazine The genre Works in the genre Penguin failed to check the background of the author, who turned out to be white, affluent and middle-class, and one who attended creative writing courses. Creative writing is considered to be any writing Fiction or Non-fiction, that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, Journalistic,
The first twenty books published by Penguin under the Bodley Head imprint were:
The imprint publishes hundreds of classics from the Greeks and Romans to Victorian Literature to modern classics. André Maurois, born Emile Salomon Wilhelm Herzog, ( July 26, 1885 &ndash October 9, 1967) was a French author and man of letters A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical Novel written by Ernest Hemingway, first published in 1929 Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. Eric Robert Russell Linklater (8 March 1899 - 7 November 1974 was a British writer known for more than 20 novels as well as Short stories, travel writing and autobiography Susan Ertz (1894 &ndash April 11, 1985) was a British fiction writer and Novelist known for her "sentimental tales of genteel The Unpleasantness at the Bellona Club is a 1928 novel by Dorothy L Dorothy Leigh Sayers ( IPA: usually pronounced /ˈseɪɜrz/ although Sayers herself preferred /ˈsɛːz/ and encouraged the use of her middle initial to facilitate this The Mysterious Affair at Styles is a detective novel by Agatha Christie. Agatha Mary Clarissa Lady Mallowan, DBE (née Miller; 15 September 1890 &ndash 12 January 1976 commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English John Beverley Nichols ( September 9, 1898 in Bower Ashton, Bristol – September 15, 1983 in the hospital at Kingston Emily Hilda Young (March 21 1880 - August 8 1949 was an English Novelist. Gone to Earth was the second full-length solo album by David Sylvian and was released in 1986. Mary Webb ( March 25, 1881 &ndash October 8, 1927) was an English romantic novelist of the early 20th century whose Hardyesque novels Sir Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie ( January 17, 1883, West Hartlepool, England – November 30, 1972 in Edinburgh South Wind may refer to The South wind, a wind that originates in the south and blows north For the New Zealand politician see Norman Douglas (New Zealand George Norman Douglas ( December 8 1868 - February The Purple Land is a novel set in nineteenth century Uruguay by William Henry Hudson, first published in 1885 under the title The Purple Land that England Lost William Henry Hudson ( August 4, 1841 &ndash August 18, 1922) was an author naturalist and ornithologist. Philip MacDonald ( November 5, 1900, London — December 10, 1980, Woodland Hills California) was an English The Thin Man (1934 is a Hardboiled detective novel by Dashiell Hammett. Samuel Dashiell Hammett ( May 27, 1894 — January 10, 1961) was an American Author of Hardboiled detective Four Frightened People is a 1934 film made by Paramount Pictures, directed by Cecil B Eileen Arbuthnot Robertson (1903-1961 was a British Novelist and Film critic. Victoria Mary Sackville-West The Hon Lady Nicolson, CH ( March 9, 1892 &ndash June 2, 1962) best known as Vita Sackville-West Liam O'Flaherty ( August 28, 1896 &ndash September 7, 1984) was a significant Irish Novelist and Short story Gladys Bronwyn Stern or GB Stern, 1890&ndash1973 born Gladys Bertha Stern in London, England, wrote many novels short stories Louis Bromfield ( December 27, 1896 &ndash March 18, 1956) was an American author and conservationist who gained international recognition Erewhon, or Over the Range is a Novel by Samuel Butler, published anonymously in 1872 Samuel Butler ( December 4, 1835 - June 18, 1902 was an iconoclastic Victorian author who published a variety of works including the Design Penguin Books have paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold Originally, red and yellow marks on the spines of the books determined type. In 2002, Penguin announced it was redesigning its entire catalogue, merging the original Classics list (known in the trade as "Black Classics") with what had been the old Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics list, though the existing silver covers for the latter have so far been retained for most of the titles.
The redesign — featuring a colourful painting on the cover, with black background and orange lettering — was well received. However, the quality of the paperbacks themselves seemed to decrease: the spines were more likely to fold and bend. The paperbacks are also printed on non-acid-free pulp paper which, by some accounts, tends to yellow and brown within a couple of years. 
The text page design was also overhauled to follow a more closely prescribed template, allowing for faster copyediting and typesetting, but reducing the options for individual design variations suggested by a text's structure or historical context (for example, in the choice of text typeface). In Typography, a typeface is a set of one or more Fonts designed with stylistic unity each comprising a coordinated set of Glyphs A typeface usually comprises Prior to 2002 the text page typography of each book in the Classics series had been overseen by a team of in-house designers; this department was closed in 2003 as part of the production costs rationalisation of the Classics list, and any design work is now done by editors and outside suppliers.
Penguin Books has been in some disputes over names and trademarks. Design Penguin Books have paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold Sir Allen Lane ( 21 September 1902 &ndash 7 July 1970) (born Allen Lane Williams) was a British Publisher who Viking Press is an American Publishing company currently owned by Penguin Books. For other uses of the name Hamish Hamilton please see Hamish Hamilton (disambiguation Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house Penguin Books is a British Publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. Ladybird Books is a London -based Publishing company trading as a stand-alone imprint within the Penguin Group of companies Rough Guides Ltd is a Guidebook and Reference publisher owned by Pearson PLC. Dorling Kindersley is a leading publisher of illustrated reference books In 1986, it pushed Penguin Software to give up its name. Penguin Software was a Video game publisher from Geneva, Illinois that produced graphics software and games for the Apple II, Macintosh More recently, it published a book katie.com which caused problems for the unrelated user of that domain, and then tried to acquire the domain. Katiecom is an autobiographical book which details how author Katie Tarbox was stalked and almost molested at age 14 by Frank Kufrovich a pedophile and sexual predator whom