Patagonia is a geographic region containing the southernmost portion of South America. Mostly located in Argentina and partly in Chile, it comprises the Andes mountains to the west and south, and plateau and low plains to the east. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The name Patagonia comes from the word patagon used by Magellan to describe the native people who his expedition thought to be giants. The Patagones or Patagonian giants are a mythical race of people who first began to appear in early European accounts of the then little-known region and coastline It is now believed the Patagons were actually Tehuelches and Aonikenk with an average height of 1. Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. 80 m (~5'11") compared to the 1. 55 m (~5'1") average for Spaniards of the time. 
To the east of the Andes, it lies south of the Neuquén River and Colorado rivers, and, to the west of the Andes, south of (39°S), excluding the Chiloé Archipelago. The Neuquén River is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River The Colorado River ( Río Colorado) is a river in the south of Argentina. Chiloé Island ( Spanish: "Isla de Chiloé" also known as' Isla Grande de Chiloé "Greater Island of Chiloé", is the largest island  East of the Andes the Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz, and Tierra del Fuego, as well as the southern tips of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Mendoza and La Pampa. Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country at the northern end of Patagonia. Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. Chubut ( Spanish: Provincia del Chubut Welsh: Talaith Chubut a Province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the Santa Cruz is a province of Argentina, located in the southern part of the country in Patagonia. Tierra del Fuego (officially Provincia de Tierra del Fuego Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur) is an Argentine Province entirely separated from Buenos Aires Province (ˈbwenos ˈaiɾes Spanish: Provincia de Buenos Aires is the most populated province of Argentina. Mendoza is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region La Pampa is a province of Argentina, located in the Pampas in the centre of the country The Chilean portion embraces the southern part of the region of Los Lagos, and the regions of Aisén and Magallanes. Geography and demography The region has an area of 67013 km² and its population according to the 2002 INE Census was 1073135 with a population density Municipalities Aisén Region has ten municipalities ( communes Coihaique Lago Verde Aisén Geography This region contains mountainous peaks and Glaciers in the far north including elements of the Patagonian Ice Sheet. It excludes those portions of Antarctica claimed by both countries.
Population = 1,740,000 (2001 census).
Land Area = over 900,000 km² including Tierra del Fuego
Population Density = 2. Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago 21 /km² (0. 7 /km² in Santa Cruz Province)
Patagonia is for the most part a region of vast steppe-like plains, rising in a succession of abrupt terraces about 100 metres (330 feet) at a time, and covered with an enormous bed of shingle almost bare of vegetation. Geographical zones The country's provinces are divided in 6 zones regarding climate and terrain ImageChilenavgif|thumb|417px|right|Click over the map to obtain a topographic map of the region and its toponymyrect 23 14 119 35 rect 23 35 119 44 rect 23 44 119 54 rect 23 In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm  In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of brackish and fresh water. A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the Towards the Andes the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, acquiring the characteristics of the flora of the western coast, and consisting principally of southern beech and conifers. Porphyry is a variety of Igneous rock consisting of large-grained Crystals such as Feldspar or Quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of about 35 Species of Trees and shrubs native to the temperate oceanic The high rainfall against the western Andes and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' 
Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta (through which previously flowed the waters of lake Nahuel Huapi, which now feed the river Limay); the Senguerr (spelled Senguer on most Argentine maps and within the corresponding region), the Deseado River. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting Gualichu or gualicho in the Mapuche mythology and mainly in the Tehuelche culture was an Evil spirit or Demon, comparable but not similar to Negro River ( Río Negro) means black river and is the most important river of the Argentine province of Río Negro. Nahuel Huapi National Park is the oldest Argentine national park, in Patagonia in the foothills of the Andes mountains The Senguerr River is a River of the Argentine province of Chubut. Deseado River ( Río Deseado) is a River in the Argentine province of Santa Cruz. Besides these transverse depressions (some of them marking lines of ancient inter-oceanic communication), there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo, Musters, and Colhue Huapi, and others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country. Lake Musters and lake Colhué Huapi ( 260 m form the terminal stage of the Senguerr river Endorheic basin, located in the patagonic central Lake Musters and lake Colhué Huapi ( 260 m form the terminal stage of the Senguerr river Endorheic basin, located in the patagonic central In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau from the Tertiary period down to the present era, cover a large part with basaltic lava-caps; and in the western third more recent glacial deposits appear above the lava. The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures There, in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks, uplifted by the Tertiary granite, erosion, caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of the ice, aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, which generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera, while on the west of these there is a similar longitudinal depression all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind This article discusses the geologic usage for the philosophical or architectural usage see Architectonics ' Or see Plate tectonics. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake basins along the Cordillera were also excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil. Lake Argentino (in Spanish, Lago Argentino) is a freshwater Lake located in the Patagonian, at. The Fagnano ( Spanish: Lago Fagnano or Lago Cami) is a Lake located on the main island of the Tierra del Fuego 
The geological constitution is in accordance with the orographic physiognomy. Volcanic ash consists of small Tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions less than in diameter Chaitén is a volcanic Caldera in diameter 17km west of the elongated ice-capped Michinmahuida volcano and northeast of Chaitén town in the San Jorge Basin is located in the provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz, in the south of Argentina. Physiognomy ( Gk physis, nature and gnomon, judge interpreter is the assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance especially The Tertiary plateau, flat on the east, gradually rising on the west, shows Upper Cretaceous caps at its base. First come Lower Cretaceous hills, raised by granite and dioritic rocks, undoubtedly of Tertiary origin, as in some cases these rocks have broken across the Tertiary beds, so rich in mammal remains; then follow, on the west, metamorphic schists of uncertain age; then quartzites appear, resting directly on the primitive granite and gneiss which form the axis of the Cordillera. Diorite (ˈdaɪəraɪt is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive Igneous rock composed principally of Plagioclase Feldspar (typically Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of an existing rock type the protolith, in a process called Metamorphism, which means "change Quartzite (from German Quarzit) not to be confused with the Mineral Quartz, is a hard Metamorphic rock which was originally Gneiss (ˈnaɪs is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally A cordillera is an extensive chain of Mountains or Mountain ranges especially the principal mountain system of a Continent or large Island. Porphyritic rocks occur between the schists and the quartzites. Porphyry is a variety of Igneous rock consisting of large-grained Crystals such as Feldspar or Quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained The Tertiary deposits are greatly varied in character, and there is considerable difference of opinion concerning the succession and correlation of the beds. They are divided by Wilckensi into the following series (in ascending order):
The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Myolania, which may be said to be almost identical with Myolania oweni of the Pleistocene age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been found associated with remains of Dinosauria. One such dinosaur to be found in Patagonia is Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs. Argentinosaurus (meaning " Argentina lizard" was a herbivorous Sauropod Dinosaur Genus that was among the largest Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Tertiary, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, and the singular mammal Pyrotherium, also of very large dimensions. Pyrotherium ('fire beast' is an Extinct Genus of South American Ungulate, of the order Pyrotheria, that lived in what is In the Tertiary marine formation a considerable number of cetaceans has been discovered. The Order Cetacea (sɪˈteɪʃiə L cetus, whale includes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises Cetus is In deposits of much later date, formed when the physiognomy of the country did not differ materially from that of the present time, there have been discovered remains of pampean mammals, such as Glyptodon and Macrauchenia, and in a cave near Última Esperanza Sound, a gigantic ground sloth (Grypoiherium listai), an animal which lived contemporaneously with man, and whose skin, well preserved, showed that its extermination was undoubtedly very recent. Glyptodon (Greek for "grooved or carved tooth" was a large armored Mammal, related to the Armadillo, that lived during the Pleistocene Macrauchenia (literally "Big Neck" was a long-necked and long-limbed three-toed South American Ungulate Mammal, typifying the Cueva del Milodón Natural Monument is a Natural Monument located in the Chilean Patagonia, 24 kilometres northwest of Puerto Natales and 270 Última Esperanza Sound ( Last Hope Sound) is an Inlet stretching from the mouth of Eberhard Fjord to the outskirts of Monte Balmaceda, within Ground sloths are a diverse group of Extinct Sloths Mammals in the edentate Superorder Xenarthra. With the remains of Grypotherium have been found those of the horse (Onoshippidium), which are known only from the lower pampas mud, and of the Arciotherium, which is found, although not in abundance, in even the most modern Pleistocene deposits in the pampas of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern It would not be surprising if this latter animal were still in existence, for footprints, which may be attributed to it, have been observed on the borders of the rivers Tamangoand Pista, affluents of the Las Hefas, which run through the eastern foot-hills of the Cordillera in 47°S.
Glaciers occupy the valleys of the main chain and some of the lateral ridges of the Cordillera, and descend to lakes San Martín Lake, Lake Viedma, Argentino Lake and others in the same locality, strewing them with icebergs. The Perito Moreno Glacier ( is a Glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. The Perito Moreno Glacier ( is a Glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The lake known as O'Higgins in Chile and San Martín in Argentina, is located around coordinates in the Patagonia, between the Aysén Lake Viedma (Spanish Lago Viedma) approximately 50 miles (80 kilometers long in southern Patagonia near the border between Chile and Argentina Lake Argentino (in Spanish, Lago Argentino) is a freshwater Lake located in the Patagonian, at. An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater Ice that has broken off from a snow-formed Glacier or Ice shelf and is floating in open water In Patagonia an immense ice-sheet extended to the east of the present Atlantic coast during the first ice age, at the close of the Tertiary epoch, while, during the second glacial age in modern times, the terminal moraines have generally stopped, 30 miles (50 km) in the north and 50 miles (80 km) in the south, east of the summit of the Cordillera. The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately These ice-sheets, which scooped out the greater part of the longitudinal depressions, and appear to have rapidly retreated to the point where the glaciers now exist, did not, however, in their retirement fill up with their detritus the fjords of the Cordillera, for these are now occupied by deep lakes on the east, and on the west by the Pacific channels, some of which are as much as 250 fathoms (460 m) in depth, and soundings taken in them show that the fjords are as usual deeper in the vicinity of the mountains than to the west of the islands. A fjord or fiord (fjɔːd|fiːɔːd or fiːɔːd is a long narrow Inlet with steep sides created in a valley carved by glacial activity. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions A fathom is a unit of Length in the Imperial system (and the derived U Several of the high peaks are still active volcanoes.
Insofar as its main characteristics are concerned, Patagonia seems to be a portion of the Antarctic continent, the permanence of which dates from very recent times, as is evidenced by the apparent recent emergence of the islets around Chiloé, and by the general character of the pampean formation. Chiloé Island ( Spanish: "Isla de Chiloé" also known as' Isla Grande de Chiloé "Greater Island of Chiloé", is the largest island Some of the promontories of Chiloé are still called huapi, the Araucanian equivalent for "islands"; and this may perhaps be accepted as perpetuating the recollection of the time when they actually were islands. They are composed of caps of shingle, with great, more or less rounded boulders, sand and volcanic ashes, precisely of the same form as occurs on the Patagonian plateau. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the From an examination of the pampean formation it is evident that in recent times the land of the province of Buenos Aires extended farther to the east, and that the advance of the sea, and the salt water deposits left by it when it retired, forming some of the lowlands which occur on the littoral and in the interior of the pampas, are much more recent phenomena; and certain caps of shingle, derived from rocks of a different class from those of the neighboring hills, which are observed on the Atlantic coasts of the same province, and increase in quantity and size towards the south, seem to indicate that the caps of shingle which now cover such a great part of the Patagonian territory recently extended farther to the east, over land which has now disappeared beneath the sea, while other marine deposits along the same coasts became converted into bays during the subsequent advance of the sea. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea or to the banks of a river lake or estuary Laguna de Gomezjpg|thumb|left|240px|Lake Gomez near Junín in the heart of the Pampas grain belt There are besides, in the neighbourhood of the present coast, deposits of volcanic ashes, and the ocean throws up on its shores blocks of basaltic lava, which in all probability proceed from eruptions of submerged volcanoes now extinct. Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures One fact, however, which apparently demonstrates with greater certainty the existence in recent times of land that is now lost, is the presence of remains of pampean mammals in Pleistocene deposits in the bay of Puerto San Julian and in Santa Cruz. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Puerto San Julián, also known historically as Port St Julian, is a natural harbour in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina located Santa Cruz is a province of Argentina, located in the southern part of the country in Patagonia. The animals undoubtedly reached these localities from the east; it is not at all probable that they advanced from the north southwards across the plateau intersected at that time by great rivers and covered by the ice-sheet. With the exception of the discoveries at the inlet of Ultima Esperanza, which is in close communication with the Atlantic valley of Río Gallegos, none of these remains have been discovered in the Andean regions. The Última Esperanza Province of Chile (in Spanish Provincia Última Esperanza, "Last Hope Province" is located on the Chilean continental Río Gallegos is the capital of the Patagonic province of Santa Cruz, Argentina. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America.
Neuquén covers 94,078 km² (36,324 sq. The Provinces of Argentina are often grouped into six geographical regions For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Argentine Northeast ( Noroeste Argentino) is a region of Argentina composed by the provinces of Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja, The Gran Chaco ( Quechua chaqu, "hunting land" dubbed by some as "the last South American frontier" is a sparsely populated hot and La Mesopotamia, Región Mesopotámica or Litoral (" Littoral " is the humid and verdant area of north-east Argentina, comprising Cuyo is the name given to the wine-producing mountainous area of central-west Argentina. Laguna de Gomezjpg|thumb|left|240px|Lake Gomez near Junín in the heart of the Pampas grain belt Argentine bases Esperanza and Marambio are the biggest Argentine bases holding together 70 buildings an average of 110 persons during the winter and over The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate International relations with respect to Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country at the northern end of Patagonia. Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country at the northern end of Patagonia. miles), including the triangle between the Limay River and Neuquén River, which extends southward to the northern shore of Lake Nahuel-Huapi (41°S) and northward to the Río Colorado. The Limay River is an important River in the northwestern Argentine Patagonia (the region of Comahue) The Neuquén River is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River Nahuel Huapi Lake ( Lago Nahuel Huapi) is a Lake of the lake region of northern Patagonia between the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén The Colorado River ( Río Colorado) is a river in the south of Argentina.
On the upper plains of Neuquén territory thousands of cattle can be fed, and the forests around Lakes Traful and Nahuel-Huapi yield large quantities of valuable timber. The Neuquén river is not navigable, but as its waters are capable of being easily dammed in places, large stretches of land in its valley are utilized; but the lands on each side of its lower part are of little commercial value.
As the Cordillera is approached the soil becomes more fertile, and suitable districts for the rearing of cattle and other agricultural purposes exist between the regions which surround the Tromen volcano and the first ridges of the Andes. Tromen is a Stratovolcano in western Argentina. It rises above the older Caldera of the Volcán Negro del Tromen Chos Malal, the capital of the territory, is situated in one of these valleys. Chos Malal from Mapudungun ( English: Yellow Pen) is the capital city of the Chos Malal Department located in Neuquén Province, More to the west is the mining region, in great part unexplored, but containing deposits of gold, silver, copper and lignite. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere In the centre of the territory, also in the neighborhood of the mining districts, are the valleys of Norquín and Las Lajas, the general camp of the Argentine army in Patagonia, with excellent timber in the forest on the Andean slope. The wide valleys occur near Río Malleo, Lake Huechulafquén, the river Chimehuin, and Vega de Chapelco, near Lake Lacar, where are situated villages of some importance, such as Junín de los Andes and San Martín de los Andes. Lake Huechulafquen is a Lake in Neuquén Province, Patagonian Argentina. The Lácar Lake (Lago Lácar is a Lake of glacial origin in the. Close to these are the famous apple orchards supposed to have been planted by the Jesuits in the 17th and 18th centuries. An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system These regions are drained by the river Collon Cura, the principal affluent of the river Limay. Lake Lacar is now a contributory of the Pacific, its outlet having been changed to the west, owing to a passage having been opened through the Cordillera.
Río Negro covers 203,013 km² (78,383 sq. Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. miles), extending from the Atlantic to the Cordillera of the Andes, to the north of 42°S.
The Río Negro River runs along a wide transverse depression, the middle part of which is followed by the railway which runs to the settlement of Neuquén at the confluence of the rivers Limay and Neuquen. In this depression are several settlements, among them Viedma, the capital of the Río Negro territory, Pringles, General Conesa, Choele Choel and General Roca. Viedma is the capital city of the Argentine province of Río Negro and the Adolfo Alsina Department of that province Choele Choel is the capital of the department of Avellaneda in the Argentine province of Río Negro, and the most important settlement To the south of the Río Negro the Patagonian plateau is intersected by the depressions of the Gualicho and Maquinchao, which in former times directed the waters of two great rivers (now disappeared) to the gulf of San Matias, the first-named depression draining the network of the Collon Cura and the second the Nahuel Huapi lake system. In 42°S there is a third broad transverse depression, apparently the bed of another great river, now perished, which carried to the Atlantic the waters of a portion of the eastern slope of the Andes, between 41° and 42°30;S.
Chubut, covers 224,686 km² (86,751 sq. Chubut ( Spanish: Provincia del Chubut Welsh: Talaith Chubut a Province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the Chubut ( Spanish: Provincia del Chubut Welsh: Talaith Chubut a Province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the miles), embracing the region between 42° and 46°S;
Chubut territory presents the same characteristics as the Río Negro territory. Rawson, the capital, is situated at the mouth of the river Chubut on the Atlantic (42°30'S). Rawson (originally "Trerawson" is the capital of the Argentine province of Chubut, in Patagonia. The town was founded in 1865 by a group of colonists from Wales, assisted by the Argentine government; and its prosperity has led to the foundation of other important centres in the valley, such as Trelew and Gaiman, which is connected by railway with Puerto Madryn on Bahia Nueva. The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut province in the far southern region of Patagonia Trelew is a city in the province of Chubut, in the Argentine Patagonia, with a population of 93386 as per the. Gaiman is a town in the Chubut Province of Patagonia in Argentina. Puerto Madryn (in Welsh, Porth Madryn) is a city in the province of Chubut in the Argentine Patagonia. Here is the seat of the governor of the territory, and by 1895 the inhabitants of this part of the territory, composed principally of Argentines, Welsh and Italians, numbered 552,585. The Welsh people ( Welsh: Cymro ("Welshman" Cymraes ("Welsh woman" Cymry ("Welshmen/women" Cymry The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The valley has been irrigated and cultivated, and produces the best wheat of the Argentine Republic. Between the Chubut and the Senguerr there are vast stretches of fertile land, spreading over the Andean region to the foot of the Cordillera and the lateral ridges of the Pre-Cordillera, and filling the basins of some desiccated lakes, which have been occupied since 1885, and farms and colonies founded upon them. The chief of these colonies is that of 16 de Octubre, formed in 1886, mainly by the inhabitants of Chubut colony, in the longitudinal valley which extends to the eastern foot of the Cordillera.
Other rivers in this territory flow into the Pacific through breaches in the Cordillera, e. g. the upper affluents of the Futaleufú River, Palena and Río Cisnes. The Futaleufú River is a River fed by the lakes in the Los Alerces National Park in Chubut Province, Argentina, crossing the Andes Mountains The principal affluent of the Palena, the Carrenleufu, carries off the waters of Lake General Paz, situated on the eastern slope of the Cordillera. Río Pico, an affluent of the same river, receives nearly the whole of the waters of the extensive undulating plain which lies between the Río Tecka and the Río Senguerr to the east of the Cordillera, while the remainder are carried away by the affluents of Río Jehua: the Cherque, Omkel, and Appeleg. This region contains auriferous drifts, but these, like the auriferous deposits, veins of galena and lignite in the mountains farther west which flank the Cordillera, have not been properly investigated. Galena is the natural mineral form of Lead sulfide. It is the most important Lead Ore mineral Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere At Lake Fontana there are auriferous drifts and lignite deposits which abound in fossil plants of the Cretaceous age. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere The streams which form the rivers Mayo and Chalia join the tributaries of the Río Aisén, which flows into the Pacific, watering in its course extensive and valuable districts where colonization has been initiated by Argentine settlers. Colonies have also been formed in the basin of Lakes Musters and Colhué Huapi; and on the coasts near the Atlantic, along Bahia Camarones and the Gulf of San Jorge, there are extensive farms.
In addition it is one of the highest critically acclaimed group of rivers in the world for fly fishing. Fly fishing is a distinct and ancient Angling method most renowned as a method for catching Trout and Salmon, but employed today for a wide variety of Every year thousands of fly fishermen flock there for the hope of catching "the big one".
Santa Cruz is the biggest province in Argentinan Patagonia. It covers 293,993 km2
Palena Province is one of the provinces of the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Zona Austral (English Austral Zone) is one of the five Natural regions into which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950. Palena Province is one of the provinces of the Los Lagos Region, Chile. Geography and demography The region has an area of 67013 km² and its population according to the 2002 INE Census was 1073135 with a population density Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The capital of the Province is the town of Chaitén. Chaitén (tʃaɪˈtɛn is a Chilean town and commune, capital of the Palena Province in Los Lagos Region. The private Pumalín Park is located in the province as is the town and territory of Huinay which divides the park into two parts. Pumalin Park (Spanish Parque Pumalín) is a private park in the Palena Province of Chile owned by American businessman Douglas Tompkins. Huinay Chile is a tract of land belonging to the San Ignacio del Huinay Foundation. Due to its location in front of Chiloé Island it is sometimes called Continental Chiloé (Chiloé Continental). Chiloé Island ( Spanish: "Isla de Chiloé" also known as' Isla Grande de Chiloé "Greater Island of Chiloé", is the largest island
Aisén (also spelled Aysén) is Chile's eleventh administrative region. Municipalities Aisén Region has ten municipalities ( communes Coihaique Lago Verde Aisén The Buenos Aires or General Carrera is a Lake located in Patagonia and shared by Argentina, where is known as Lago Buenos Aires, and Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the ||-||} Chile is divided into 15 Regions (in Spanish, regiones; singular región) each of which is headed by an Intendant ( intendente It is the least populated region in Chile and it remains a region with huge communication problems due to its lack of infrastructure. The region is known for its unique ecological characteristics including unspoiled habitat for numerous endemic species. Its terrain and form are very similar to those of the Alaska Panhandle, the northern Norwegian coast, and New Zealand's Milford Sound region. The Alaska Panhandle, sometimes referred to as Southeast Alaska, is the southeastern portion of the U Milford Sound ( Piopiotahi in Māori) is a Fiord in the south west of New Zealand 's South Island, within Fiordland Laguna San Rafael National Park, reachable only by boat or plane, is one of its most popular tourist destinations. Laguna San Rafael National Park is a park located on the Pacific coast of southern Chile. Until the construction of Route 7, the Southern Highway, in the 1980s, the only overland routes from north to south through the region were extremely primitive tracks. The Carretera Austral (in English Southern Highway also known as Carretera Presidente Pinochet (President Pinochet Highway is the name given to Chile 's Route 7
The Spanish electric company Endesa has recently proposed building a series of hydro-electric dams in Aisén, based on water rights the company acquired before privatization during the military rule of Pinochet. The dams would first be built on the Baker and Pascua Rivers, but additional dams have been proposed on a number of other previously intact rivers in the area, including the Futaleufú. Baker River may refer to one of the following rivers In South America: Baker River (Chile In the United States: The Pascua River is a river located in the Aisén Region of Chile. The Futaleufú River is a River fed by the lakes in the Los Alerces National Park in Chubut Province, Argentina, crossing the Andes Mountains The power would be transported 1200 miles north, via a high-tension transmission line through a number of national parks and protected areas to supply power to the Santiago area where much of the power is used for heavy industry and mining.
A number of local, national and international environmental organizations oppose the dams, claiming they would destroy the natural heritage of the area and would lead to greatly increased electrical costs for Chilean consumers.
Magallanes and Chilean Antártica Region is the southernmost, largest and second least populated region of Chile. Geography This region contains mountainous peaks and Glaciers in the far north including elements of the Patagonian Ice Sheet. Pehoe Lake is a Lake located in Torres del Paine National Park, in the Magallanes Region of southern Chile. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Geography This region contains mountainous peaks and Glaciers in the far north including elements of the Patagonian Ice Sheet.
This region has many globally known places and geographical accidents like Torres del Paine, Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego Island, and the Strait of Magellan. Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. Tierra del Fuego (officially Provincia de Tierra del Fuego Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur) is an Argentine Province entirely separated from The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande It also includes the Antarctic territory claimed by Chile.
The low population and vastness makes this region a good place for many native animal and plant species. It is relatively easy to find penguins, ñandúes, guanacos, condors, and other animals in their natural environment. Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost The rheas are species of flightless Ratite Birds in the genus Rhea, native to South America. The guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) is a Camelid animal native to South America that stands between 107 and 122 centimeters (3 Condor is the name for two Species of New World vultures each in a Monotypic Genus.
The main economic activities are sheep farming, oil extraction and tourism. This region is also home to the one of the world's spectacular adventure races, the Patagonia Expedition Race. The PATAGONIA EXPEDITION RACE is an annual Adventure race, located in Patagonia, Chile, after Antarctica the most southern region of the world
Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago at the southernmost tip of Patagonia, divided between Argentina and Chile. Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian It consists of the 47,992 km² of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, and several minor islands. Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (literally Great Island of the Land of Fire) is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by
The climate is less severe than was supposed by early travelers. The east slope is warmer than the west, especially in summer, as a branch of the southern equatorial current reaches its shores, whereas the west coast is washed by a cold current. At Puerto Montt, on the inlet behind Chiloé Island. Puerto Montt is a port city and commune in southern Chile, located at the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound in the Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos The main annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) and the average extremes 25. 5 °C (78 °F) and −1. 5 °C (29. 5 °F), whereas at Bahia Blanca near the Atlantic coast and just outside the northern confines of Patagonia the annual temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) and the range much greater. Bahía Blanca is a City located in the south-west of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, head town of At Punta Arenas, in the extreme south, the mean temperature is 6 °C (43 °F) and the average extremes 24. 5 °C (76 °F) and −2 °C (28 °F). The prevailing winds are westerly, and the westward slope has a much heavier precipitation than the eastern in a rainshadow effect; the western islands close to Torres del Paine receive an annual precipitation of 4,000 to 7,000 mm, whilst the eastern hills are less than 800 mm and the plains may be as low as 200 mm annual precipitation. For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series. 
The depletion of the ozone layer over the South Pole has been reported as being responsible for blindness and skin cancer in sheep in Tierra del Fuego, and concerns for human health and ecosystems. The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were worked out by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930 The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. 
Due to the wide variation in temperature, precipitation and altitude, there are clear vegetation patterns. Moorland with bogs and dwarf shrubs, termed Magellanic moorland, predominates along the south western coast where there are high winds and precipitation. Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas characterised by low growing vegetation on Acidic soils A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree Around the ice-fields, high rainfall in sheltered areas allows mixed evergreen temperate rain forest (Magellanic subpolar forests) of southern beech (Nothofagus betuloides). Temperate rainforests are Coniferous or broadleaf Forests that occur in the Temperate zone and receive high rainfall The Magellanic subpolar forests are a Terrestrial ecoregion of southernmost South America covering parts of southern Chile and Argentina, and is part Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of about 35 Species of Trees and shrubs native to the temperate oceanic Nothofagus betuloides (Magellan's beech is an evergreen tree up to 25 meters (82 feet columnar appearance in its natural environment it tolerates cold winters and absence Mixed deciduous woodland (Valdivian temperate rain forests) is found in areas of lower precipitation, including Nothofagus pumilio, Berberis and Gunnera magellanica. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including The Valdivian temperate rain forests are a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion located on the west coast of southern South America, lying mostly Nothofagus pumilio ( Lenga Beech or Lenga) is a Deciduous Tree or Shrub native to the southern area of the 
On the eastern side of the mountains, there are also areas of rain forest and bog where precipitation is high. Beyond this zone on the wide steppe there is grassland with low shrubs, with tough Festuca tussock-grasses resistant to low precipitation and high winds. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody Fescue ( Festuca) is a Genus of about 300 Species of perennial tufted Grasses belonging to the grass family Poaceae  In spring and summer, the grassland is interspersed with low plants covered in small blossoms. 
The calafate (Berberis buxifolia) is considered the symbol of Patagonia. Calafate redirects here For the Patagonian town see El Calafate Berberis buxifolia, common name the Magellan An evergreen shrub, its berries are edible and used to make a popular jam. A legend tells that eating the berry makes people certain to return to Patagonia.  The large and long-living Alerce is an iconic tree of the Lake District, protected in Los Alerces National Park. Alerce is a Chilean town in the communes of Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas in Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos Region. The Los Alerces National Park is a national park in Chubut Province, Argentina, some 30 miles from Esquel. 
The guanaco, the cougar, the zorro or Brazilian fox (Canis azarae), the zorrino or Mephitis patagonica (a kind of skunk), and the tuco-tuco or Ctenomys magellanicus (a subterranean rodent) are the most characteristic mammals of the Patagonian plains. The guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) is a Camelid animal native to South America that stands between 107 and 122 centimeters (3 The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family Skunks (sometimes referred to as polecats) are Mammals best known for their ability to excrete a strong foul-smelling odor. The tuco-tucos are members of a group of rodents that belong to the family Ctenomyidae. Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must The guanaco roam in herds over the country and form with the rhea (Rhea americana, and more rarely Rhea darwinii) formerly the chief means of subsistence for the natives, who hunted them on horseback with dogs and bolas. The rheas are species of flightless Ratite Birds in the genus Rhea, native to South America. Distinguish from Bolus. Bolas (from Spanish Bola, "ball" also known as boleadoras) are a throwing Vizcacha (Lagidum spp. Viscachas or vizcachas are rodents in the chinchilla family Chinchillidae. ) and Mara (Dolichotis) are also characteristic of the steppe and the Pampas to the north. For other uses see Mara. The maras ( Dolichotis) are a Genus of the cavy family Laguna de Gomezjpg|thumb|left|240px|Lake Gomez near Junín in the heart of the Pampas grain belt
Bird-life is often wonderfully abundant. The carancho or carrion-hawk (Polyborus tharus) is one of the characteristic objects of a Patagonian landscape; the presence of long-tailed green parakeets (Conurus cyanolysius) as far south as the shores of the strait attracted the attention of the earlier navigators; and hummingbirds may be seen flying amidst the falling snow. The Southern Caracara ( Caracara plancus) also known as the Southern Crested Caracara, is a Bird of prey in the family Falconidae A parakeet is a North American term for any one of a large number of unrelated small to medium sized Parrot species that generally have long-tail feathers Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. Of the many kinds of water-fowl it is enough to mention the flamingo, the upland goose, and in the strait the remarkable steamer duck. Flamingos or flamingoes ( are gregarious Wading birds in the Genus Phoenicopterus and family The Magellan Goose or Upland Goose ( Chloephaga picta) is a South American member of the Duck, Goose and Swan family Tachyeres ( Steamer Ducks)is a Genus of Ducks in the Bird family Anatidae.
Signature marine fauna include the Southern right whale, the Emperor penguin, the Orca and elephant seals. The Southern Right Whale ( Eubalaena australis) is a Baleen whale, one of three species classified as Right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena The Emperor Penguin ( Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living Penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The Orca or Killer Whale ( Orcinus orca) less commonly Blackfish or Seawolf, is the largest species of the Oceanic dolphin family Elephant seals are large oceangoing Mammals in the Genus Mirounga, in the Earless seal (Phocidae family. The Valdés Peninsula is a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its importance as a nature reserve. The Valdes Peninsula ( Spanish Península Valdés) is a Peninsula along the Atlantic coast in the Viedma Department in the north United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
Human habitation of the region dates back thousands of years, with some early archaeological findings in the area dated to at least the 13th millennium BCE, although later dates of around the 10th millennium BCE are more securely recognised. There is evidence of human activity at Monte Verde in Llanquihue Province, Chile dated to around 12,500 BCE. Monte Verde is an Archaeological site in south-central Chile, which has been dated to 14500 years before present Llanquihue is a Province of Chile located in the southern Los Lagos Region.  The glacial period ice-fields and subsequent large meltwater streams would have made settlement difficult at that time.
The region seems to have been inhabited continuously since 10,000 BCE, by various cultures and alternating waves of migration, the details of which are as yet poorly understood. Several sites have been excavated, notably caves in Última Esperanza in southern Patagonia, and Tres Arroyos on Tierra del Fuego, that support this date. The Última Esperanza Province of Chile (in Spanish Provincia Última Esperanza, "Last Hope Province" is located on the Chilean continental Tres Arroyos is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is the capital of the Tres Arroyos Partido.  Hearths, stone scrapers, animal remains dated to 9,400-9,200 BCE have been found east of the Andes. 
The Cueva de las Manos is a famous site in Santa Cruz, Argentina. Cueva de las Manos ( Spanish for Cave of the Hands) is a Cave located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina A cave at the foot of a cliff, it has wall paintings, particularly the negative images of hundreds of hands, believed to date from around 8,000 BCE. 
Hunting of guanaco was the most important activity, and rhea (ñandu) to a lesser extent, it appears from artifacts. The guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) is a Camelid animal native to South America that stands between 107 and 122 centimeters (3 The rheas are species of flightless Ratite Birds in the genus Rhea, native to South America.  It is unclear whether the megafauna of Patagonia, including the ground sloth and horse, were extinct in the area before the arrival of humans, although this is now the more widely accepted account. Megafauna are species of large Animals ( Greek μεγας large + modern Latin fauna animal Ground sloths are a diverse group of Extinct Sloths Mammals in the edentate Superorder Xenarthra. It is also not clear if domestic dogs were part of early human activity. Bolas are commonly found and were used to catch guanaco and rhea. Distinguish from Bolus. Bolas (from Spanish Bola, "ball" also known as boleadoras) are a throwing  A maritime tradition appeared amongst the Yámana to the south of the Beagle Channel. The Yaghan, also called Yagán, Yahgan (the original spelling Yámana or Yamana, are the indigenous inhabitants of the islands south of The Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago in extreme southern South America.
The indigenous peoples of the region included the Tehuelches, whose numbers and society were reduced to near extinction not long after the first contacts with Europeans. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. Tehuelches included the Gununa'kena to the north, Mecharnuekenk in south central Patagonia and the Aonikenk or Southern Tehuelche in the far South, north of the Magellan channel. On Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the Selk'nam (Ona) and Haush (Mannekenk) lived in the north and south east respectively. Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (literally Great Island of the Land of Fire) is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by The Selk'nam, also known as the Ona, lived in the Patagonian region of in southern Chile and Argentina including the Tierra del Fuego In the archipelagos to the south of Tierra del Fuego were Yámana, with the Kawéskar (Alakaluf) in the coastal areas and islands in western Tierra del Fuego and the south west of the mainland. The Alacaluf (also called Halakwulup, Kawésqar, Kaweskar) are a South American people living in Chile in the Strait of Magellan  These groups were encountered in the first periods of European contact with different lifestyles, body decoration and language, although it is unclear when this configuration emerged.
Around 1,000 BCE, Mapuche-speaking agriculturalists penetrated the western Andes and from there across into the eastern plains and down to the far south. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. Through confrontation and technological ability, they came to dominate the other peoples of the region in a short space of time, and are the principal indigenous community today. 
The region of Patagonia was to be first noted in European accounts in 1520 by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan, who on his passage along the coast named many of the more striking features -- Gulf of San Matias, Cape of 11,000 Virgins (now simply Cape Virgenes), and others. Capes in the Americas Cape Virgenes ( Cabo Virgenes, Cape Virgins is the southeastern tip of South America. However, it is also possible that earlier navigators such as Amerigo Vespucci had reached the area (his own account of 1502 has it that he reached its latitudes), however his failure to accurately describe the main geographical features of the region such as the Río de la Plata casts some doubt on whether he really did so. The Explorer and Cartographer Amerigo Vespucci ( March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was the first person to demonstrate The Río de la Plata ( Spanish: " Silver River" &mdash which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate
Rodrigo de Isla, sent inland in 1535 from San Matias by Simón de Alcazaba Sotomayor (on whom western Patagonia had been conferred by Carlos V of Spain), is presumed to have been the first European to traverse the great Patagonian plain. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was If the men under his charge had not mutinied, he might have been able to cross the Andes to reach the Chilean side.
Pedro de Mendoza, on whom the country was next bestowed, lived to found Buenos Aires, but not to carry his explorations to the south. Pedro de Mendoza y Luján (c 1487 &ndash June 23 1537) was a Spanish Conquistador, and the first Adelantado of the Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Alonzo de Camargo (1539), Juan Ladrilleros (1557) and Hurtado de Mendoza (1558) helped to make known the western coasts, and Sir Francis Drake's voyage in 1577 down the eastern coast through the strait and northward by Chile and Peru was memorable for several reasons; but the geography of Patagonia owes more to Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1579–1580), who, devoting himself especially to the south-west region, made careful and accurate surveys. Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532 - 1592 was a Spanish explorer author historian astronomer scientist and humanist The settlement which he founded at Nombre de Dios and San Felipe were neglected by the Spanish government, and the latter was in such a miserable state when Thomas Cavendish visited it in 1587 that he called it Port Famine. Nombre de Dios ("Name of God " is a city on the Atlantic coast of Panama in the Colon Province. Sir Thomas Cavendish (or Candish) (1560-1592 was known as "the Navigator" because he was the first who deliberately set out to circumnavigate Puerto Hambre, also known as Puerto del Hambre and at one time as Port Famine, is a historic settlement site at Buena Bay on the west side of the Strait
The district in the neighbourhood of Puerto Deseado, explored by John Davis about the same period, was taken possession of by Sir John Narborough in the name of King Charles II of England in 1669. Puerto Deseado, originally called Port Desire, is a city of about 10000 inhabitants and a fishing Port in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province John Davis (1550?-December 29 1605 was one of the chief English navigators and explorers under Elizabeth I, especially in Polar regions Rear Admiral Sir John Narborough, RN (born c1640 - d 1688 was an English naval Commander of the 17th century who served with distinction during the Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
According to Antonio Pigafetta, one of the Magellan expedition's few survivors and its published chronicler, Magellan bestowed the name "Patagão" (or Patagón) on the inhabitants they encountered there, and the name "Patagonia" for the region. Antonio Pigafetta (c 1491 was an Italian Scholar born in Vicenza. Although Pigafetta's account does not describe how this name came about, subsequent popular interpretations gave credence to a derivation meaning 'land of the big feet'. However, this etymology is questionable. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time
The main interest in the region sparked by Pigafetta's account came from his reports of their meeting with the local inhabitants, who they claimed to measure some nine to twelve feet in height —". Rear Admiral Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville ( May 23, 1790, Condé-sur-Noireau, France &ndash May 8, 1842, . . so tall that we reached only to his waist"—, and hence the later idea that Patagonia meant "big feet". This supposed race of Patagonian giants or Patagones entered into the common European perception of this little-known and distant area, to be further fuelled by subsequent reports of other expeditions and famous-name travellers like Sir Francis Drake, which seemed to confirm these accounts. The Patagones or Patagonian giants are a mythical race of people who first began to appear in early European accounts of the then little-known region and coastline The Patagones or Patagonian giants are a mythical race of people who first began to appear in early European accounts of the then little-known region and coastline Early charts of the New World sometimes added the legend regio gigantum ("region of the giants") to the Patagonian area. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. By 1611 the Patagonian god Setebos (Settaboth in Pigafetta) was familiar to the hearers of The Tempest.
The concept and general belief persisted for a further 250 years, and was to be sensationally re-ignited in 1767 when an "official" (but anonymous) account was published of Commodore John Byron's recent voyage of global circumnavigation in HMS Dolphin. Please see Commodore (rank for other versions of this rank Commodore is a rank of the Royal Navy above Captain and Vice-Admiral John Byron, RN ( November 8, 1723 – April 10, 1786) was an English Vice-admiral. Early service Not long after her commissioning the hostilities of the Seven Years' War had escalated and spread to Europe, and in May of 1756 Britain Byron and crew had spent some time along the coast, and the publication (Voyage Round the World in His Majesty's Ship the Dolphin) seemed to give proof positive of their existence; the publication became an overnight best-seller, thousands of extra copies were to be sold to a willing public, and other prior accounts of the region were hastily re-published (even those in which giant-like folk were not mentioned at all).
However, the Patagonian giant frenzy was to die down substantially only a few years later, when some more sober and analytical accounts were published. In 1773 John Hawkesworth published on behalf of the Admiralty a compendium of noted English southern-hemisphere explorers' journals, including that of James Cook and John Byron. ImageMortimer - Captain James Cook Sir Joseph Banks Lord Sandwich Dr Daniel Solander and Dr John Hawkesworth The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and In this publication, drawn from their official logs, it became clear that the people Byron's expedition had encountered were no taller than 6-foot 6 inches, tall perhaps but by no means giants. Interest soon subsided, although awareness of and belief in the myth persisted in some quarters even up into the 20th century. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" 
In the second half of the 18th century, European knowledge of Patagonia was further augmented by the voyages of the previously-mentioned John Byron (1764–1765), Samuel Wallis (1766, in the same HMS Dolphin which Byron had earlier sailed in) and Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1766). Samuel Wallis ( 23 April 1728 &ndash London 21 January 1795) was a Cornish Navigator who circumnavigated the Louis-Antoine comte de Bougainville ( November 12 1729 Paris - August 31 1811 Paris) was a French navigator and military Thomas Falkner, a Jesuit who resided near forty years in those parts, published his Description of Patagonia (Hereford, 1774); Francesco Viedma founded El Carmen, and Antonio advanced inland to the Andes (1782); and Basilio Villarino ascended the Rio Negro (1782). Thomas Falkner (born 6 October[[ 707]] died 30 January[[ 784]] was an English Jesuit missionary active in Patagonia. Basilio Villarino was a captain of the Spanish Royal Navy who traveled around the southern tip of South America.
Two hydrographic surveys of the coasts were of first-rate importance: the first expedition (1826–1830) including HMS Adventure and HMS Beagle under Phillip Parker King, and the second (1832–1836) being the voyage of the Beagle under Robert FitzRoy. Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of Waters and marginal land First Voyage On 27 September 1825 Beagle docked at Woolwich for repairs and fitted out for her new duties at a total cost of £5913 Admiral Phillip Parker King, FRS, RN ( 13 December 1791 - February 26, 1856) was an early explorer of the This is about the book For the expedition see Second voyage of HMS Beagle The Voyage of the Beagle is a title commonly given to Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy ( 5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS ''Beagle'' The latter expedition is particularly noted for the participation of Charles Darwin; however nothing was observed of the interior of the country except for 200 miles (320 km) of the course of the Santa Cruz river. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Santa Cruz River ( Spanish: Río Santa Cruz) is a river from the Argentine province of Santa Cruz.
Following the last instructions of Bernardo O'Higgins, the Chilean president Manuel Bulnes sent an expedition to the Strait of Magellan and founded Fuerte Bulnes in 1843. Fuerte Bulnes is a Chilean Fort located by the Strait of Magellan, 62 km south of Punta Arenas. Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme ( August 20, 1778 &ndash October 24, 1842) South American independence leader was one of the commanders Manuel Bulnes Prieto ( December 25, 1799 - October 18, 1866) was a Chilean military and Political figure. The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande Fuerte Bulnes is a Chilean Fort located by the Strait of Magellan, 62 km south of Punta Arenas. Five years later, the Chilean government moved the main settlement to the current location of Punta Arenas, the oldest permanent settlement in Southern Patagonia. Punta Arenas (literally in Spanish: "Sandy Point" is the most prominent settlement on the Strait of Magellan and the capital of the Magallanes y la The creation of Punta Arenas was instrumental in making Chile's claim of the Strait of Magellan permanent.
In the mid-19th century the newly-independent nations of Argentina and Chile began an aggressive phase of expansion into the south, increasing confrontation with the indigenous populations. In 1860, a French adventurer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens proclaimed himself king of The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia of the Mapuche. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Orélie-Antoine de Tounens (1825-1878 was a French lawyer and adventurer who assumed the title of King of Araucania and Patagonia. The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia ( French: Royaume d'Araucanie et de Patagonie; sometimes referred to as New France) was an ephemeral political The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. Captain George Chaworth Musters in 1869 wandered in company with a band of Tehuelches through the whole length of the country from the strait to the Manzaneros in the north-west, and collected a great deal of information about the people and their mode of life. Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. In the 1870s the Conquest of the Desert was a controversial campaign by the Argentine government, executed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, to subdue or, some claim, to exterminate the native peoples of the South. The Conquest of the Desert (Conquista del desierto was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s which established Argentine dominance Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz ( July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from By the mid-1880s the campaign's objectives had largely been achieved.
In 1885 a mining expeditionary party under the Romanian adventurer Julius Popper landed in southern Patagonia in search of gold, which they found after travelling southwards towards the lands of Tierra del Fuego. Julius Popper ( December 15 1857 – June 5 1893) was an Engineer, Adventurer and Explorer of Romanian Jewish Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago This further opened up some of the area to prospectors.
European missionaries and settlers arrived through the 19th and 20th centuries, notably the Welsh settlement of the Chubut Valley. The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut province in the far southern region of Patagonia The Chubut River ( Spanish, Río Chubut) is a river in Patagonia, Southern Argentina.
During the first years of the 20th century, the border between the two nations in Patagonia was established by the mediation of the British crown. But it has undergone a lot of modifications since then, and there is still one place (50 km long) where there is no border established (Southern Patagonia Icefield). The Southern Patagonia Ice Field ( Spanish: Hielos Continentales or Campo de Hielo Sur) is the third biggest extension of continental ice after
Until 1902 most of Patagonia was settled by Chilotes who worked in cattle farming. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé consists of several islands lying off the coast of Chile. Before and after 1902, when the boundaries were drawn, a lot of Chilotes were expelled from the Argentinian side. These workers founded the first inland Chilean settlement in what is now the Aisén Region; Balmaceda. Municipalities Aisén Region has ten municipalities ( communes Coihaique Lago Verde Aisén Balmaceda is Chilean village ( Spanish: aldea) located south east of Coyhaique in Aisén Region. Lacking good grasslands on the forest-covered Chilean side, the immigrants burned down the forest, setting fires that could have lasted more than two years. 
As described above by province, principal economic activities have been mining, whaling, agriculture (notably sheep in the south, and wheat and fruit to the north), and oil after its discovery near Comodoro Rivadavia in 1907. Comodoro Rivadavia is a city in the Patagonian province of Chubut in southern Argentina, located  Energy production is also a crucial part of the local economy. Railways were planned to cover continental Argentine Patagonia to serve the oil, mining, agricultural and energy industries, and a line was built connecting San Carlos de Bariloche to Buenos Aires. San Carlos de Bariloche is a city in the, situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes ( Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez Lake, Moreno Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Portions of other lines were built to the south, but the only lines still in use are La Trochita in Esquel, the 'Train of the End of the World' in Ushuaia, both heritage lines,  and a short run Tren Histórico de Bariloche to Perito Moreno. La Trochita, (El Viejo Expreso Patagónico in English known as the Old Patagonian Express, is a Narrow gauge railway in Patagonia Esquel is a town in the northwest of the province of Chubut, in the Argentine Patagonia. The Southern Fuegian Railway or the End of the World Train ( Spanish: Ferrocarril Austral Fueguino ( FCAF) or El Tren del Ushuaia (u'swaia is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and is sometimes considered to be the southernmost city in the world A heritage railway ( United Kingdom) preserved railway ( United Kingdom) or tourist railroad ( United States and Canada) is a San Carlos de Bariloche is a city in the, situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes ( Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez Lake, Moreno
In the second half of the 20th century, tourism became an ever more important part of Patagonia's economy. Originally a remote backpacking destination, the region has attracted increasing numbers of upmarket visitors, cruise passengers rounding Cape Horn or visiting Antarctica, and adventure and activity holiday-makers. Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. Principal tourist attractions include the Perito Moreno glacier, the Valdés Peninsula, Torres del Paine national park, the Argentine Lake District and Ushuaia and Tierra del Fuego. The Perito Moreno Glacier ( is a Glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. The Valdes Peninsula ( Spanish Península Valdés) is a Peninsula along the Atlantic coast in the Viedma Department in the north Torres del Paine National Park is a Chilean National Park comprising mountains glaciers lakes and rivers Ushuaia (u'swaia is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and is sometimes considered to be the southernmost city in the world Tierra del Fuego ( Spanish for " Land of Fire " in English tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪgoʊ] Spanish ˈtjerað̞elˈfweɰo is an Archipelago Tourism has created new markets locally and for export for traditional crafts such as Mapuche handicrafts, guanaco textiles, and confectionery and preserves. 
At the urging of the Chilean government, the Spanish company Endesa hopes to build a number of large hydro-electric dams in the Chilean Patagonia. The first dams would be built on the Baker and Pascua rivers, but dams have also been proposed on others, including the famed Futalefu. The dams are thought to threaten the fishing, wilderness-tourism and agricultural interests along the river. The electricity would be fed into high-tension lines (to be built by a Canadian company) and taken 1200 miles north to the industry and mining hub around Santiago. The lines would cut through a number of previously pristine national parks and protected areas. The Chilean government considers the power to be essential for economic growth, while opponents claim it will destroy Patagonia's growing tourism industry. No evidence has been produced from the experience in other nations that the presence of electrical transmission lines has significantly affected tourism. In fact, opponents of the program have utilized billboard advertising in Chile which superimposes images of power lines over scenes of Torres del Paine national park, where no proposals for such lines have been made.
A spin-off from increased tourism has been the buying of often enormous tracts of land by foreigners, often as a prestige purchase rather than for agriculture. Buyers have included Sylvester Stallone, Ted Turner and Christopher Lambert, and most notably Luciano Benetton, Patagonia's largest landowner. Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone (born July 6 1946 is an American Actor, director, producer and Screenwriter. Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III (born November 19, 1938) is an American Media proprietor and philanthropist. Christopher Lambert (born March 29, 1957 as Christophe Guy Denis Lambert) is an American -born French actor Four members of the Italian Benetton family founded the Benetton Group S  His Compañia de Tierras Sud has brought new techniques to the ailing sheep-rearing industry and sponsored museums and community facilities, but has been controversial particularly for its treatment of local Mapuche communities. 
Argentine Patagonian cuisine is largely the same as the cuisine of Buenos Aires - grilled meats and pasta - with extensive use of local ingredients and less use of those products which have to be imported into the region. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern Lamb is considered the traditional Patagonian meat, grilled for several hours over an open fire. Some guide books have reported that game, especially guanaco and introduced deer and boar, are popular in restaurant cuisine. However, since the guanaco is a protected animal in both Chile and Argentina, it is unlikely to appear commonly as restaurant fare. Trout and centolla (king crab) are also common, though over-fishing of centolla has made it increasingly scarce. The centolla is a type of King crab, genus Glyptolithodes, common in Peru and Chile. King crabs, also called stone crabs, are a family of Crab -like decapod Crustaceans chiefly found in cold seas In the area around Bariloche, there is a noted Alpine cuisine tradition, with chocolate bars and even fondue restaurants, and tea rooms are a feature of the Welsh communities in Gaiman and Trevelin as well as in the mountains. Fondue is a Swiss communal dish shared at the table in an Earthenware pot ( Caquelon) over a small burner ( rechaud) A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct Gaiman is a town in the Chubut Province of Patagonia in Argentina. Trevelin is a town in the Patagonian province of Chubut in Argentina. 
Foreign investors, including Italian multimillionational Benetton Group and the environmentalist Douglas Tompkins, owns currently major land areas. Benetton Group SpA is a global clothing Brand, based in Treviso, Italy. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. Douglas Tompkins (born 1943 in New York) is an American Environmentalist and a former businessman This situation have caused several conflicts with local inhabitants and the governments of Chile and Argentina for example the opposition by Douglas Tomkins to the planned route for Carretera Austral in Pumalín Park. The Carretera Austral (in English Southern Highway also known as Carretera Presidente Pinochet (President Pinochet Highway is the name given to Chile 's Route 7 Pumalin Park (Spanish Parque Pumalín) is a private park in the Palena Province of Chile owned by American businessman Douglas Tompkins. Benetton has faced criticism from Mapuche organizations, including Mapuche International Link, over its purchase of traditional Mapuche lands in Patagonia. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. Mapuche International Link ( MIL) is an organization which campaigns on behalf of the Mapuche people of southern Chile and Argentina.  The Curiñanco-Nahuelquir family was evicted from their land in 2002 following Benetton's claim to it, but the land was restored in 2007. 
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone