A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of the holder of the passport. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth. Most often, nationality and citizenship are congruent.
A passport represents the right of a passport holder to consular protection while he is abroad, and his right to return to the country which issued the passport. Neither right arises from the passport. The right to consular protection arises from international agreements, and the right to return arises from the laws of the issuing country.
One of the earliest references to passports is found in the biblical book of Nehemiah 2:7-9. Circa 450 BC, Nehemiah, an official serving King Artaxerxes I of Persia, asked leave to travel to Judea. Artaxerxes I (Latin Greek Ἀρταξέρξης Persian اردشیر یکم (Ardeshir corruption of Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎭𐎧𐎨𐏁𐎨 Artaxšacā Judea or Judæa ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, "praised The king granted leave, and gave to Nehemiah a letter "to the governors beyond the river" requesting safe passage for him as he traveled through their lands.
The term "passport" likely does not derive from sea ports, but likely derives from a medieval document required to pass through the gate ("porte") of a city wall. In medieval Europe, those documents were issuable to travellers by local authorities, and a document generally contained a list of towns and cities into which a document holder was permitted to pass. On the whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points, but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports.
Early passports included a description of the passport holder. Attachment of photographs to passports began in the early decades of the 20th century, when photography became widespread.
In the latter part of the nineteenth century and up to World War I, passports were not required, on the whole, for international travel in Europe, and crossing a border was easy. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Consequently, comparatively few people had passports. The breakdown of the European passport system of the early part of the nineteenth century was a result of rail travel. Trains, used extensively from the mid-19th century onward, travelled rapidly, carried numerous passengers, and crossed many borders. Those factors made enforcement of passport laws difficult. The general reaction was abolition of passport requirements.  Exceptions were repressive countries, such as the Ottoman Empire and czarist Russia, which maintained passport requirements for international travel. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya In addition, the Ottoman Empire maintained an internal-passport system to control travel within it; the Russian empire had a similar system.
During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons (to keeping out spies) and to control immigration of citizens with useful skills, and retaining potential manpower. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Controls were not rescinded after the war, but became standard procedure, though not without controversy. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which led to a "nasty dehumanisation". 
In 1920, the League of Nations held a conference on passports and through tickets. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Passport guidelines resulted from the conference, which was followed up by conferences in 1926 and 1927.
The United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, but passport guidelines did not result from it. Passport standardisation came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO. The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation
Passports have numerical or alphanumerical designators ("serial number") assigned by the issuing authority. A serial number is a unique Number assigned for Identification which varies from its Successor or Predecessor by a fixed discrete Integer
Passport standards are recommended to national governments by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation
The standard format includes, on a passport cover, the name of the issuing country, a national symbol, a description of the document (passport, official passport, diplomatic passport), and, if the passport is biometric, the biometric-passport symbol. Inside, there is a title page, also naming the country. This is followed by a data page, on which there is information about the bearer and the issuing authority, although passports of some European Union member states provide that information on the inside back cover. There are blank pages available for foreign countries to affix visas, and to stamp for entries and exit.
Machine-readable passports are standardised by the ICAO. See also Passport A machine readable passport (MRP is a Passport where the data on the identity page is encoded in Optical character recognition The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation  There is a zone in which most of the information written as text is also printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition. Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the Mechanical or electronic translation of Images of handwritten typewritten
Conformable with ICAO standards, a biometric passport has a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip, which contains data about the passport bearer, a photograph of him in digital format, and data about the passport. See also Passport A biometric passport is a combined paper and electronic identity document that uses Biometrics to authenticate the identity of travelers Radio-frequency identification ( RFID) is an automatic identification method relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or
Many countries issue biometric passports. The stated reasons for RFID chips in passports are clearance through immigration and prevention of identity fraud. Radio-frequency identification ( RFID) is an automatic identification method relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or These reasons are disputed by privacy advocates.  Governments are reluctant to acknowledge privacy concerns.
Although many countries issue biometric passports, few introduced the equipment needed to read them at ports of entry. In the absence of an international standard, it is not possible for one country to read the biometric information in passports issued by another country.
A passport contains a message from the nominal issuing officer, such as the secretary of state or the minister of external affairs. The passport message, usually near the front of a passport, requests that the bearer of the passport be allowed to pass freely, and further requests that, in the event of need, the bearer be granted assistance.
For example, the passport message in a Philippine passport states in Filipino and in English:
"Ang Pamahalaan ng Republika ng Pilipinas ay humihiling sa lahat na kinauukulan na pahintulutan ang pinagkalooban nito, isang mamamayan ng Pilipinas, na makaraan nang malaya at walang sagabal, at kung kailangan, ay pag-ukulan siya ng lahat ng tulong at proteksyon ayon sa batas. "
"The Government of the Republic of the Philippines requests all concerned authorities to permit the bearer, a citizen of the Philippines, to pass safely and freely and in case of need to give him/her all lawful aid and protection. "
Another example is the New Zealand passport, which states in English and in Maori:
An international conference on passports and through tickets, held by the League of Nations in 1920, recommended that passports be issued in French, historically the language of diplomacy, and one other language. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Nowadays, the ICAO recommends that passports be issued in English and French, or in the national language of the issuing country and in either English or French.
Some unusual language combinations are:
The design and layout of passports of the member states of the European Union are a result of consensus and recommendation, rather than of directive.  Passports are issued by member states, not by the EU. The data page can be at the front or at the back of a passport, and there are small design differences to indicate which member state is the issuer. The covers of ordinary passports are burgundy-red, with "European Union" written in the national language or languages. Below that are the name of the country, a national symbol, the word or words in the national language or languages for "passport", and, at the bottom, the symbol for a biomteric passport.
In Central America, the members of the CA-4 Treaty (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) adopted a common-design passport, called the Central American passport. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Although the design had been in use by Nicaragua and El Salvador since the mid-1990s, it became the norm for the CA-4 in January, 2006. The main features are the navy-blue cover with the words "América Central" and a map of Central America, and with the territory of the issuing country highlighted in gold. This substitutes one map for four national symbols. At the bottom of the cover are the name of the issuing country and the passport type. As of 2006, the Nicaraguan passport, which is the model for the passports of the three other countries, is issued in Spanish, French, and English.
The member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) recently began issuing passports to a common design, featuring the CARICOM symbol along with the national symbol and name of the member state, rendered in an CARICOM official language (English, French, Dutch). The Caribbean Community ( CARICOM) is an organization of Caribbean nations and dependencies The Caribbean Community ( CARICOM) is an organization of Caribbean nations and dependencies The member states which use the common design are Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Antigua and Barbuda ( Spanish for "Ancient" and "Bearded" is an Island nation located on the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea The Commonwealth of Dominica, commonly known as Dominica, is an Island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis) located in the Leeward Islands, is a federal two-island Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles chain of the Caribbean Sea. Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American
The member states of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) had originally planned for a common OECS passport by January 1, 2003, but it was delayed. The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States ( OECS) created in 1981 is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration protection of The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States ( OECS) created in 1981 is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration protection of New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Plans to introduce a CARICOM common passport would have made the OECS passport redundant, since all full members of the OECS were also full members of CARICOM. Thus, by November, 2004, the OECS governments agreed to give CARICOM a deadline of May, 2005, to introduce a CARICOM passport, failure of which would have resulted in moving ahead with the introduction of the OECS Passport. The CARICOM passport was introduced in January, 2005, by Suriname, so the idea of an OECS passport was abandoned. Had the OECS passport been introduced, however, it would not have been issued to economic citizens within the OECS states.
The declaration adopted in Cusco, Peru, establishing the Union of South American Nations, signalled an intention to establish a common passport design, but this appears to be a long way away. ||} Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu 'qos Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. __FORCETOC__The Union of South American Nations (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas - UNASUR, União de Nações Sul-Americanas - UNASUL, Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties Already, some member states of regional sub-groupings such as Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations issue passports that bear their official names and seals, along with the name of their regional grouping. Role and potential Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers especially the North The Andean Community ( Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a Trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Examples include Paraguay and Ecuador. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.
The members of the Andean Community of Nations began, in 2001, the process of adopting a common passport format. The Andean Community ( Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a Trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Specifications for the common passport format were outlined in an Andean Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in 2002.  The member states also agreed to phase in new Andean passports, bearing the official name of the regional body in Spanish (Comunidad Andina), by January, 2005. The Andean passport is a Passport for those South American countries that are members of the Andean Community of Nations (ACN Previously-issued national passports will be valid until their expiry dates. The Andean passport is currently in use in Ecuador and Peru. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Bolivia and Colombia were to start issuing Andean passports in early 2006. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Andean passports are bordeaux (burgundy-red), with words in gold. Above the national seal of the issuing country is the name of the organization in Spanish, which is centred and is printed in a large font. Below the seal is the official name of the member country. At the bottom of the cover are the Spanish word for "passport" and the word "passport" in English. Venezuela left the Andean Community, so it is likely that the country will no longer issue Andean passports.
Passports contain a statement of the nationality of the holder. A country with complex nationality laws could issue various passports which are similar in appearance but are representative of differing national statuses. Due to the British colonial heritage and contemporary laws, the United Kingdom has a number of classes of United Kingdom nationality, and more than one relationship of persons to the United Kingdom. The several classes and relationships cause foreign governments to subject this or that group of United Kingdom passport holders to one or another set of entry requirements.
A version of Tongan citizenship is available through investment. An investor is described in a Tongan passport as a Tongan protected person. The status does not carry with it the right of abode in Tonga. Many countries accept Tongan passports which reflect actual Tongan citizenship, but do not accept Tongan passports which reflect investment citizenship.
Passports dependent on citizenship and domicile are issued under the authority of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The one country, two systems model resulted in the PRC issuing passports, Hong Kong issuing passports, and Macau issuing passports. Foreign countries hinge visa-free travel, visa on arrival, and visas on whether a traveller bears a PRC passport, a Hong Kong passport, or a Macau passport, though, under the PRC nationality law, Chinese people who are domiciled in the PRC, Hong Kong, or Macau are all Chinese nationals.
Pakistan requires a Muslim citizen who applies for a passport to subscribe to the following declaration:
The declaration was instituted by the Islamist military regime of Zia-ul-Haq. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq ( Arabic: محمد ضياء الحق) (b The reason for the declaration is to prevent Qadianis from going to Mecca or Medina for Hajj or Umra. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world The ʿUmrah or ( عمرة) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year In the Pakistani biometric passport, there is no box for noting the religion of the passport holder. This seemingly made the religious subscription unnecessary. However, deletion of the box was reversed by the Pakistani government, in response to the religious parties. Passports have the religion box on page 3. Passports without the religion box have a rubber-stamp declaration of the passport holder's religion. There is no mention of religion on the Pakistani national ID Card. 
Typical laws about passports declare that passports are government property, and may be limited or revoked at any time, usually on specified grounds. A limitation or a revocation is generally subject to judicial review.
In many countries, courts are authorised, by a law or by judicial authority, to make surrender of a passport a condition of granting bail.
Many countries issue only one passport to each national. When a passport is due to expire and a passport holder applies for another passport, he is required to hand over the passport in his possession for invalidation by the passport authority. Handing over and invalidating are prerequisite to issuance of another passport, unless the passport holder explains, to the satisfaction of the passport authority, why the passport presumptively in his possession cannot be handed over.
Some countries allow, under specified circumstances, the holding of more than one passport by a citizen. One circumstance is a disqualifying stamp in a passport, such as a stamp which shows travel to Israel, and the citizen intends travel to an Islamic country. Another circumstance is the need to travel while a visa is applied for, and it is likely that consideration of the visa application will be protracted.
Some countries permit the listing of the name of a child in the passport of either parent or in the passports of both parents. A Uruguayan passport, for example, has two photo pages, on which there can be a listing of up to six children, each with his thumbprint and details.
The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) implements the requirement in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA) that, upon entry into the U. The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (or WHTI) requires all travelers to show a valid passport when traveling to the United States from areas within the Western Hemisphere S. from a foreign country, each traveller is to present a passport, or some other document of identity and nationality.
The WHTI does not apply to direct travel between the 50 states and the District of Columbia at the one end and United States territories at the other end. The territories include American Samoa and Swains Island, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U. S. Virgin Islands. That travel is not foreign travel, and, so, is not subject to IRTPA. In practice, some form of identification is needed.
Each air traveler must present a passport or a passport substitute.
Each land or sea traveler who is a U. S. citizen must present a passport booklet; a passport card; a WHTI-compliant identity document; or a government-issued photo ID, such as a driver license, and proof of citizenship, such as a birth certificate.
Effective June 1, 2009, each land or sea traveller who is a U. S. citizen must present a passport booklet, a passport card, or a WHTI-compliant document.
As of April 13, 2008, types of WHTI-compliant documents are: (1) Trusted Traveler cards (NEXUS, SENTRI, FAST); state-issued enhanced driver licenses. Presently, only driver licenses issued by the State of Washington qualify as WHTI compliant; enhanced tribal cards; U. S. military ID cards plus military travel orders; U. S. merchant mariner ID cards, when traveling on maritime business; Native American tribal ID cards; Form I-872 American Indian card. 
Most often, a country accepts the passports of other countries as valid for international travel and valid for entry. There are exceptions, such as: A country does not recognise the passport-issuing country as a sovereign state. An issued passport does not represent the right of abode of the bearer in the country which issued the passport.
Brazil does not accept passports issued by Hong Kong, Macau or the Republic of China (Taiwan). A traveler with one of these passports must apply for a Brazilian laissez-passer, which authorizes a single entry into Brazil.
The People's Republic of China (PRC), on mainland China, does not recognise the Republic of China (ROC), on Taiwan, as a sovereign state. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Rather, the PRC regards Taiwan as a part of its territory, although the PRC had never governed Taiwan. The ROC, for its part, has not renounced its claim to mainland China, although the ROC has been on Taiwan since 1949, and has no control over the mainland.
Consistent with the 1992 Consensus, the PRC and ROC consider both citizens in mainland China and Taiwan as own citizens, but residing in different areas of the same nation. The 1992 Consensus or Consensus of 1992 ( is a term describing the outcome of a meeting in 1992 between the representatives of the People's Republic of China in Neither the PRC nor the ROC stamps passports issued by the other.
Citizens in Taiwan use identity documents issued by PRC public-security authorities to enter mainland China. Citizens in mainland China entering Taiwan must also use identity documents issued by the ROC authority. The identity documents cannot be used for international travel, and an endorsement must be obtained separately to enable travel.
The ROC used to require its citizens who intended travel to mainland China to obtain official approval for the travel, and prescribed an administrative fine of NT$20,000 to NT$100,000 for those who did not. However, the fine was often unimposable, because the PRC did not stamp ROC passports. Thus, there was no way for the ROC to determine who should have been subjected to the fine, except if an ROC citizen lost his ROC passport while on the mainland, and, so, had to report the loss. The official-approval requirement was abolished, except in relation to ROC officials, of whom applications are required.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) issues passports, but only Turkey recognises its statehood. TRNC passports are not accepted for entry into the Republic of Cyprus. Until 2003, Turkey did not accept passports issued by the Republic of Cyprus, because the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Presently, Turkey accepts Greek Cypriot passports, but does not stamp them. Rather, Turkish immigration officials stamp a separate visa issued by Turkey.
The Republic of Cyprus refuses entry to holders of Yugoslav passports which bears a renewal stamp with "Macedonia". 
In People's Republic of China, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macau SAR are each empowered by its Basic Law to issue passports. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders A special administrative region or SAR may be;People's Republic of China Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, present-day For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to " Constitution " implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment An HKSAR passport states that the holder is a Chinese national with the right of abode in Hong Kong. The " Hong Kong Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China Passport " ( Similarly, an MSAR passport states that the bearer is a Chinese national with the right of abode in Macau. The Macau Special Administrative Region Passport ( Traditional Chinese: 澳門特別行政區護照 is a type of Chinese passport issued to permanent residents
Hong Kong and Macau each maintains border controls at all points of entry. Even if a traveller bears a PRC passport, and though neither travel to or from Hong Kong nor travel to or from Macau and the mainland is international travel, he is required to have a permit issued by the mainland government to enter Hong Kong or Macau.
The Public Security Bureau of Guangdong, the Chinese province adjacent to Hong Kong, issues a permit, dubbed the Home Return Permit, to Chinese people domiciled in Hong Kong, to allow them to enter and exit the PRC. A Home Return Permit, also referred to as a Home Visit Permit, or China Back Home Pass, is the colloquial name for the national Identity document officially A proposal that the Hong Kong SAR passport should supplant this permit was dismissed. The " Hong Kong Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China Passport " (
Many Chinese people who have the right of abode in Hong Kong hold British National (Overseas) passports or British Citizen passports issued under the British Nationality Selection Scheme effected by the United Kingdom in the 1990s. British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been a unique situation ever since Hong Kong was created a British colony in 1842 The British Nationality Selection Scheme was a process used to grant British citizenship to selected persons in Hong Kong between 1990 and 1997 The PRC, for its part, considers Chinese people domiciled in Hong Kong to be PRC citizens. The PRC does not recognise those BN(O) and BC passports, and does not recognise the attendant United Kingdom nationality of each, inasmuch as PRC law does not permit dual nationality. Chinese people domiciled in Hong Kong who have those BN(O) and BC passports use a Home Return Permit to enter mainland China. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction It is impermissible under Chinese law to renounce PRC nationality on the basis of holding a form of British nationality obtained in HK.
A Chinese person who has the right of abode in Hong Kong may not use a BN(O) passport or an HKSAR passport in its own right for entering Taiwan. BN(O) and HKSAR passports must be used in conjunction with the Entry Permit of HK and Macau Residents to the Taiwan Area issued by the ROC. In contrast, a BC passport obtained in Hong Kong by a Chinese person domiciled in Hong Kong may be used in its own right to enter Taiwan. (See Visa policy of the Republic of China)
A person with the right of abode in Hong Kong, a Hong Kong resident who holds a Document of Identity for Visa Purposes, a person who has the right to land, a person who is on unconditional stay in Hong Kong, and a non-permanent resident who has a notification label, may use his smart ID card for immigration purposes. Visa types Diplomatic Visa Courtesy Visa Visitor Visa Resident Visa A smart ID card may not be used by a person who is under eleven years old, other than at the Lo Wu crossing. 
ROC citizens who travel to Hong Kong apply for entry permits and collect them at airline counters. Repeat travellers satisfying certain conditions may apply online.
The type of permit for travel to Hong Kong, issued to a Chinese national who is domiciled on the mainland, depends on his place of residence and the purpose of his visit. 
Many Middle Eastern countries will not allow entry to people with evidence of travel to Israel, or whose passports have a used or an unused Israeli visa. Those countries are Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen.
To circumvent the travel restrictions, Israel used to not require visitors to have their passports stamped with Israeli visas or with Israeli entry and exit stamps. The procedure made it impossible to tell if a traveler had been to Israel. However, since September 2006, Israeli immigration officials will rarely agree not to stamp passports. 
The countries which do not allow entry to people with evidence of travel to Israel are aware of the entry and exit stamps stamped in passports by Egypt and Jordan at their respective land borders with Israel. Non-allowing countries prohibit entry based on the presence of a tell-tale Egyptian or Jordanian stamp. A traveller, for example, would be denied entry based on the presence of an Egyptian stamp, in his passport, which indicates that he crossed into or out of Egypt at Taba on the Egyptian-Israeli border.
From the point of view of South Korea, travel from the section of the Korean peninsula under South Korean administration directly to the section of the Korean peninsula under North Korean administration is not international travel. Under the constitution of South Korea, the section of the Korean peninsula under North Korean administration is part of South Korea, but under a different administration.
However ironically, any South Korean who is willing to travel to the tourist area in the North has to carry his/her passport.
Spain does not accept United Kingdom passports issued in Gibraltar, on the ground that the Government of Gibraltar is not a competent authority for issuing UK passports. Gibraltar -issued British passports are those held by Gibraltarian people for international travel See also Disputed status of Gibraltar Gibraltar is represented in the European Union, having been the only British Overseas Territory which British passports may be issued to people holding any of the various forms of British nationality. Consequently, some Gibraltarians were refused entry to Spain. The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a Southern European Nation and Cultural group native to Gibraltar, The word "Gibraltar" now appears beneath the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" on passport covers, which is the usual format for passports of British overseas territories. The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom
Some countries decline to accept Tongan Protected Person passports, though they accept Tongan citizen passports. Tongan Protected Person passports are sold by the government of Tonga to anyone who is not a Tongan national. A holder of a Tongan Protected Person passport is forbidden to enter or settle in Tonga. Generally, those holders are refugees, stateless persons, and individuals who for political reasons do not have access to any other passport-issuing authority.
Citizens of the European Economic Area (the European Union plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) enjoy the freedom to travel and work in any European Union country without a visa, although transitory dispositions may restrict the rights of citizens of new member states to work in other countries. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Belgian passports are issued to citizens of Belgium to facilitate international travel A national language is a Language (or language variant, ie Dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit "a document that has been seen" is a document issued by a Country giving an individual The same rights are also accorded to citizens of Switzerland, although they remain separate from the EEA.
European citizens travelling within the European Union may use standard compliant national ID cards rather than passports. Not all EU countries produced standard compliant national ID cards, and in other countries few people obtained one, which means that many persons need a passport anyway. Unlike most other EU ID-cards, the Swedish national identity card is valid only within the countries which fully implemented the Schengen Agreement, plus Switzerland. The Swedish national identity card is a non-compulsory Identity document issued in Sweden by the Swedish Police since October 1, 2005 The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls
The up to now 24 countries that have signed and applied the Schengen treaty (a subset of the EEA) do not implement passport controls between each other, unless exceptional circumstances apply. The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe Some remaining EU countries, plus Switzerland and Liechtenstein, have signed the Schengen treaty, but are not allowed to be included yet. The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls The main reason is that, according to EU law, the member states which joined the EU in 2004 would have to meet strict criteria with respect to their protection of EU external borders, before intra-EU border controls between the old member states and new member states would be lifted. Switzerland and Liechtenstein require some time to adapt their national airports and databases to the standards of the EU.
As a consequence of the above, a French citizen, for example, may travel to the United Kingdom, another EEA nation, and then freely work in that country. However, since the UK has not signed the Schengen treaty, the French citizen will have to carry at least a national ID card, which will be checked at the border. On the other hand, if and when Switzerland applies the Schengen treaty, the French citizen will be able to travel to Switzerland without being stopped at the border, but he will not be able to work freely in that country without authorisation, because Switzerland is not a member of the EEA. This is true notwithstanding the fact that, in most cases, authorisation to work would nevertheless have to be granted by Swiss authorities according to a specific treaty on free movement which had been concluded between the EU and Switzerland.
Some European countries require all persons to carry, or, at least possess, an ID card or a passport. So while Switzerland will not check French travellers' passports at the border, they may have to show their national ID cards within the country, such as when required by police officers to do so.
Except at the border, ID cards are not required by UK law. There is, however, a de-facto requirement to prove one's identity to conduct business. A European has to show a European national ID card to open a UK bank account or to prove eligibility to work.
Refugees and stateless persons, who do not have access to passports, may be issued a travel document by the country in which they reside. A travel document is an Identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across Holders of those travel documents generally require visas for international travel, and are not be entitled to consular protection. Exceptions to this include persons holding 1951 Convention Documents, who could benefit from some visa-free travel under the convention, persons who reside in the Schengen area, and persons who reside in the Nordic Passport Union area. 1951 Convention travel documents are passport-like booklets issued to refugees under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees Holders of UK passports and Irish passports do not automatically benefit from visa-free travel within the Common Travel Area. The Common Travel Area is a passport-free zone that comprises the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jersey
Under a special arrangement agreed during the formation of Federation of Malaysia, the Malaysian Borneo States Sabah and Sarawak can retain their respective immigration control systems. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east across the South Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. As a result passport is required for traveling from Peninsular Malaysia to Malaysian Borneo, as well as the mutual travel between the 2 states, including Malaysian citizens who hold Malaysian passport. Peninsular Malaysia ( Semenanjung Malaysia) also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on The Malaysian passport (Pasport Malaysia is the Passport issued to citizens However passport is not required for Sabah or Sarawak citizens to travel from Malaysian Borneo to Peninsular Malaysia.
For immigration control, immigration officials of many countries stamp passports with entry stamps and exit stamps. A stamp can serve different purposes. In the United Kingdom, an immigration stamp in a passport includes the formal leave to enter granted to a person subject to entry control. Leave to Enter is the technical term for someone granted entry to the United Kingdom by British immigration officers Otherwise, a stamp activates or acknowledges the continuing leave conferred in the passport bearer's entry clearance. Entry Clearance is a catch-all term under UK Immigration legislation that refers to both visas and Entry certificates issued to persons seeking to enter the UK the
Under the Schengen system, a foreign passport is stamped with a date stamp which does not indicate any duration of stay. This stamp is taken to mean either that the person is deemed to have permission to remain for three months or for the period shown on his visa.
Neither the UK nor a Schengen country is allowed to stamp the passport of a person not subject to immigration control, whether a citizen of that country or a national of another EU country. Stamping is prohibited, because a passport stamp is imposition of a control that the person is not subject to. This concept is not applicable in other countries, where a stamp in a passport simply acknowledges the entry or exit of a person.
Countries have different styles of stamps for entries and exits, to make it easy to identify the movements of persons. The colour of the ink may also provide information about movements. In Hong Kong, prior to and immediately after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty, entry and exit stamps were identical at all ports of entry, but colours differed. Airport stamps used black ink, land stamps used red ink, and sea stamps used purple ink. In Macau, under Portuguese administration, the same colour of ink was used for all stamps. The stamps had slightly-different borders to indicate entry and exit by air, land, or sea. In several countries the stamps or its colour are different if the person arrived in a car in opposite to bus/boat/train/air passenger.
Cover of an ordinary Indian passport
Cover of an ordinary Azerbaijani passport
Cover of a machine readable Brazilian passport