An undated photograph of Kael.
|Born||June 19, 1919|
|Died||September 3, 2001 (aged 82)|
Great Barrington, Massachusetts
|Writing period||1951 - 1991|
Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Petaluma is a city in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Film review redirects here for the similar sounding Film revue please visit Revue#Film revues. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American director, writer, Actor, and producer of features David Denby is an American Journalist, best-known as Film critic for The New Yorker magazine David Edelstein (born 1959 is the chief film critic for New York Magazine, as well as the film critic for NPR 's Fresh Air and Anthony Lane (born 1962 has been a film reviewer for ''The New Yorker'' magazine since 1993 Greil Marcus (born 1945 is an American Author, music Journalist and cultural Critic. Elvis Mitchell (born 1958 in Detroit Michigan) is a former Film critic for The New York Times (1998-2004 Anthony O "Tony" Scott (born July 10, 1966) is an American Journalist and Critic. Michael Sragow (born 26 June, 1952 in New Jersey is a film critic and columnist who has written for The Baltimore Sun, The New Times Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an Academy Award - BAFTA Award - and Palme d'Or -winning Emmy - and Armond White (born in Detroit Michigan) is an American Film critic. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Film review redirects here for the similar sounding Film revue please visit Revue#Film revues. The New Yorker is an American Magazine that publishes reportage commentary criticism essays fiction satire cartoons and poetry Kael was known for her "witty, biting, highly opinionated, and sharply focused" movie reviews. She approached movies emotionally, with a strongly colloquial writing style. A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or Paralinguistics. She is often regarded as the most influential American film critic of her day and left a lasting impression on many major critics including Armond White and Roger Ebert, who has said that Kael "had a more positive influence on the climate for film in America than any other single person over the last three decades. Armond White (born in Detroit Michigan) is an American Film critic. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. "
Kael was born on a chicken farm in Petaluma, California, to Isaac Paul Kael and Judith Friedman Kael, two Jewish immigrants from Poland. Petaluma is a city in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Affected by the Great Depression, her family lost their farm when Kael was eight and moved to San Francisco, California. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city  She matriculated at the University of California, Berkeley in 1936, where she studied philosophy, literature and the arts but dropped out in 1940 before graduating. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley Despite this, she intended to go on to law school, until she fell in with a group of artists and moved to New York City with the poet Robert Horan. The City of New York
Three years later, Kael returned to San Francisco and "led a bohemian life," marrying and divorcing three times, writing plays, and working on experimental films. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists  In 1948, Kael and filmmaker James Broughton had a daughter, Gina, though Kael would raise her alone. James Broughton ( November 10 1913, Modesto, California, USA &ndash May 17, 1999, Port Townsend  Gina had a serious illness through much of her childhood, and to support her, Kael worked a series of menial jobs—cook, seamstress—along with stints as an ad-copy writer.  In 1953, the editor of City Lights magazine overheard Kael—in a coffeeshop-argument about movies with a friend—and asked her to review Charlie Chaplin's Limelight. Limelight is a 1952 comedy - drama Film written directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, co-starring Claire Bloom  Kael memorably dubbed the movie "slimelight," and began publishing film criticism regularly in magazines.
Even these early reviews were notable for their informality and lack of pretension; Kael later explained, "I worked to loosen my style—to get away from the term-paper pomposity that we learn at college. I wanted the sentences to breathe, to have the sound of a human voice. " Kael disparaged the supposed critic's ideal of objectivity, referring to it as "saphead objectivity," and incorporated aspects of autobiography into her criticism. Objectivity is a significant principle of Journalistic professionalism. An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write"  In a review of Vittorio De Sica's 1946 neorealist classic Shoeshine (Sciuscià) that has been ranked among her most memorable, Kael described seeing the film
|“||[. Shoeshine ( Italian: Sciuscià) is a 1946 film and the first major work directed by Vittorio De Sica. . . ]after one of those terrible lovers' quarrels that leave one in a state of incomprehensible despair. I came out of the theater, tears streaming, and overheard the petulant voice of a college girl complaining to her boyfriend, 'Well I don't see what was so special about that movie. ' I walked up the street, crying blindly, no longer certain whether my tears were for the tragedy on the screen, the hopelessness I felt for myself, or the alienation I felt from those who could not experience the radiance of Shoeshine. For if people cannot feel Shoeshine, what can they feel?. . . . Later I learned that the man with whom I had quarreled had gone the same night and had also emerged in tears. Yet our tears for each other, and for Shoeshine did not bring us together. Life, as Shoeshine demonstrates, is too complex for facile endings. ||”|
Kael broadcast many of her early reviews on the alternative public radio station KPFA in Berkeley, and gained further local-celebrity status as Berkeley Cinema Guild manager from 1955 to 1960. KPFA (941 FM) is a listener-funded Progressive talk radio and music Radio station located in Berkeley California, broadcasting to the As manager of the two-screen theater, Kael programmed the films that were shown, "unapologetically repeat[ing] her favorites until they also became audience favorites. " She also wrote "pungent" capsule reviews of the movies, which her patrons began collecting. 
Kael continued to juggle writing with other work until she received an offer to publish a book of her criticism. Published in 1965 as I Lost It at the Movies, the collection sold 150,000 paperback copies and was a surprise bestseller. I Lost It at the Movies (1965 is Pauline Kael 's first collection of reviews covering the years 1954-1965 which was published prior to her long stint at Coinciding with a job at the high-circulation women's magazine McCall's, Kael (as Newsweek put it in a 1966 profile) "went mass. McCall's was a monthly American women's Magazine that enjoyed great popularity through much of the 20th century peaking at a readership of six million Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. "
The same year, she wrote a blistering review of the phenomenally popular The Sound of Music in McCall's. Rodgers and Hammerstein 's The Sound of Music is a Musical film directed by Robert Wise and starring Julie Andrews in the lead role After mentioning that some of the press had dubbed it "The Sound of Money," Kael called the film's message a "sugarcoated lie that people seem to want to eat. " Although, according to legend, this review led to her being fired from McCall's (The New York Times even printed as much in Kael's obituary), both Kael and the magazine's editor have denied this. According to McCall's editor Robert Stein, "I [fired her] months later after she kept panning every commercial movie from Lawrence of Arabia and Dr. Zhivago to The Pawnbroker and A Hard Day's Night. Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 Epic film based on the life of T Doctor Zhivago ( Доктор Живаго) is a 1965 drama - romance - War film directed by David Lean and loosely The Pawnbroker is a novel by Edward Lewis Wallant which tells the story of Sol Nazerman a concentration camp survivor who suffers flashbacks A Hard Day's Night is a 1964 British Comedy film written by Alun Owen starring The Beatles — John Lennon, Paul McCartney "
Her dismissal from McCall's led to a stint from 1966 to 1967 at The New Republic, whose editors constantly altered Kael's writing without permission. The New Republic ( TNR) is an American Magazine of politics and the arts A few days after quitting the Republic "in despair," Kael was asked by William Shawn to join The New Yorker staff as one of its two film critics (she alternated every six months with Penelope Gilliatt until 1979, after which she became sole film critic. William Shawn ( August 31, 1907 – December 8, 1992) was an American magazine editor who edited The New Yorker Penelope Gilliatt (née Penelope Ann Douglass Conner March 25 1932 &ndash May 9 1993) was an English Novelist, Short ) Her first review in the New Yorker was a rave about Bonnie and Clyde, in which, according to critic David Thomson, "she was right about a film that had bewildered many other critics. Bonnie and Clyde is a American Crime film about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, the bank robbers who operated in the Central United States David Thomson (b 1941 London UK) is a noted Film critic in the United States and the author of more than 20 books including The New "
Her colloquial, brash writing style was initially considered an odd fit with the sophisticated and genteel New Yorker; Kael remembered "getting a letter from an eminent New Yorker writer suggesting that I was trampling through the pages of the magazine with cowboy boots covered with dung. " However, it was during her tenure at the New Yorker, a forum that permitted her to write at some length (and with presumably minimal editorial interference), that Kael achieved her greatest prominence; by 1968, Time magazine was referring to her as "one of the country's top movie critics. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and " Kael noted that during this period her reviews were so interesting because the movies were so compelling.
In 1970, Kael received a George Polk Award for her work as a critic at the New Yorker. The George Polk Awards are a series of American journalism awards issued annually by Long Island University in Brooklyn. She continued to publish hardbound collections of her writings, many with (deliberately) suggestive titles such as Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, When The Lights Go Down, Taking It All In, and others. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (1968 is Pauline Kael 's second collection of reviews from 1965 through 1968 compiled from numerous magazines including The Atlantic When The Lights Go Down is the sixth collection of movie reviews by the critic Pauline Kael. Taking It All In is the seventh collection of movie reviews by the critic Pauline Kael. Her fourth book, Deeper Into Movies (1973), was the first non-fiction book about movies to win a National Book Award. Deeper Into Movies (1973 is the fourth collection of Pauline Kael 's movie reviews from 1969-1972 which were originally published by The New Yorker. The National Book Awards are among the most eminent literary prizes in the United States.
Kael also wrote philosophical essays on moviegoing, the modern Hollywood film industry, and the lack of courage on the part of audiences (as she perceived it) to explore lesser-known, more challenging movies (she never used the word "film" to describe movies because she felt the word was too elitist). Among her more popular essays were a damning review of Norman Mailer's semi-fictional Marilyn: a Biography, (an account of Marilyn Monroe's life); an incisive look at Cary Grant's career, and an extensively researched look at Citizen Kane entitled Raising Kane (later reprinted in The Citizen Kane Book). Norman Kingsley Mailer ( January 31, 1923 &ndash November 10, 2007) was an American Novelist, Journalist, Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson, June 1 1926 &ndash August 5 1962 baptized Norma Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Her argument was that Herman J. Mankiewicz (Citizen Kane's assistant screenwriter) deserved as much credit for the film as Orson Welles, a thesis that provoked controversy and hurt Welles to the point that he considered suing Kael for libel. Herman Jacob Mankiewicz ( November 7, 1897 - March 5, 1953) was a Hollywood screenwriter noted for writing along with Orson George Orson Welles (May 6 1915 – October 10 1985 was an Academy Award -winning director, writer actor and producer for film stage radio and television 
Kael battled the editors of the New Yorker as much as her own critics. She fought with William Shawn to review the 1972 pornographic film Deep Throat, though she eventually relented. Deep Throat is an American Pornographic film released in the summer of 1972, written and directed by Gerard Damiano (listed in the  According to Kael, after reading her negative review of Terrence Malick's 1973 movie Badlands, Shawn said, "I guess you didn't know that Terry is like a son to me. Terrence "Terry" Malick (born November 30, 1943, Ottawa, Illinois) is an Academy Award nominated American Badlands is a 1973 film directed by Terrence Malick from his own script starring Martin Sheen and Sissy Spacek. " Kael responded, "Tough shit, Bill," and her review was printed unchanged.  Other than sporadic confrontations with Shawn, Kael said she spent most of her work time at home writing. 
Upon the release of Kael's 1980 collection When The Lights Go Down, her New Yorker colleague Renata Adler published an 8,000-word review in The New York Review of Books that dismissed the book as "jarringly, piece by piece, line by line, and without interruption, worthless. When The Lights Go Down is the sixth collection of movie reviews by the critic Pauline Kael. Renata Adler (born October 19, 1938 in Milan, Italy) is an American Author, Journalist and Film critic The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semimonthly Magazine on Literature, Culture, and current " Adler argued that Kael's post-sixties work contained "nothing certainly of intelligence or sensibility," and faulted her "quirks [and] mannerisms," including Kael's repeated use of the "bullying" imperative and rhetorical question. The piece, which stunned Kael and quickly became infamous in literary circles, was described by Time magazine as "the New York literary Mafia['s] bloodiest case of assault and battery in years. " Although Kael refused to respond, Adler's review became known as "the most sensational attempt on Kael's reputation"; twenty years later, Salon.com (ironically) referred to Adler's "worthless" denunciation of Kael as her "most famous single sentence. Saloncom, part of Salon Media Group ( often just called Salon, is an online "
In 1979, Kael accepted an offer from Warren Beatty to be a consultant to Paramount Pictures, but she left the position after only a few months to return to writing criticism in mid 1980. Warren Beatty (born Henry Warren Beaty; March 30 1937 is an American Academy Award - and Golden Globe -winning Actor, producer Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and Distribution company, based in Hollywood California.
In the early 1980s, Kael was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's As her illness worsened, she became increasingly depressed about the state of American movies, along with feeling, she explained, that "I had nothing new to say. " On March 11, 1991, in an announcement The New York Times referred to as "earth-shattering," Kael announced her retirement from reviewing movies regularly.  At the time, Kael explained that she would still write essays for The New Yorker, along with "some reflections and other pieces of writing about movies. " However, she ended up publishing no new work in the ensuing ten years, besides an introduction to her 1994 compendium For Keeps. In the introduction (which was reprinted in The New Yorker), Kael stated, in reference to her film criticism, "I'm frequently asked why I don't write my memoirs. I think I have. "
Though she published no new writing of her own, Kael was not averse to giving interviews, in which she alternately praised and derided newly-released films and television shows. In a 1998 interview with Modern Maturity, she said she sometimes regretted not being able to review, saying, "A few years ago when I saw Vanya on 42nd Street, I wanted to blow trumpets. AARP The Magazine is a Bi-monthly Magazine published by AARP, which focuses on aging issues Vanya on 42nd Street is a 1994 Film by Louis Malle and Andre Gregory. Your trumpets are gone once you’ve quit. " She died at her home in Massachusetts in 2001, aged 82.
Kael's opinions were often inconsistent with those of other reviewers. Sometimes, she energetically made a case for movies not universally admired, such as The Warriors and, memorably, Last Tango in Paris. The Warriors is a 1979 cult classic action / thriller film directed by Walter Hill and based on the 1965 novel Last Tango in Paris ( Ultimo Tango a Parigi) is a 1973 film directed by Italian Bernardo Bertolucci which tells the story of (Soon after that film's release, Kael won the 1973 Harvard Lampoon Bosley Award, named after Bosley Crowther. The Harvard Lampoon is an Undergraduate humor publication and social organization founded in 1876 at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts Francis Bosley Crowther ( July 13, 1905 &ndash March 7, 1981) was a Film critic for The New York Times for She was described by the Award's judges as "Pauline Kael, whose hysterical encomium loosed Bertolucci's Last Tango in Paris on an all-too-trusting world. ") She was not especially cruel to some films that had been roasted by many critics, such as the 1972 Man of La Mancha, in which she praised Sophia Loren's performance. Man of La Mancha is a 1972 film version of the Broadway musical Man of La Mancha by Dale Wasserman, with Sophia Loren (born September 20 1934 is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress born Sofia Villani Scicolone She also condemned films that elsewhere attracted admiration, such as It's a Wonderful Life, West Side Story, and Shoah. It's a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Film produced and directed by Frank Capra and based on the short story " The Greatest West Side Story is a 1961 film directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins. Shoah is a nine-hour film completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985 about The Holocaust (or Shoah) The originality of her opinions, as well as the forceful way in which she expressed them, won her ardent supporters as well as angry critics.
Notable movie reviews by Kael included a venomous criticism of West Side Story that drew harsh replies from the movie's supporters; ecstatic reviews of "Z" and MASH that resulted in enormous boosts to those films' popularity; and enthusiastic reviews of Brian De Palma's early films. Z is a 1969 French language political thriller directed by Costa Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on See also M*A*S*H (TV series, M*A*S*H MASH is a American satirical Dark comedy Film directed by Robert Altman Brian De Palma (born Brian Russell DePalma on September 11 1940 in Newark New Jersey) is an American Film director. Kael's scathing critique of Ryan's Daughter (1970) allegedly dissuaded director David Lean from making a film for fourteen years afterwards. Ryan's Daughter is David Lean 's 1970 film which tells the story of an Irish girl who has an affair with a British soldier during World Sir David Lean KBE ( 25 March, 1908 &ndash 16 April, 1991) was an English Film director and producer Her 'preview' of Robert Altman's 1975 movie Nashville appeared several months before the film was actually completed, in an (ultimately unsuccessful) attempt to catapult the film to box office glory. Robert Bernard Altman (February 20 1925 – November 20 2006 was an American Film director known for making films that are highly naturalistic, but with Nashville is a 1975 American Drama film directed by Robert Altman.
Kael is frequently quoted as having said, in the wake of Richard Nixon's landslide victory in the 1972 presidential election, that she "couldn't believe Nixon had won," since no one she knew had voted for him. The quote is sometimes cited by conservatives (such as Bernard Goldberg, in his book Bias), as an example of allegedly clueless New York liberal insularity. Bernard Richard Goldberg (b 31 May 1945 in New York City, New York) is an American Writer, Journalist, and Bias A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News is a controversial book by Bernard Goldberg, a 28-year veteran CBS news reporter and There are variations as to the exact wording, the speaker (it has variously been attributed to other liberal women, including Katharine Graham, Susan Sontag, and Joan Didion),   and the timing (in addition to Nixon's victory, it has been claimed to have been uttered after Ronald Reagan's re-election in 1984. Katharine Meyer Graham ( June 16, 1917 &ndash July 17, 2001) was an American publisher Susan Sontag ( January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American Literary theorist, Philosopher, Joan Didion (born December 5, 1934) is an American Journalist, Essayist and Novelist Didion contributes regularly to ) 
There is, in fact, no record of Kael making such a remark. The story may have originated in a December 28, 1972 New York Times article on a lecture Kael gave at the Modern Language Association, in which the newspaper quoted her as saying, "I live in a rather special world. The Modern Language Association of America (usually referred to as simply Modern Language Association or MLA) is the principal Professional association I only know one person who voted for Nixon. Where they are I don't know. They're outside my ken. But sometimes when I'm in a theater I can feel them. "
Kael had a taste for anti-hero movies that violated taboos involving sex and violence, and this reportedly alienated some of her readers. She also had a strong dislike for films that she felt were manipulative or appealed in superficial ways to conventional attitudes and feelings.
She was an enthusiastic supporter of the violent action films of Sam Peckinpah and early Walter Hill, as evidenced in her collection 5001 Nights at the Movies, which includes positive reviews of Hill's Hard Times (1975), The Warriors (1979), and Southern Comfort (1981), as well as Peckinpah's entire body of work. David Samuel "Sam" Peckinpah (February 21 1925 &ndash December 28 1984 was an American Film director who achieved iconic status following the release Hard Times is a 1975 Film starring Charles Bronson as Chaney a street fighter who travels to Louisiana during the Great Depression The Warriors is a 1979 cult classic action / thriller film directed by Walter Hill and based on the 1965 novel Southern Comfort ( 1981) is an American Drama film directed by Walter Hill, working from a script by Hill longtime collaborator Although she initially dismissed John Boorman's Point Blank (1967) for what she felt was its pointless brutality, she later acknowledged it was "intermittently dazzling" with "more energy and invention than Boorman seems to know what to do with. John Boorman (born January 18, 1933) is an English filmmaker currently based in Ireland best known for his feature films such as Point Point Blank is a 1967 Crime film directed by John Boorman and starring Lee Marvin and Angie Dickinson, adapted from the . . one comes out exhilarated but bewildered. "
However, Kael did respond negatively to some action films that she felt pushed what she described as "right-wing" or "fascist" agendas. While praising Don Siegel's Dirty Harry (1971) as "trim, brutal, and exciting; it was directed in the sleekest style by the veteran urban-action director. Donald Siegel ( October 26, 1912 - April 20, 1991) was an influential American Film director and producer Dirty Harry is a 1971 Crime film produced and directed by Don Siegel. . . ," she labelled it a "right-wing fantasy [that is] a remarkably simple-minded attack on liberal values".  She also called it "fascist medievalism".  In an otherwise extremely positive critique of Peckinpah's Straw Dogs, Kael concluded that the controversial director had made 'the first American film that is a fascist work of art'. Straw Dogs is a 1971 Film directed by Sam Peckinpah which stars Dustin Hoffman and Susan George. 
|“||At the movies, we are gradually being conditioned to accept violence as a sensual pleasure. A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony The directors used to say they were showing us its real face and how ugly it was in order to sensitize us to its horrors. You don't have to be very keen to see that they are now in fact de- sensitizing us. They are saying that everyone is brutal, and the heroes must be as brutal as the villains or they turn into fools. There seems to be an assumption that if you're offended by movie brutality, you are somehow playing into the hands of the people who want censorship. But this would deny those of us who don't believe in censorship the use of the only counterbalance: the freedom of the press to say that there's anything conceivably damaging in these films—the freedom to analyze their implications. If we don't use this critical freedom, we are implicitly saying that no brutality is too much for us—that only squares and people who believe in censorship are concerned with brutality.||”|
In preface to a 1983 interview with Kael for the gay magazine Mandate, Sam Staggs wrote that "she has always carried on a love/hate affair with her gay legions. Mandate is a monthly Gay pornographic Magazine published in the United States . . . like the bitchiest queen in gay mythology, she has a sharp remark about everything. " However, in the early eighties, largely in response to her review of the 1981 drama Rich and Famous, Kael faced notable accusations of homophobia. Rich and Famous is a 1981 comedy drama film made by Jaquet and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. First remarked on by Stuart Byron in The Village Voice, according to gay writer Craig Seligman the accusations eventually "took on a life of their own and did real damage to her reputation. This article is about a New York newspaper For the Ottawa Hills Ohio magazine see The Village Voice of Ottawa Hills. "
In her review, Kael called the straight-themed Rich and Famous "more like a homosexual fantasy," saying that one female character's affairs "are creepy, because they don't seem like what a woman would get into. " Byron, who "hit the ceiling" after reading the review, was joined by The Celluloid Closet author Vito Russo, who argued that Kael equated promiscuity with homosexuality, "as though straight women have never been promiscuous or been given the permission to be promiscuous. The Celluloid Closet ( 1995) is a Documentary film directed and written by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman. Vito Russo (b 1946 New York City - 7 November, 1990, New York City was an American Gay activist, Film historian "
In response to her review of Rich and Famous, several critics reappraised Kael's earlier reviews of the sixties gay-themed movies Victim and The Children's Hour, including a wisecrack Kael made about the lesbian-themed Children's Hour: "I always thought this was why lesbians needed sympathy—that there isn't much they can do. Victim is a 1961 British Film directed by Basil Dearden, starring Dirk Bogarde and Sylvia Syms. The Children's Hour is a 1961 film adaptation of the play of the same name written by Lillian Hellman. " Craig Seligman has defended Kael, saying that her perceived "bigotry" was simply her showing "enough ease with the topic to be able to crack jokes—in a dark period when other reviewers. . . . 'felt that if homosexuality were not a crime it would spread. '" Kael herself rejected the accusations as "craziness," adding, "I don't see how anybody who took the trouble to check out what I've actually written about movies with homosexual elements in them could believe that stuff. "
Almost as soon as she began writing for The New Yorker, Kael carried a great deal of influence among fellow critics. In the early seventies, Cinerama distributors "initiate[d] a policy of individual screenings for each critic because her remarks [during the film] were affecting her fellow critics. Cinerama is the trademarked name for a Widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge deeply-curved " In the seventies and eighties, Kael cultivated friendships with a group of young, mostly male critics, some of whom emulated her distinctive writing style. Referred to derisively as the "Paulettes," they came to dominate national film criticism in the 1990s. Critics who have acknowledged Kael's influence include, among many, A. O. Scott of The New York Times, David Denby and Anthony Lane of The New Yorker, David Edelstein of New York Magazine, Greil Marcus, Elvis Mitchell, Michael Sragow, Armond White, and Stephanie Zacharek of Salon.com. Anthony O "Tony" Scott (born July 10, 1966) is an American Journalist and Critic. David Denby is an American Journalist, best-known as Film critic for The New Yorker magazine Anthony Lane (born 1962 has been a film reviewer for ''The New Yorker'' magazine since 1993 David Edelstein (born 1959 is the chief film critic for New York Magazine, as well as the film critic for NPR 's Fresh Air and New York is a weekly magazine concerned with the life culture politics and style of New York City. Greil Marcus (born 1945 is an American Author, music Journalist and cultural Critic. Elvis Mitchell (born 1958 in Detroit Michigan) is a former Film critic for The New York Times (1998-2004 Michael Sragow (born 26 June, 1952 in New Jersey is a film critic and columnist who has written for The Baltimore Sun, The New Times Saloncom, part of Salon Media Group ( often just called Salon, is an online  It was repeatedly alleged that, after her retirement, Kael's "most ardent devotees deliberate[d] with each other [to] forge a common School of Pauline position" before their reviews were written.  When confronted with the rumor that she ran "a conspiratorial network of young critics," Kael said she believed that critics imitated her style rather than her actual opinions, stating, "A number of critics take phrases and attitudes from me, and those takings stick out—they’re not integral to the writer’s temperament or approach. "
When asked in 1998 if she thought her criticism had affected the way films were made, Kael deflected the question, stating, "If I say yes, I’m an egotist, and if I say no, I’ve wasted my life. " Several directors' careers were indisputably affected by her, though, most notably Taxi Driver screenwriter Paul Schrader, who was accepted at UCLA Film School's graduate program on Kael's recommendation. Taxi Driver is a film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Paul Schrader. Paul Joseph Schrader (born July 22, 1946 in Grand Rapids Michigan) is an American Screenwriter and Film director Under her mentoring, Schrader worked as a film critic before taking up screenwriting and directing full-time. Also, film critic Derek Malcolm claimed that, "If a director was praised by Kael, he or she was generally allowed to work, since the money-men knew there would be similar approbation across a wide field of publications. Derek Malcolm (born May 12, 1932) is a British film critic and historian educated at Eton College and Oxford University. " Alternately, Kael was said to be able to prevent filmmakers from working; David Lean claimed that her criticism of his work "kept him from making a movie for 14 years. Sir David Lean KBE ( 25 March, 1908 &ndash 16 April, 1991) was an English Film director and producer "
Though he began directing movies after she retired, Quentin Tarantino was also influenced by Kael. Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an Academy Award - BAFTA Award - and Palme d'Or -winning Emmy - and He read her criticism voraciously growing up and said that Kael was "as influential as any director was in helping me develop my aesthetic. " Wes Anderson recounted his efforts to screen his film Rushmore for Kael in a 1999 The New York Times article titled "My Private Screening With Pauline Kael". Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American director, writer, Actor, and producer of features Rushmore is a 1998 Comedy-drama film directed by Wes Anderson about an eccentric teenager named Max Fischer ( Jason Schwartzman) and He later wrote Kael that "your thoughts and writing about the movies [have] been a very important source of inspiration for me and my movies, and I hope you don't regret that. "
In his 1988 film Willow, George Lucas named the lead villain "General Kael," after the critic. Willow is a 1988 Fantasy film directed by Ron Howard, based on a story by George Lucas. George Walton Lucas Jr (born May 14, 1944) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, producer, Screenwriter Kael had often reviewed Lucas' work without enthusiasm; in her own (negative) review of Willow, she stylishly described the character as an "hommage a moi. For medieval usage see Homage (medieval and Commendation ceremony, or Homage (disambiguation Homage (from the French "