Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. Lewis ( Leòdhas ʎɔːɣəs̪ ( Norse: Ljoðhús "home Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism Peat forms in wetlands or peatlands, variously called bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and peat swamp forests. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas characterised by low growing vegetation on Acidic soils Muskeg is an acidic soil type common in Arctic and Boreal areas although it is found in other northern climates as well Pocosin is a term for a type of Palustrine Wetland with deep acidic sandy Peat soils Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soils prevent dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing which over time creates thick layer of acidic
Peat deposits are found in many places around the world, notably in Russia, Belarus, Ireland, Finland, Estonia, Scotland, Poland, northern Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, New Zealand and in North America, principally in Canada, Michigan, Minnesota, the Florida Everglades, and California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. East Frisia or Eastern Friesland ( Low Saxon: Oostfreesland, German Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County Florida California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an expansive inland River delta and Estuary in northern California in the United States. Approximately 60% of the world's wetlands are peat. Peatlands cover a total of around 3% of global land mass or 3,850,000 to 4,100,000 km². About 7% of this total has been exploited for agriculture and forestry, with significant environmental repercussions. Under proper conditions, peat will turn into lignite coal over geologic periods of time. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere
Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. It is composed mainly of marshland vegetation: trees, grasses, fungi, as well as other types of organic remains, such as insects, and animal corpses. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Under certain conditions, the decomposition of the latter (in the absence of oxygen) is inhibited, and archaeologists often take advantage of this. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos
Peat layer growth and the degree of decomposition (or humification) depends principally on its composition and on the degree of waterlogging. Peat formed in very wet conditions will grow considerably faster, and be less decomposed, than that in drier places. This allows climatologists to use peat as an indicator of climatic change. Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically The composition of peat can also be used to reconstruct ancient ecologies by examining the types and quantities of its organic elements.
Under the right conditions, peat is the earliest stage in the formation of coal. Most modern peat bogs formed in high latitudes after the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last ice age some 9,000 years ago. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets They usually grow slowly, at the rate of about a millimetre per year.
Peat material is either fibric, hemic, or sapric. Fibric peats are the least decomposed, and comprise intact fiber. Hemic peats are somewhat decomposed, and sapric are the most decomposed.
Phragmites peat is one composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, and other grasses. Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in Wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the It is denser than many other types of peat.
Six principal types of peatlands are widely recognized. These are:
Peat is soft and easily compressed. A blanket is a type of Bedding, generally speaking a large piece of cloth intended to keep the user warm especially while Sleeping Blankets are distinguished from Ulsta is a village in the south-west of the island of Yell, Shetland, Scotland. Yell is one of the North Isles of Shetland, Scotland. In the 2001 census it had a usually resident population of 957 Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of Under pressure, water in the peat is forced out. Upon drying, peat can be used as a fuel. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. It has industrial importance as a fuel in some countries, such as Ireland and Finland, where it is harvested on an industrial scale. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world In many countries, including Ireland and Scotland, where trees are often scarce, peat is traditionally used for cooking and domestic heating. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Stacks of drying peat dug from the bogs can still be seen in some rural areas.
Peat is also dug into soil to increase the soil's capacity to retain moisture and add nutrients. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment This makes it important agriculturally, for farmers and gardeners. Its insulating properties make it of use to industry.
Peat fires are used to dry malted barley for use in Scotch whisky distillation. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Scotch whisky is Whisky made in Scotland. In Britain the term whisky is usually taken to mean Scotch unless otherwise specified This gives Scotch whisky its distinctive smoky flavour, often called "peatiness" by its aficionados. Fans in Little Italyjpg|thumb|right|Fans in Little Italy Manhattan celebrating the victory of the Italian association football team after the 2006 FIFA World Cup]][[Image Wm-oly-de-cr
Although peat has many uses for humans, it also presents severe problems at times. When dry, it can be a major fire hazard, as peat fires can burn almost indefinitely (or at least until the fuel is exhausted), even underground, provided there is a source of oxygen. Peat deposits also pose major difficulties to builders of structures, roads and railways, as they are highly compressible under even small loads. When the West Highland Line was built across Rannoch Moor in western Scotland, its builders had to float the tracks on a mattress of tree roots, brushwood and thousands of tons of earth and ashes. The West Highland Line ( Scottish Gaelic: Rathad Iarainn nan Eilean - "Iron Road to the Isles" is one of the most scenic railway lines in Britain linking Rannoch Moor is a large expanse of around 50 square miles (130 km² of boggy Moorland to the west of Loch Rannoch, in Perth and Kinross Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
During prehistoric times, peat bogs had considerable ritual significance to Bronze Age and Iron Age peoples, who considered them to be home to (or at least associated with) nature gods or spirits. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The bodies of the victims of ritual sacrifices have been found in a number of locations in England, Ireland, and especially northern Germany and Denmark, almost perfectly preserved by the tanning properties of the acidic water. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe (See Tollund Man for one of the most famous examples of a bog body). The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved Human bodies found in sphagnum bogs in Northern Europe, Great Britain and
Peat wetlands formerly had a degree of metallurgical importance as well. During the Dark Ages, peat bogs were the primary source of bog iron, used to create the swords and armour of the Vikings. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe Bog iron refers to impure Iron deposits that develop in bogs or Swamps by the Chemical or Biochemical Oxidation of iron carried A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas
Many peat swamps along the coast of Malaysia serve as a natural means of flood mitigation. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The peat swamps serve like a natural form of water catchment whereby any overflow will be absorbed by the peat. However, this is effective only if the forests are still present, since they prevent peat fires.
Peat is also an important raw material in horticulture, and it is used in medicine and balneology to produce filters, textiles etc. Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation Balneotherapy (from Latin balneum "bath" the treatment of Disease by Bathing. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn.
Peat is sometimes used in freshwater aquaria, most commonly in soft water or blackwater river systems, such as those mimicking the Amazon River basin. An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants A blackwater river is a river with a deep slow-moving channel that flows through forested Swamps and Wetlands. The Amazon River (Rio Amazonas Río Amazonas of South America is the largest river in the world by volume with a total river flow greater than the next top ten largest rivers In addition to being soft in texture and therefore suitable for demersal (bottom-dwelling) species such as Corydoras catfish, peat is reported to have a number of other beneficial functions in freshwater aquaria. Members of the South American Corydoras Genus are Freshwater Temperate and Tropical Catfish in the armored catfish It softens water by acting as an ion exchanger, it contains substances good for plants and for the reproductive health of fishes, and can even prevent algae growth and kill microorganisms. Ion exchange is an exchange of Ions between two Electrolytes or between an electrolyte Solution and a complex. Peat often stains the water yellow or brown due to the leaching of tannins. Tannins are Astringent, bitter plant Polyphenols that either bind and Precipitate or shrink Proteins The astringency from the tannins is what 
Peat is also used in cosmetic treatments, because they contain humic acids, which are able to absorb through skin and boost metabolism. Humic acid is one of the major components of humic substances which are dark brown and major constituents of soil organic matter Humus that contributes to Soil chemical
In Ireland, large-scale domestic and industrial peat usage is widespread. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Specifically in the Republic of Ireland, a state-owned company called Bord na Móna is responsible for managing peat production. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Bord na Móna ( lit Peat Board is a semi-state company in the Ireland, created in 1946 by the Turf Development Act 1946 It produces milled peat which is used in power stations. It sells processed peat fuel in the form of peat briquettes which are used for domestic heating. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire. These are oblong bars of densely compressed, dried and shredded peat. Briquettes are largely smokeless when burned in domestic fireplaces and as such are widely used in Irish towns and cities where burning non-smokeless coal is banned. Peat moss is a manufactured product for use in garden cultivation. Sphagnum is a Genus of between 151-350 species of Mosses commonly called peat moss, due to its prevalence in Peat bogs Turf (dried out peat sods) is very commonly used in rural areas. Sod or turf is grass and the part of the Soil beneath it held together by the Roots or a piece of this material
Thanks to the climate, geography and environment of Finland, bogs and peat bogs (turvesuo in Finnish) are widespread. Oulu ( (literally "Flood" ( (literally "Ule River Castle" is a city and municipality of about 130000 inhabitants in the province of Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Twenty-six percent of the land area of Finland is bog of some sort. Because of this abundance of sources, peat is available in considerable quantities: Some estimates put the amount of peat in Finland alone to be twice the size of North Sea oil reserves. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. Oil reserves are the estimated quantities of Crude oil that are claimed to be recoverable under existing Economic and operating conditions  This abundant resource (often mixed with wood at an average of 2. 6%) is burned in order to produce heat and electricity. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Peat provides approximately 6. 2% of Finland's annual energy production, second only to Ireland.  The contribution of peat to greenhouse gas emissions of Finland can exceed a yearly amount of 10 million tonnes carbon dioxide, equal to the total emissions of all passenger car traffic in Finland. Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared
Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel as opposed to the stance of the European Union and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which classify peat strictly as a fossil fuel. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Peat producers in Finland often claim that peat is a special form of biofuel, because of the relatively fast retake rate of released CO2 if the bog is not forested for the following 100 years. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland (approx 30 TWh versus 25 TWh).  The average regrowth rate of a single peat bog, however, is indeed slow, from 1,000 up to 5,000 years. Furthermore it is a common practice to forest used peat bogs instead of giving them a chance to renew, leading to lower levels of CO2 storage than the original peat bog.
At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emissions of peat are higher than those of coal (at 94. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity 6 g CO2/MJ) and natural gas (at 56. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, 1) (IPCC). According to one study, increasing the average amount of wood in the fuel mixture from the current 2. 6% to 12. 5% would take the emissions down to 93 g CO2/MJ, though little effort is made to achieve this. 
The state-owned company VAPO is the world leader in peat production with 21. 7 million cubic meters in 2003. 
Peat extraction is also seen by some conservationists as the main threat to mire biodiversity in Finland. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) in 2006 urged the local and national governments of Finland to protect and conserve the remaining pristine peatland ecosystems. This includes the cessation of drainage and peat extraction in intact mire sites and the abandoning of current and planned groundwater extraction that may affect these sites.
Because of the challenging ecological conditions of peat wetlands, they are home to many rare and specialised organisms that are found nowhere else. Some environmental organisations and scientists have pointed out that the large-scale removal of peat from bogs in Britain, Ireland and Finland is destroying wildlife habitats. It takes centuries for a peat bog to regenerate.
Recent studies indicate that the world's largest peat bog, located in Western Siberia and the size of France and Germany combined, is thawing for the first time in 11,000 years. As the permafrost melts, it could release billions of tonnes of methane gas into the atmosphere, greatly exacerbating global warming. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Such discoveries are causing climate scientists to have to revise upwards their estimates of the rate of increase in global temperatures.
The world's peatlands are thought to contain 180 to 455 petagrams of sequestered carbon, and they release into the atmosphere 20 to 45 teragrams of methane annually. Teragram may refer to 1012 grams Teragram Corporation The peatlands' contribution to long-term fluctuations in these atmospheric gases has been a matter of considerable debate. 
Peat has a high carbon content and can burn under low moisture conditions. Once ignited by the presence of a heat source (e. g. a wildfire penetrating the subsurface), it smoulders. Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling is a Flameless form of Combustion, deriving its heat from oxidations occurring on the surface of a These smouldering fires can burn undetected for very long periods of time (months, years and even centuries) propagating in a creeping fashion through the underground peat layer. Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling is a Flameless form of Combustion, deriving its heat from oxidations occurring on the surface of a Peat fires are emerging as a global threat with significant economic, social and ecological impacts. Recent burning of peat bogs in Indonesia, with their large and deep growths containing more than 50 billion tons of carbon, has contributed to increases in world carbon dioxide levels. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Peat deposits in southeast Asia could be destroyed by 2040. 
In 1997, it is estimated that peat and forest fires in Indonesia released between 0. The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air quality disaster which occurred during the second half of 1997 its after-effects causing widespread atmospheric visibility and health 81 and 2. 57 Gt of carbon; equivalent to 13-40 percent of the amount released by global fossil fuel burning, and greater than the carbon uptake of the world's biosphere. These fires likely are responsible for the boost in the increase in carbon dioxide levels since being noticed in 1997. 
More than 100 peat fires in Kalimantan and East Sumatra continue to burn since 1997. Each year the peat fires in Kalimantan and East Sumatra ignite new forest fires above the ground.
Some northern European acidic anaerobic peat bogs have proved to have the capability to preserve mammalian tissue for millennia. Examples of this conservation are Tollund Man and Haraldskær Woman, both recovered from peat bogs with remarkable intact skin, internal organs and skeletons. The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the The Haraldskær Woman is an Iron Age Bog body found naturally preserved in a Bog in Jutland, Denmark.
In June 2002 the United Nations Development Programme launched the Wetlands Ecosystem and Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Rehabilitation Project. This project is targeted to last for 5 years till 2007 and brings together the efforts of various non-government organisations.
In November 2002, the International Peat Society and the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) published guidelines on the "Wise Use of Mires and Peatlands — Backgrounds and Principles including a framework for decision-making". The aim of this publication is to develop mechanisms that can balance the conflicting demands on the global peatland heritage, to ensure its wise use to meet the needs of humankind.
The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, usually referred to simply as Kew Gardens, are extensive Gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds ( RSPB) is a British Charitable organisation which works to promote conservation and protection New Scientist is a weekly International science magazine and website covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English -speaking