Peanut (Arachis hypogea)
The peanut, or Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico and Central America. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.  It is an annual herbaceous plant growing to 30 to 50 cm (1 to 1½ ft) tall. Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) broad. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. Pinnate is a term used to describe Feather -like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis in Plant or Animal structures and comes The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also After pollination, the fruit develops into a legume 3 to 7 cm (1 to 2 in) long containing 1 to 4 seeds, which forces its way underground to mature. Pollination in angiosperms and Gymnosperms is the process that transfers pollen grains, which contain the male Gametes (sperm to where the female The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored
The plant's name combines the morphemes pea and nut, causing some confusion as to the nature of the fruit. In Morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the fruit of the peanut plant is a woody, indehiscent legume and not a nut. Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life The word pea describes the edible seeds of many other legumes in the Fabaceae family, and in that sense, a peanut is a kind of pea. A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea
Peanuts are also known as earthnuts, goobers, goober peas, pindas, jack nuts, pinders, manila nuts and monkey nuts. (The last of these is often used to mean the entire pod)
The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species. The Larco Museum (Museo Larco is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. The wild ancestors of the peanut were thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, a view recently confirmed by direct comparison of the peanut's chromosomes with those of several putative ancestors.  This domestication might have taken place in Argentina or Bolivia, where the wildest strains grow today. In fact, many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc . 
Evidence demonstrates that peanuts were domesticated in prehistoric times in Peru. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Archeologists have thus far dated the oldest specimens to about 7,600 years before the present.  Cultivation spread as far as Mesoamerica where the Spanish conquistadors found the tlalcacahuatl (Nahuatl="cacao", whence Mexican Spanish, cacahuate and French, cacahuète) being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family Mexican Spanish ( español mexicano in Spanish is the Spanish language as it is spoken in Mexico. There are some towns in Mexico which are spelled "Tenochtitlán" like San Lorenzo Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The plant was later spread worldwide by European traders. Cultivation in the English colonies of North America was popularized by African Americans, who brought the Kikongo word "goober". African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Kikongo or Kongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo and Bandundu people living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic
The nut gained Western popularity when it came to the United States from Africa. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It had become popular in Africa after being brought there from Brazil by the Portuguese around 1800. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta
The flower of the Arachis hypogaea is borne above ground and after it withers, the stalk elongates, bends down, and forces the ovary underground. When the seed is mature, the seed coat (mesocarp) changes color from white to a reddish brown. The entire plant, including most of the roots, is removed from the soil during harvesting.
The pods begin in the orange veined, yellow petaled, pea-like flowers, which are borne in auxiliary clusters above ground. Following self-pollination, the flowers fade. Self-pollination is a form of Pollination that can occur when a Flower has both Stamen and a Carpel in which the Cultivar or The stalk at the base of the ovary, called the pedicel, elongates rapidly, and turns downward to bury the fruits several inches in the ground to complete their development.
The pods act in nutrient absorption. The fruits have wrinkled shells that are constricted between the two to three seeds. The mature seeds resemble other legume seeds, such as beans, but they have paper-thin seed coats, as opposed to the usual, hard legume seed coats.
Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of 500 to 1000 mm (20 to 40 in) or the equivalent in irrigation water. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops
The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.
Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage. Poor storage of peanuts can lead to an infection by the mold fungus Aspergillus flavus, releasing the toxic substance aflatoxin. WikipediaManual_of_Style#National_varieties_of_English --> Molds (or A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Aspergillus flavus is a Mold Fungus. It is a Pathogen, associated with Aspergillosis of the Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a Fungus, most notably Aspergillus The aflatoxin producing molds exist throughout the peanut growing areas and may produce aflatoxin in peanuts when conditions are favorable to fungal growth.
Harvesting peanuts occurs in two stages. First a machine is used to cut off the main root of the peanut plant by cutting through the soil just below the level of the peanut pods. Then the same machine lifts the "bush" from the ground and shakes it. Then the machine inverts the bush to leave the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the dirt. This allows the peanuts to slowly dry to a bit less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of 2-3 weeks while they are left upside down on the field.
After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they will then be threshed. This removes the peanut pods from the rest of the bush. 
The peanut was introduced to China by Portuguese traders in the 1600s and another variety by American missionaries in the 1800s. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National They became popular and are featured in many Chinese dishes, often being boiled. During the 1980s peanut production began to increase greatly so that as of 2006 China was the world's largest peanut producer. A major factor in this increase has been China's move away from a communist economic system toward a free market system so that farmers are free to grow and market their crops as they decide. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers 
Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown, with four major Cultivar Groups being the most popular: Spanish, Runner, Virginia, and Valencia. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar There are also Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups. Certain Cultivar Groups are preferred for particular uses because of differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance. This article is a list of diseases of Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea For many uses the different cultivars are interchangeable. Most peanuts marketed in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter. Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted Peanuts with or without added oil Most Runners are used to make peanut butter.
The various types are distinguished by branching habit and branch length. There are numerous varieties of each type of peanut. There are two main growth forms, bunch and runner. Bunch types grow upright, while runner types grow near the ground.
Each year new cultivars of peanuts are bred and introduced somewhere in the peanut belt of the U. S. or in other countries. Introducing a new cultivar may mean change in the planting rate, adjusting the planter, harvester, dryer, cleaner, sheller, and method of marketing.
The small Spanish types are grown in South Africa, and in the southwestern and southeastern U. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa S. Prior to 1940, 90% of the peanuts grown in Georgia were Spanish types, but the trend since then has been larger seeded, higher yielding, more disease resistant cultivars. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule This article is a list of diseases of Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Spanish peanuts have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts and in the U. S. are now primarily grown in Oklahoma and Texas. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
Cultivars of the Spanish group include 'Dixie Spanish', 'Improved Spanish 2B', 'GFA Spanish', 'Argentine', 'Spantex', 'Spanette', 'Shaffers Spanish', 'Natal Common (Spanish)', 'White Kernel Varieties', 'Starr', 'Comet', 'Florispan', 'Spanhoma', 'Spancross', 'OLin', 'Tamspan 90', 'Spanco' and 'Wilco I'.
Since 1940, there has been a shift to production of Runner group peanuts in the southeastern U. S. Runners are found in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and South Carolina. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. This shift is due to good flavor, better roasting characteristics and higher yields when compared to Spanish types leading to food manufacturers' preference for use in peanut butter and salting.
Cultivars of Runners include 'Southeastern Runner 56-15', 'Dixie Runner', 'Early Runner', 'Virginia Bunch 67', 'Bradford Runner', 'Egyptian Giant' (also known as 'Virginia Bunch' and 'Giant'), 'Rhodesian Spanish Bunch' (Valencia and Virginia Bunch), 'North Carolina Runner 56-15', 'Georgia Green', 'Flavor Runner 458', 'Tamrun OL01', 'Tamrun OL02' and 'AT-108'.
The large seeded Virginia Group peanuts are grown in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and parts of Georgia. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule They are increasing in popularity due to demand for large peanuts for processing, particularly for salting, confections, and roasting in the shells.
Virginia Group peanuts are either bunch or running in growth habit. The bunch type is upright to spreading. It attains a height of 45 to 55 cm (18 to 22 inches), and a spread of 70 to 80 cm (28 to 30 in), with 80 to 90 cm (33 to 36 in) rows that seldom cover the ground. The pods are borne within 5 to 10 cm of the base of the plant.
Cultivars of Virginia type peanuts include NC 7, NC 9, NC 10C, NC-V 11, VA 93B, NC 12C, VA-C 92R, Gregory, VA 98R, Perry, Wilson, Hull, VC-2 and Shulamit
Valencia Group peanuts are coarse, and they have heavy reddish stems and large foliage. In the U. S. large commercial production is primarily in Eastern New Mexico, especially in and around Portales, New Mexico, but they are grown on a small scale elsewhere in the South as the best flavored and preferred type for boiled peanuts. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Portales is a city in and the County seat of Roosevelt County, New Mexico, United States. Boiled peanuts are popular in some places where peanuts are common They are comparatively tall, having a height of 125 cm (50 inches) and a spread of 75 cm (30 inches). Peanut pods are borne on pegs arising from the main stem and the side branches. Most of the pods are clustered around the base of the plant, and only a few are found several inches away. Valencia types are three seeded and smooth, with no constriction between the seeds. Seeds are oval and tightly crowded into the pods. There are two strains, one with flesh and the other with red seeds. Typical seed weight is 0. 4 to 0. 5 g.
These are alike, except for the color of the seed. The plants are similar to Valencia types, except that the stems are green to greenish brown, and the pods are rough, irregular, and have a smaller proportion of kernels.
Edible peanuts account for two-thirds of the total peanut use in the United States. Popular confections include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, candy bars, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted Peanuts with or without added oil The peanut butter and jelly sandwich, ( PB&J) also known as a peanut butter and jam sandwich in the UK Canada and Australia is a sandwich that includes a layer of A peanut butter cup is a Chocolate candy with a Peanut butter filling inside Brittles are Confections usually very hard and brittle made of Caramel, or near-caramel sugar syrup and nuts such as peanuts pecans and almonds Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail size, plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. The primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and typically eaten as a snack in the southern United States where most peanuts are grown. Boiled peanuts are popular in some places where peanuts are common Brine (lat saltus) is Water saturated or nearly saturated with Salt (NaCl More recently, peanuts can be fried, where they can be eaten both shell and nut.
Peanuts are common ingredients in Peruvian Creole cuisine reflecting the marriage of native ingredients and ingredients introduced by Europeans. In one example peanuts are roasted along with hot peppers (both native to South America) and blended with roasted onions, garlic, and oil (all of European origin) to make a smooth sauce poured over boiled potatoes. This dish is especially famous in the city of Arequipa and is known as "papas con ocopa". Another example combines a similar mixture with sautéed seafood or boiled and shredded chicken in the form of a fricassee. These dishes are generally known as "Ajis" such as "Aji de Pollo" "Aji de Mariscos". One may find that not all cooks use peanuts in seafood "ajis". The combination of ground roasted peanuts suggests some Moorish and Middle Eastern influence in modern Peruvian cuisine, presumably through the Spanish conquistadores. It is well documented that Middle Eastern cuisine makes extensive use of ground and pastes of almonds, pine nuts and other nuts combined with rice, meats and vegetables to arrive to dishes like Rice Pilaf. In the Levantine and Catalan cuisine there is also a wide use of ground nuts. Although the peanut is not a nut it may be argued that the Spanish used the peanut along with local Peruvian ingredients to emulate their ancestral cuisine in the absence of almonds and pine nuts. Peanuts are also widely used in South-East Asian cuisine, particularly Indonesia, where it is typically made into a spicy sauce. See also List of Indonesian cuisine Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 6000 populated islands that make up Indonesia Peanut sauce, satay sauce, or kacang sambal is a sauce widely used in Indonesian cuisine, Malaysian cuisine, Thai cuisine, and Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippines, where the legume came from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Common Indonesian peanut-based dishes include gado-gado, pecel, karedok and ketoprak, all vegetable salads mixed with peanut sauce, and the peanut-based dipping sauce for satay. Gado-gado is a traditional dish in Indonesian cuisine and comprises a vegetable salad served with a peanut sauce dressing Pecel is an Indonesian Sauce based on peanuts. It is commonly served over boiled vegetables. Karedok is a raw Vegetable salad from Indonesia. It is made from Cucumbers Bean sprouts Cabbage, Legumes, Thai basil Satay or sate is a dish consisting of chunks or slices of dice-sized Meat ( Chicken, Goat, Mutton, Beef, Pork Boiled peanuts are a popular Chinese snack and appetizer. Boiled peanuts are popular in some places where peanuts are common Peanuts are also used in the Mali meat stew maafe. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Maafe (var Mafé, Maffé, Maffe, sauce d'arachide, tigadèguèna or tigadene) or Groundnut Stew, is a
Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and burns at a relatively high temperature. Peanut oil ( arachis oil is an organic oil derived from Peanuts noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent Legume. Under the name Plumpy'nut 100 g (3. Plumpy'nut, also known as Plumpy, is a Peanut -based Food for use in Famine relief which was formulated in 1999 by André Briend 5 ounces), two small bags per day are given by the World Health Organization as a surviving base to many children in Africa. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their inexpensiveness compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and so on. For the 1922 short comedy film see Mixed Nuts. Mixed Nuts is a motion picture released in the United The Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American Tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially The cashew ( Anacardium occidentale; Syn Anacardium curatellifolium A Walnuts (genus Juglans) are Plants in the family Juglandaceae. The U. S. airline industry used to be a relatively large purchaser of peanuts for serving during flights (6 million lb / 3 million kg annually) before the nuts were removed from flights by many airlines (largely due to allergy concerns, but also due to cost). 
Peanuts are also very widely sold for garden bird feeding. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Low grade or culled peanuts not suitable for the edible market are used in the production of peanut oil, seed and feed, although some owners of pet hookbills avoid these kinds for that reason.
Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Nitroglycerin ( NG) ( US spelling also known as nitroglycerine, ( UK Spelling trinitroglycerin, trinitroglycerine Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. Saponification is the Hydrolysis of an Ester under basic conditions to form an Alcohol and the Salt of a Carboxylic acid The protein portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers.
Peanut shells are put to use in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, and fuel. They are also used to make cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).
Peanut plant tops are used to make hay. Hay is a generic term for grass or Legumes that have been cut dried and stored for use as animal feed, particularly for grazing animals like The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is used as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer.
Peanuts can also be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free milk-like beverage, Peanut milk
|Peanut, valencia, raw|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. Peanut milk is a non-dairy beverage created using Peanuts water and an additional sweetener 5 oz)
|Energy 570 kcal 2390 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Peanuts are a rich source of protein (roughly 30 grams per cup after roasting). Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Prior to 1990 the PER method of protein evaluation considered peanut protein along with soy protein an incomplete protein, containing relatively low amounts of the essential amino acids, cystine, and methionine (but high in lysine), and it was advised to be sure that a diet or meal with peanuts as a staple also include complementary foods such as whole grains like corn and wheat, which are adequate in methionine but limited by lysine. Protein efficiency ratio (PER is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food Protein during the test period An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an Amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to Cystine is the Amino acid Dimer formed when a pair of Cysteine molecules are joined by a Disulfide bond Methionine ( abbreviated as Met or M) is an α- Amino acid with the Chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2CH2CH2SCH3 Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α- Amino acid with the Chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2(CH24NH2 Protein combining has been largely discredited. Protein combining (also protein complementing) is a controversial theory that Vegetarians particlarly Vegans must eat certain complementary foods like Since 1990 the gold standard for measuring protein quality is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion peanut protein and other legume proteins such as soy protein is the nutritional equivalent of meat and eggs for human growth and health. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on the Amino acid requirements of humans A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus . An example of an extremely nutritious peanut-based food to restore health in starving-malnourished children is Plumpy'nut. Plumpy'nut, also known as Plumpy, is a Peanut -based Food for use in Famine relief which was formulated in 1999 by André Briend
Peanut oil is a mainly monounsaturated fat, much of which is oleic acid, the healthful type of fat that has been implicated for skin health. For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health see Diet and heart disease. Oleic acid is a Monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources Some say peanuts are an unbalanced source of fat because they have only trace amounts of required Omega-3 fats. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that  Some brands of peanut butter are fortified with Omega-3 in the form of flaxseed oil to balance the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6. n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that n −6 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−6 fatty acids or omega-6 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids
Peanuts are a good source of niacin and thus contribute to brain health, brain circulation and blood flow. Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin which prevents the deficiency disease Pellagra. 
Recent research on peanuts and nuts in general has found antioxidants and other chemicals that may provide health benefits. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules  New research shows peanuts rival the antioxidant content of many fruits. Roasted peanuts rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than apples, carrots or beets. Research conducted by a team of University of Florida scientists, published in the journal Food Chemistry, shows that peanuts contain high concentrations of antioxidant polyphenols, primarily a compound called p-coumaric acid, and that roasting can increase peanuts' p-coumaric acid levels, boosting their overall antioxidant content by as much as 22%. Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants characterized by the presence of more than one Phenol unit or building block per molecule Coumaric acids are Organic compounds that are Hydroxy derivatives of Cinnamic acid. 
Peanuts are a significant source of resveratrol, a chemical studied for potential anti-aging effects and also associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk. Resveratrol is a Phytoalexin produced naturally by several Plants when under attack by Pathogens such as Bacteria or Fungi Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled A new [date?] study by French researchers, Dr. Johan Auwerx and colleagues from the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology in Illkirch, France, recently conducted an animal study to test the effects of high doses of resveratrol on exercise endurance in mice. The results showed that the mice treated with resveratrol were found to have energy-charged muscles and a lower heart rate, much like trained athletes--they could run twice as far as the mice that were not supplemented. The conductor of the research, Dr. Johan Auwerx has said that "Resveratrol makes you look like a trained athlete without the training". 
It has recently [date?] been found that the average amount of resveratrol in one ounce of commonly eaten peanuts without the skin (15 whole peanut kernels) is 73 μg 4,5. This means that ounce for ounce, peanuts contain almost 30 times as much resveratrol as grapes, which often are touted as being one of the few good sources of the antioxidant. 
Peanuts are a source of Coenzyme Q10 along with oily fish, beef, soybeans and spinach. Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone ubidecarenone coenzyme Q and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 CoQ Q10 or Q is a Benzoquinone, where Q Oily fish, oil-rich fish or pelagic fish are those Fish which have oils throughout the Fillet and in the belly cavity around the Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) is a Flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae.  Peanuts also help to accelerate the growth of male and female hormones.
Although many people enjoy foods made with peanuts, some people have mild to severe allergic reactions. Peanut allergy is a type of Food allergy, distinct from nut allergies. Allergy is a disorder of the Immune system often also referred to as Atopy. For people with peanut allergy, exposure can cause fatal anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other Mammals For these individuals, eating a single peanut or just breathing the dust from peanuts can cause a fatal reaction. An allergic reaction also can be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed peanuts, making the avoidance of such foods difficult.
A theory of the development of peanut allergy has to do with the way that peanuts are processed in North America versus other countries like China and India. Peanuts are widely eaten in China and India but peanut allergies are almost unheard of there. According to a 2003 study, roasting peanuts, as more commonly done in North America, causes the major peanut allergen Ara h2 to become a stronger inhibitor of the digestive enzyme trypsin, making it more resistant to digestion. Trypsin ( is a Serine protease found in the Digestive system, where it breaks down Proteins Trypsin predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the carboxyl  Additionally, this allergen has also been shown to protect Ara h1, another major peanut allergen, from digestion - a characteristic further enhanced by roasting. 
Though the allergy can last a lifetime, another 2003 study indicates that 23. 3% of children will outgrow a peanut allergy. 
Peanut allergy has been associated with the use of skin preparations containing peanut oil among children, but the evidence is not regarded as conclusive.  Peanut allergies have also been associated with family history and intake of soy products. 
Some school districts have banned peanuts, and there is now an experimental drug being tested to combat this allergy, called TNX-901. School districts are a form of Special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools TNX-901 ( Talizumab) is a drug being tested at National Jewish Medical and Research Center and other locations across the United States.
As the peanut is a member of the legume family and is unrelated to nuts, individuals with peanut allergies may not be allergic to nuts, and vice-versa. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants.
Some people mistakenly believe that peanut oil will not trigger allergies in peanut-allergic people. However, crude (unrefined) peanut oils are strongly flavoured, and have been shown to contain protein. 
In a randomised, double-blind, crossover study, 60 people with proven peanut allergy were challenged with both crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. The blind method is a part of the Scientific method, used to prevent research outcomes from being influenced by either the Placebo effect or the Observer A crossover trial also referred to as a crossover study is a Clinical trial in which patients are given all of the medications to be studied or one medication and The authors conclude that “Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. ” They also state that, “Refined peanut oil does not seem to pose a risk to most people with peanut allergy. ” However, they point out that refined peanut oil can still pose a risk to peanut-allergic individuals if oil that has previously been used to cook foods containing peanuts is reused. 
Peanuts may be contaminated with the mold Aspergillus flavus which produces a carcinogenic substance called aflatoxin. WikipediaManual_of_Style#National_varieties_of_English --> Molds (or Aspergillus flavus is a Mold Fungus. It is a Pathogen, associated with Aspergillosis of the The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a Fungus, most notably Aspergillus While this substance quickly causes liver cancer in rats, humans are far more resistant. Lower quality specimens, particularly where mold is evident, are more likely to be contaminated. WikipediaManual_of_Style#National_varieties_of_English --> Molds (or 
George Washington Carver is often credited with inventing 300 different uses for peanuts(which, contrary to popular belief, did not include peanut butter but did include salted peanuts). George Washington Carver (January 1864 – January 5 1943 was an African American Scientist, Botanist, Educator, and Inventor Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted Peanuts with or without added oil Carver was one of many USDA researchers who encouraged cotton farmers in the South to grow peanuts instead of, or in addition to cotton, because cotton had depleted so much nitrogen from the soil, and one of the peanut's properties as a legume is to put nitrogen back into the soil (a process known as nitrogen fixation). Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Nitrogen fixation is the process by which Nitrogen is taken from its natural relatively inert molecular form (N2 in the atmosphere and converted into Rising demand for peanuts in the early 1900s was not due to Carver's products but to a shortage of plant oils during World War I and the growing popularity of peanut butter, roasted peanuts and peanut candies.  Peanut products originating around the early 1900s include many brands still sold today such as Cracker Jack (1893), Planters peanuts (1906), Oh Henry! candy bar (1920), Baby Ruth candy bar (1920), Butterfinger candy bar (1923), Mr. Goodbar candy bar (1925), Reese's Peanut Butter Cup (1925), Peter Pan (peanut butter) (1928) and Skippy peanut butter (1932). Cracker Jack is a US brand of snack consisting of Caramel -coated Popcorn and Peanuts It is also well known for being packaged with a "Toy ---- Planters is an American snack food company under Kraft Foods manufacturing best known for its nuts and the Mr Oh Henry! is a candy bar containing Peanuts Caramel and Fudge, coated in chocolate Baby Ruth is a Candy bar that is made of Chocolate -covered Peanuts Caramel and Nougat, though the nougat found in it is more like Butterfinger is the name of a Candy bar made by Nestlé. It has a flaky orange-colored center somewhat similar in texture and taste to Peanut brittle Mr Goodbar is a Chocolate Candy bar which contains Peanuts. It is manufactured by The Hershey Company. Reese's Peanut Butter Cups are Chocolates with a peanut butter flavored filling Peter Pan is a brand of Peanut butter produced by ConAgra Foods and named after the J Skippy peanut butter is a commercial brand of Peanut butter made in the United States
Peanuts were designated by the U.S. Congress to be one of America's basic crops. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses In order to protect domestic industry by keeping prices artificially high, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a Program for Peanuts. Two USDA programs for domestic peanuts are the Price Support Program and the Production Adjustment Program (National Poundage Quota). The Price Support Program consists of a two-tier price support system that is tied to a maximum weight quota. Domestic peanuts produced subject to the weight quota are supported at the higher of two prices, while peanuts over quota or those produced on farms not having a quota are supported at the lower rate. The quota support price acts as a floor price for domestic edible peanuts. For producers who fail to fill their quota in any given year, there is a maximum 10% over marketing allowance for the subsequent year. Pursuant to the program, producers may place peanuts under nonrecourse loan with the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) at the designated support price or they may privately contract for the sale of their crop. A nonrecourse debt or non-recourse debt or nonrecourse loan is a Secured loan (debt that is secured by a pledge of collateral, typically This program was replaced by a market loan program similar to other commodities in 2002.
The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld These five countries account for 71% of total world exports. In recent years, the United States has been the leading exporter of peanuts. The major peanut importers are the European Union (EU), Canada, and Japan. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. These three areas account for 78% of the world's imports.
Although India and China are the world's largest producers of peanuts, they account for a small part of international trade because most of their production is consumed domestically as peanut oil. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Peanut oil ( arachis oil is an organic oil derived from Peanuts noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent Legume. Exports of peanuts from India and China are equivalent to less than 4% of world trade.
Ninety percent of India's production is processed into peanut oil. Only a nominal amount of hand-picked select-grade peanuts are exported. India prohibits the importation of all oil seeds, including peanuts.
The European Union is the largest consuming region in the world that does not produce peanuts. All of its consumption is supplied by imports. Consumption of peanuts in the EU is primarily as food, mostly as roasted-in-shell peanuts and as shelled peanuts used in confectionery and bakery products.
The average annual U. S. imports of peanuts are less than 0. 5% of U. S. consumption. Two thirds of U. S. imports are roasted, unshelled peanuts. The major suppliers are Taiwan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Canada. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The principal suppliers of shelled peanut imports are Argentina and Canada. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Most of Canada's peanut butter is processed from Chinese peanuts. Imports of peanut butter from Argentina are in the form of a paste and must be further processed in the U. S. Other minor suppliers of peanut butter include Malawi, China, India, and Singapore. The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Singapore
Approximately 50% of all peanuts produced in the United States are grown within a 160 km (100 mile) radius of Dothan, Alabama. Dothan is a city located in the southeastern corner of the US Dothan is home to the National Peanut Festival established in 1938 and held each fall to honor peanut growers and celebrate the harvest.