A penal colony is a settlement used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labour in an economically underdeveloped part of the state's (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Penal labour or penal servitude is a form of Unfree labour. The term may refer to two different notions labour as a form of punishment and labour as a form of occupation A prison farm is a large Correctional facility where Hard labor convicts are put to economical use in a 'farm' (in the wide sense of a productive unit usually The most well known was Devil's Island in French Guiana. For other uses see Devils Island. Devil's Island (Île du Diable is the smallest and northernmost island of the three Îles du Salut French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France The British Empire used its colonies in North America as such for more than 150 years and parts of Australia for a further 75 years. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
The prison regime was often harsh, sometimes including severe physical punishment, so even if prisoners were not sentenced for the rest of their natural lives, many died from hunger, disease, medical neglect, excessive labour, or during an escape attempt. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior
In the penal colony system, prisoners were sent far away to prevent escape and to discourage returning after their sentence expired. Penal Colonies were often located in frontier lands, especially the more inhospitable parts, where their unpaid labour could benefit the metropoles before immigration labor became available, or even afterwards where they are much cheaper; in fact sometimes people (especially the poor, following a similar social logic as could see them domestically 'employed' in a poorhouse) were sentenced for trivial or dubious offenses to generate cheap labor. The metropole, from the Greek Metropolis 'mother city' (polis being a city state hence also used for any colonizing 'mother country' in ecclesiastical languages an archbishopric having Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term poorhouse or workhouse is a government-run Facility for the support and housing of dependent or needy persons typically run by a local government entity such as a
The British used North America as a penal colony both in the usual sense and through the system of indentured servitude. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Most notably, the Province of Georgia was originally designed as a penal colony. The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British North America. Convicts would be transported by private sector merchants and auctioned off to plantation owners upon arrival in the colonies. It is generously estimated that some 50,000 British convicts were sent to colonial America, representing perhaps one-quarter of all British emigrants during the eighteenth century.
When that avenue closed in the 1780s after the American Revolution, Britain began using parts of modern day Australia as penal colonies. Events and trends 1783 First manned Hot air balloon invented in France. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Some of these early colonies were Norfolk Island, Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. Norfolk Island ( Norfuk: Norfuk Ailen) is a small inhabited island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia. Advocates of Irish Home Rule or of Trade Unionism (the Tolpuddle Martyrs) often received sentences of deportation to these Australian colonies. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society In Law, a sentence forms the final act of a Judge -ruled process and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function
In colonial India, the British had made various penal colonies. Two of the most infamous ones are on the Andaman islands and Hijli. The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. Hijli Detention Camp, located in Hijli, beside Kharagpur, (a part of former Hijli Kingdom) in the district of Midnapore West, West Bengal
- During the Argentine rule of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands Major Esteban Mestivier was commissioned by the Buenos Aires government, as the new governor of the islands, to set up a penal colony. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern He arrived at his destination on November 15, 1832 but his soldiers mutinied and killed him. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even Lt. Col. José María Pinedo quelled the rebellion and took charge as governor. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Argentinas southermost city Ushuaia was founded as a penal colony. Ushuaia (u'swaia is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and is sometimes considered to be the southernmost city in the world
- France sent criminals to tropical penal colonies. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Devil's Island in French Guiana, 1852 - 1939, received forgers and other criminals. For other uses see Devils Island. Devil's Island (Île du Diable is the smallest and northernmost island of the three Îles du Salut French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France New Caledonia in Melanesia (in the South Sea) received dissidents like the Communards, Kabyles rebels as well as convicted criminals. For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" The Communards were members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War and France's defeat Kabyles du Pacifique (" Kabyles of the Pacific " were a group of men and women deported by French authorities to Labor camps
- In Ecuador, the Island of San Cristobál (in the Galapagos archipelago) was used as a penal colony 1869 - 1904. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. San Cristóbal ( Chatham) is the easternmost Island in the Galápagos archipelago, and one of the oldest geologically
- Both Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union used Siberia as a penal colony for criminals and dissidents. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving A dissident, broadly defined is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine policy or institution Though geographically contiguous with heartland Russia, Siberia provided both remoteness and a harsh climate. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of In 1857, a penal colony was established on the island of Sakhalin. Sakhalin (Сахали́н səxʌˈlʲin Japanese:nihongo|樺太|karafuto or; Chinese: 庫頁 Kùyè also Saghalien, is a large elongated The Gulag and its tsarist predecessor, the katorga system, provided slave-type penal labor to develop forestry, logging and mining industries, construction enterprises, as well as highways and railroads across Siberia. The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Katorga (ка́торга from medieval Greek: katergon κάτεργον Galley) was the precursor to the Gulag system Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Before adding any more images to this * * page please do carefully consider * * whether they would be mere decoration * * or actually improve "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
- The Netherlands had a penal colony since the late 1800s. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A town called Veenhuizen, originally set up to "re-educate" vagrants from the large cities in the west like Amsterdam, by a private company; it was taken over by the Department of Justice to be turned into a collection of prison buildings. Veenhuizen is a village (around 800 inhabitants that was in the municipality (or Gemeente) Norg before is was reorganized to be a part of a larger collection Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west The town is located in the least populated province of Drenthe in the north of the country, isolated in the middle of a vast area of peat and marshland. Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands, located in the north-east of the country
- Currently in Mexico, the island of María Madre (in the Marías Islands) is used as a penal colony. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Islas Marías ("Maria Islands" are an archipelago of 4 Islands that belong to Mexico. The Islas Marías Federal Penal Colony is a Penitentiary establishment of the Federal Government of Mexico, administered through the Federal Secretariat of Public With a small population (less than 1200), the colony is governed by a state official who is both the governor of the islands and chief judge. The military command is independent of the government and is exercised by an officer of the Mexican Navy. The other islands are uninhabited.
- Tarrafal was a Portuguese penal colony in the Cape Verde Islands, set up by the head of the Portuguese government, Salazar, before WWII (1936) where anti-fascist opponents of this right-wing regime were sent. For the parish in the island of São Nicolau see Tarrafal (São Nicolau. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Republic of Cape Verde ( Portuguese: Cabo Verde, 'kabu 'veɾdɨ is a Republic located on an Archipelago in the Macaronesia António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɨ oli'vɐiɾɐ sɐlɐ'zaɾ At least 32 Anarchists, Communists and other opponents of Salazar's regime died in that camp. The camp was closed in 1954 but was re-opened in the 1970s to jail African leaders fighting Portuguese colonialism.
- Taiwan had a penal colony at Green Island during Chiang Kai Shek's White Terror. Green Island ( POJ: Le̍k-tó is a small volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean, about 33 km (20 In general the term White Terror refers to acts of violence carried out by Reactionary (usually monarchist or conservative) groups as part of a
- In the Penal Colony is a short story by Franz Kafka upon which the movie Colonia penal, La (1970) is based. "In the Penal Colony" ( German: "In der Strafkolonie" is a Short story in German by Franz Kafka.
- More than one of Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series, including Desolation Island and The Nutmeg of Consolation include scenes set in and around New South Wales. Patrick O'Brian, CBE ( 12 December 1914 &ndash 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English The Aubrey–Maturin series is a sequence of Historical novels — 20 completed and one unfinished — by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic The Nutmeg of Consolation is the fourteenth book in the Aubrey-Maturin series of novels by Patrick O'Brian.
- "For the Term of His Natural Life" by Marcus Clarke is a 19th Century novel dealing with the main characters deportation to the Port Arthur penal colony in Hobart, Australia in 1830. For the Term of his Natural Life, written by Marcus Clarke, was published in the Australian Journal between 1870 and 1872 (as His Natural Life This article is about the novelist Marcus Clarke For the puppeteer of the same name see Marcus Clarke (puppeteer. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Port Arthur is a small town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. There are several movie versions, such as the 1983 TV movie starring Colin Friels. Colin Friels (born 25 September 1952 is a distinguished Scottish -born Australian actor
- "Morgan's Run" by Colleen McCullough is a 20th Century novel dealing with the main characters deportation to the Australian penal colony. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
- "Our Country's Good" a play by Timberlake Wertenbaker, focuses on the story of deportees to a penal colony. Our Country's Good is a 1988 play written by British playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker, adapted from the Thomas Keneally novel The Playmaker Lael Louisiana Timberlake Wertenbaker (born 1944 is an America-born British playwright
- "Papillon" is the title of Henri Charriere's 20th Century inautobiographical novel concerning a Frenchman interned on a penal colony in French Guiana, and the 1973 movie directed by Franklin J. Papillon is a Memoir by convicted felon Henri Charrière. It was first published in 1969 and became an instant bestseller at the time Henri Charrière ( November 16, 1906 - July 29, 1973) was a convicted felon chiefly known as the author of Papillon The twentieth century of the Common Era began on French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France Papillon is a 1973 Film based on the autobiography of Henri Charrière. Schaffner.
The concept of remote and inhospitable prison planets has been employed by science fiction writers. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is Some famous examples include:
- Kessel, a prison planet which specialized in spice mining in the Star Wars universe. Kalakar VI was a volcanic spoon of Dromund Kalakar in the Outer Rim Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded
- Robert Sheckley's Omega
- Salusa Secundus in Frank Herbert's Dune,
- Fiorina 'Fury' 161, the penal colony in Alien³ that was an abandoned leadworks,
- The CoDominium series of Jerry Pournelle showed several planets, such as Tanith, Haven and Sparta, that were used as dumping grounds for criminals and dissidents,
- Rura Penthe, a Klingon colony where prisoners mine dilithium in the Star Trek universe,
- The Doctor Who serial Frontier in Space features a lunar penal colony in the 26th century; a lunar penal colony of the 2002nd century is also mentioned in the episode "Bad Wolf",
- In several episodes the TV series Stargate SG-1, whole planets are used as penal colonies, generally by the goa'uld, e. Robert Sheckley ( July 16, 1928 &ndash December 9, 2005) was a Hugo and Nebula nominated American author Arrakis is also an alternative name for the star Mu Draconis. Franklin Patrick Herbert Jr ( October 8 1920 &ndash February 11 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American Dune is a Science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert and published in 1965. Alien 3, styled as Alien³, is a 1992 Science fiction / Horror film (see 1992 in film) Alien 3, styled as Alien³, is a 1992 Science fiction / Horror film (see 1992 in film) The fictional CoDominium universe is a Future history (now alternate history) setting for the books in the CoDominium Series by Jerry Pournelle. Jerry Eugene Pournelle (born August 7, 1933) is an American Science fiction Writer, Essayist and Journalist War World is a series of collaborative Science fiction books set in the CoDominium universe of Jerry Pournelle, some novels co-authored by Larry Klingons ( Klingon: tlhIngan; Pronunciation /ˈt͡ɬɪŋɑn/ are a warrior race in the fictional Star Trek universe In the Star Trek universe, dilithium is a fictional Chemical element, although the name also applies to a real-world molecule. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. Frontier in Space is a serial in the British Science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in This article is about the Doctor Who episode For the folk tale character see Big Bad Wolf. In the Science fiction Television series Stargate SG-1, the Goa'uld (pronounced go-ah-OOLD or, commonly mispronounced or shortened g. Hadante in episode 25 (season 2)
- Crematoria is the sun scorched prison planet in The Chronicles of Riddick,
- "Hawksbill Station" by Robert Silverberg is a 1970 novel where political prisoners are sent to the pre-Cambrian period via a one-way time travel machine. The Chronicles of Riddick is a 2004 American science fiction / fantasy / thriller Film. Hawksbill Station is a Science fiction Novel written by Robert Silverberg. Robert Silverberg (born January 15, 1935) is a prolific American author best known for writing Science fiction.
- The Moon in Robert A. Heinlein's novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress
- The planet Shayol appears in Cordwainer Smith's stories. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 Science fiction Novel by American writer Robert A A Planet Named Shayol is a story by Cordwainer Smith (penname of Paul Linebarger set in his Instrumentality universe Cordwainer Smith — pronounced CORDwainer — was the Pseudonym used by American Author Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger ( July
- In episode 1-2 Trust of the Starhunter series, the planet Mercury is a fully automated prison. Starhunter is a Canadian Science fiction Television series that aired for two seasons Automation ( Ancient Greek: = self dictated) roboticization or industrial automation or Numerical control is the use of Control systems A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of
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